Background: As cats undergo stress at the time of presentation before surgery and therefore sedation is required often. It is very difficult to choose a balanced anaesthetic protocol during the surgical intervention in the case of a cat. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of ketamine hydrochloride in combination with midazolam, dexmedetomidine and butorphanol as balanced anaesthesia on clinico-physiological, haematological, serum biochemical profile in the surgical management of cats undergoing neutering. Methods: The study was performed on 18 clinical cases of cats which were brought to the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry (CVSc and AH), Central Agricultural University (CAU), Selesih, Aizawl, Mizoram for elective surgery such as neutering. Cats were randomly divided into 3 equal groups, i.e. Gr. A, Gr. B and Gr. C. Animals were premedicated with glycopyrrolate @ 0.01 mg/kg, i/m. After 10 minutes of premedication, in Gr. A ketamine hydrochloride @15 mg/kg and midazolam @ 0.5 mg/kg, in Gr. B ketamine hydrochloride @10 mg/ kg and [email protected] 5 mcg /kg and in Gr. C ketamine hydrochloride @ 5 mg/kg, [email protected] 5 mcg/kg and butorphanol @ 0.2 mg/kg was administered intramuscularly. Clinico-physiological and haemato-biochemical profiles were evaluated at 0 minute (baseline), then at 15, 30 and 60 minutes after administration of anaesthetic agents to evaluate their anaesthetic effect. Result: In the case of time for induction, the quality of induction, assessment of peri-operative analgesia, depth of anaesthesia and quality of recovery there was no significant difference among all three groups. In Gr. B, animals showed significantly higher duration of recumbency (DOE) and recovery. The assessment of peri-operative analgesic effect among the groups revealed that analgesia during the perioperative period appeared best in Gr. C protocol. In regards to depth of anaesthesia, ketamine hydrochloride in combination with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol group showed a better result. Rectal temperature decreased significantly (P greater than 0.05) up to 60th minutes in Gr. A, but it remained within the physiological range. Heart rate raised significantly (p less than 0.05) from the baseline (0 minutes) onwards and decreased significantly (p less than 0.05) till the end (60 minutes) of the study in Gr. C. The respiration rate was significantly (p less than 0.01) different in between time intervals for all three groups. No significant difference was observed on haemato-biochemical observation except glucose level which significantly increased after induction of anaesthesia. In conclusion, treatment with ketamine hydrochloride in combination with dexmedetomidine and butorphanol led to acceptable sedation and mild changes in clinico-physiological, haematological, serum biochemical profile in comparison to the other two groups.
To analyze the treatment outcomes for sigmoid volvulus (SV) and identify risk factors of complications and mortality.
Observational study of all consecutive adult patients diagnosed with SV who were admitted from January 2000 to December 2020 in a tertiary university institution for conservative management, urgent or elective surgery. Primary outcomes were 30-day postoperative morbidity, mortality and 2-year overall survival (OS), including analysis of risk factors for postoperative morbidity or mortality and prognostic factors for 2-year OS.
A total of 92 patients were included. Conservative management was performed in 43 cases (46.7%), 27 patients (29.4%) underwent emergent surgery and 22 (23.9%) were scheduled for elective surgery. Successful decompression was achieved in 87.8% of cases, but the recurrence rate was 47.2%. Mortality rates following episodes were higher for conservative treatment than for urgent or elective surgery (37.2%, 22.2%, 9.1%, respectively; p = 0.044). ASA score > III was an independent risk factor for complications (OR = 5.570, 95% CI = 1.740–17.829, p < 0.001) and mortality (OR = 6.139, 95% CI = 2.629–14.335, p < 0.001) in the 30 days after admission. Patients who underwent elective surgery showed higher 2-year OS than those with conservative treatment (p = 0.011). Elective surgery (HR = 2.604, 95% CI = 1.185–5.714, p = 0.017) and ASA score > III (HR = 0.351, 95% CI = 0.192–0.641, p = 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for 2-year OS.
Successful endoscopic decompression can be achieved in most SV patients, but with the drawbacks of high recurrence, morbidity and mortality rates. Concurrent severe comorbidities and conservative treatment were independent prognostic factors for morbidity and survival in SV.
Objective: Emergency surgical interventions due to colorectal cancer (CRC) obstruction are risk factors for poor prognosis. This study aims to compare emergency and elective surgeries for colorectal tumours performed in a single center.
Material and Methods: CRC patients operated on between November 2014 and November 2019 were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups; Patients operated under elective conditions, and patients operated under the emergency diagnosis of ileus or acute abdomen.
Results: A total of 103 CRC patients were included in the study. Forty-five (43.7%) were operated in emergency situations, and 58 (56.3%) electively. 45.6% of the emergency cases were found to be Stage 3B and 4 (p=0.009). Bleeding and constipation were more common in elective cases, whereas in emergency cases, applications related to ileus and perforation were quite frequent (p<0.001). It was found that 62.3% of the tumors in emergency cases were seen in sigmoid and rectosigmoid regions (p=0.015). There was no anastomosis in 60.0% of emergency cases (p<0.001).
Conclusion: In the hospital area where the study was applied, compared to other countries, more patients with CRC underwent emergency surgery for intestinal obstruction. Therefore, necessary measures must be taken to prevent further increases in these rates.
