braf v600e
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 77
Chih-Huang Tseng ◽  
Pei-Hsuan Lu ◽  
Yi-Ping Wang ◽  
Julia Yu Fong Chang

Ameloblastoma is the most common benign odontogenic neoplasm, but with an aggressive behavior and a high recurrence rate. Nowadays wide surgical resection is the current recommended treatment, which can cause further loss of function and esthetics. Recent studies point to the stem/progenitor cells as both initiators and propagators of the tumors. Elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the tumor stem cells is of broad interest for understanding tumorigenesis and for developing effective targeted therapies. SRY related HMG box gene 2 (SOX2) is a transcription factor that plays important roles in development, stem cell renewal, and cancer formation. Few studies have revealed increased SOX2 expression in atypical ameloblastoma and ameloblastic carcinoma. For the development of personalized medicine for ameloblastoma, biomarkers that provide prognostic or predictive information regarding a tumor’s nature or its response to treatment are essential. Thus, in this study, we aimed to study if SOX2-positive cells exist in ameloblastomas and their correlation with the clinicopathologic parameters. Our data suggested BRAF(V600E) mutation might contribute to the expansion of SOX2-positive cells. The identification of BRAF(V600E) mutation and the amplification of SOX2-positive cells in ameloblastomas imply the possible benefit of applying BRAF and SOX2 inhibitors in recurrent and un-resectable ameloblastomas.

2022 ◽  
pp. 106689692110642
Katsutoshi Kokubun ◽  
Kei Yamamoto ◽  
Yoshihiko Akashi ◽  
Takatoshi Chujo ◽  
Kei Nakajima ◽  

Background and aim: Ameloblastoma is a benign, intraosseous, progressively growing, epithelial, odontogenic neoplasm. BRAF and SMO mutations have been reported in ameloblastoma. In this study, we evaluated BRAF V600E and SMO L412F mutations; and assessed the relationship between BRAF V600E mutant expression and the clinicopathological features in Japanese patients with ameloblastoma. Methods: We examined 24 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples. All specimens were from patients with mandibular ameloblastoma: 20 were conventional ameloblastoma and 4 were unicystic ameloblastoma. The BRAF V600E mutation was assessed by Sanger sequencing and immunohistochemistry, and the SMO L412F mutation was assessed only by Sanger sequencing. Results: Twenty of the 24 (83%) ameloblastoma samples carried the BRAF V600E mutation; 22 of the 24 (92%) samples were immunohistochemically positive for BRAF V600E. However, the SMO L412F mutation was not detected in any of them. The BRAF V600E mutation status did not correlate with the clinicopathological features, such as age, sex, location, method, recurrence, and subtype. Conclusion: BRAF inhibitors could be a potential treatment option for Japanese patients with ameloblastoma, harboring the BRAF V600E mutation.

Aaron C. Tan ◽  
Daniel S. W. Tan

Lung cancer has traditionally been classified by histology. However, a greater understanding of disease biology and the identification of oncogenic driver alterations has dramatically altered the therapeutic landscape. Consequently, the new classification paradigm of non–small-cell lung cancer is further characterized by molecularly defined subsets actionable with targeted therapies and the treatment landscape is becoming increasingly complex. This review encompasses the current standards of care for targeted therapies in lung cancer with driver molecular alterations. Targeted therapies for EGFR exon 19 deletion and L858R mutations, and ALK and ROS1 rearrangements are well established. However, there is an expanding list of approved targeted therapies including for BRAF V600E, EGFR exon 20 insertion, and KRAS G12C mutations, MET exon 14 alterations, and NTRK and RET rearrangements. In addition, there are numerous other oncogenic drivers, such as HER2 exon 20 insertion mutations, for which there are emerging efficacy data for targeted therapies. The importance of diagnostic molecular testing, intracranial efficacy of novel therapies, the optimal sequencing of therapies, role for targeted therapies in early-stage disease, and future directions for precision oncology approaches to understand tumor evolution and therapeutic resistance are also discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Qi Wang ◽  
Shuguang Jin ◽  
Bo Xiang ◽  
Jing Chen