AbstractThe concern has been that this prioritization has resulted in age-related inequality between patients, with the older population suffering the most. The aim of this multicenter study was to examine the differences in incidence and waiting times of elective surgeries by age during the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic in Finland. Data on elective surgery (88 716 operations) were gathered from three Finnish public hospitals for the years 2017–2020. Surgery incidence and waiting times stratified by age groups (younger than 18, 18 to 49, 50 to 69, and 70 or older) were examined, and the year 2020 was compared to the reference years 2017–2019. The mean annual, monthly, and weekly waiting times were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The first COVID-19 wave decreased surgery incidence most prominently in patients younger than 18 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.64, CI 0.60–0.68) and 70 or older (IRR 0.68, CI 0.66–0.70). After the first wave, the incidence increased in patients aged 50 to 69 and 70 or older by 22% and 29%, respectively. Among patients younger than 18, the incidence in 2020 was 15% lower. In patients younger than 18, waiting times were at mean of 43% longer in June to December compared to the reference years. In patients aged 18 to 49, 50 to 69, and 70 or older, waiting times increased in May but recovered to normal level during fall 2020. COVID-19 decreased the incidence of surgery and led to increased waiting times. Clearing of the treatment backlog started with older patients which resulted in prolonged waiting times among pediatric patients.
Introduction. The aerosol box can reduce the risk of droplet and aerosol transmission from the patient to the operator when performing intubation, but in practice, an aerosol box makes the glottis visualization less evident, and the operator moves less space with less space the aerosol box. This study aimed to compare ETT duration using an aerosol box and without an aerosol box using a video laryngoscope.
Methods: This study was a clinical trial with a post-test-only control design. The study was carried out from February 2021 to May 2021 at the Central Operating Theater of dr. Mohammad Hoesin General Hospital Palembang. The sample in this study was all patients who underwent elective surgery under general anesthesia using intubation at the Central Surgical Installation of dr. Mohammad Hoesin Palembang. After the data is collected, it is analyzed using the SPSS 22.0 program with the appropriate test.
Results. There were no differences in subject characteristics (age, sex, BMI, Mallampati score, TMD, Cormack Lehane, limited mouth opening, short neck, limited mouth movement) between the group using the aerosol box and the group without the aerosol box. The duration of intubation without an aerosol box is 30.67 + 2.63 seconds, and using an aerosol box is 44.53 + 2.89 seconds. There was a significant difference between the two groups in the duration of patient intubation (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in complications in the two groups (p >0.05).
Conclusion. The duration of the endotracheal tube insertion using an aerosol box is more extended than without an aerosol box in elective surgery patients.
The demographic development suggests a dramatic growth in the number of elderly patients undergoing surgery in Europe. Most red blood cell transfusions (RBCT) are administered to older people, but little is known about perioperative transfusion practices in this population. In this secondary analysis of the prospective observational multicentre European Transfusion Practice and Outcome Study (ETPOS), we specifically evaluated intraoperative transfusion practices and the related outcomes of 3149 patients aged 65 years and older. Enrolled patients underwent elective surgery in 123 European hospitals, received at least one RBCT intraoperatively and were followed up for 30 days maximum. The mean haemoglobin value at the beginning of surgery was 108 (21) g/l, 84 (15) g/l before transfusion and 101 (16) g/l at the end of surgery. A median of 2 [1–2] units of RBCT were administered. Mostly, more than one transfusion trigger was present, with physiological triggers being preeminent. We revealed a descriptive association between each intraoperatively administered RBCT and mortality and discharge respectively, within the first 10 postoperative days but not thereafter. In our unadjusted model the hazard ratio (HR) for mortality was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.08–1.15) and the HR for discharge was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.74–0.83). After adjustment for several variables, such as age, preoperative haemoglobin and blood loss, the HR for mortality was 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05–1.15) and HR for discharge was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.78–0.87). Pre-operative anaemia in European elderly surgical patients is undertreated. Various triggers seem to support the decision for RBCT. A closer monitoring of elderly patients receiving intraoperative RBCT for the first 10 postoperative days might be justifiable. Further research on the causal relationship between RBCT and outcomes and on optimal transfusion strategies in the elderly population is warranted. A thorough analysis of different time periods within the first 30 postoperative days is recommended.
Background: Malnutrition increases worse outcomes during hospital admission for elective colorectal cancer (CRC) surgery in older adults. Methods: This work was designed an observational, monocentric, case-control study nested in a cohort of patients undergoing elective surgery for CRC disease at the Hospital Universitario de la Ribera (HULR) (Alzira, Valencia, Spain) between 2011 and 2019. The study considered patients with a CONUT score in the range of moderate to severe malnutrition (>4 points), with control patients with normal nutritional situations or mild malnutrition. Results: Moderate-to-severe malnutrition cases presented a greater length of stay (LOS), a higher incidence of adverse events (both medical and surgical complications), a higher incidence of surgical-wound infection, a greater need for blood transfusion, and a greater amount of transfused packed red blood cells. During hospitalization, the percentage of patients without nutritional risk decreased from 46 to 9%, and an increase in mild, moderate, and severe risk was observed. Patients with severe nutritional risk at hospital admission had significantly increased mortality at 365 days after discharge (HR: 2.96 (95% CI 1.14–7.70, p = 0.002)). After adjusting for sex, age, and Charlson index score, patients with severe nutritional risk at admission maintained a higher mortality risk (HR: 3.08 (95% CI 1.10–8.63, p = 0.032)). Conclusion: Malnutrition prevalence is high in older adults undergoing CRC elective surgery. Furthermore, this prevalence increases during hospital admission. Malnutrition is linked to worse outcomes, such as LOS, surgical and clinical complications, and mortality. For this reason, nutritional interventions are very important in the perioperative period