Abstract Background Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare condition that has a variety of clinical manifestations. But LCH in children localized only in the hepatobiliary system is unusual. Case presentation. Here we reported a rare case of a 2-year-old boy who was serendipitously found to have elevated liver enzymes while undergoing treatment of a perianal abscess. After a period of earlier conservative treatment in another hospital, the perianal abscess had resolved but the levels of liver enzymes were still rising slowly. The child was then referred to our institution for a definitive diagnosis. After laboratory tests, imaging and pathological examinations, a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis and sclerosing cholangitis was established, although the cause was unclear. Subsequently, living-donor liver transplantation was performed due to deterioration in liver function. Following successful liver transplantation, a diagnosis of LCH localized only within the hepatobiliary system was finally confirmed, based on additional pathological and imaging investigation. Additionally, the BRAF V600E mutation in this patient was also confirmed. The child has now recovered without evidence of LCH recurrence. Conclusions LCH localized only within the hepatobiliary system is unusual. The presence of unexplainable sclerosing cholangitis and liver cirrhosis in any child should raise the suspicion of LCH.

Cancers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 204
Shipra Agarwal ◽  
Andrey Bychkov ◽  
Chan-Kwon Jung

Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy. Recent developments in molecular biological techniques have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical behavior of thyroid neoplasms. This has culminated in the updating of thyroid tumor classification, including the re-categorization of existing and introduction of new entities. In this review, we discuss various molecular biomarkers possessing diagnostic, prognostic, predictive and therapeutic roles in thyroid cancer. A comprehensive account of epigenetic dysregulation, including DNA methylation, the function of various microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs, germline mutations determining familial occurrence of medullary and non-medullary thyroid carcinoma, and single nucleotide polymorphisms predisposed to thyroid tumorigenesis has been provided. In addition to novel immunohistochemical markers, including those for neuroendocrine differentiation, and next-generation immunohistochemistry (BRAF V600E, RAS, TRK, and ALK), the relevance of well-established markers, such as Ki-67, in current clinical practice has also been discussed. A tumor microenvironment (PD-L1, CD markers) and its influence in predicting responses to immunotherapy in thyroid cancer and the expanding arena of techniques, including liquid biopsy based on circulating nucleic acids and plasma-derived exosomes as a non-invasive technique for patient management, are also summarized.

Cytopathology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Tanupriya Agrawal ◽  
Liqiang Xi ◽  
Winnifred Navarro ◽  
Mark Raffeld ◽  
Snehal B. Patel ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol In Press (In Press) ◽  
Elham Jamali ◽  
Ehsan Sarraf Kazerooni ◽  
Akbar Hashemi Tayer ◽  
Reza Ranjbaran

Introduction: Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare and clinically aggressive form of plasma cell dyscrasia. Despite the significant role of BRAF mutation in plasma cell neoplasms, this mutation has been rarely considered in these cases. Finding evidence guiding us toward assessing the BRAF mutation in patients with plasma cell neoplasms could help make the suitable decision for targeted therapy. Case Presentation: A 79-year-old man presented with leukocytosis. Peripheral blood smear exhibited marked lymphocytosis and infiltration of about 50% abnormal lymphoid cells with slender cell-surface projections and oval shape nucleus. These findings raised the provisional diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia (HCL) or HCL variants (HCL-v). Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of BRAFV600E mutation, which was in agreement with HCL diagnosis, albeit the flow cytometric assessment of abnormal lymphocytes corroborated PCL. Conclusions: Together with the previous comprehensive analysis regarding the association of cytoplasmic projections and BRAF mutations, our findings could suggest this morphological characteristic in plasma cells (PCs) as an indication for the assessment of BRAF V600E mutation in PC dyscrasias.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Katrin E. Hostettler ◽  
Elisa Casañas Quintana ◽  
Michael Tamm ◽  
Spasenija Savic Prince ◽  
Gregor Sommer ◽  

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) commonly co-occurs with additional myeloid malignancies. The introduction of targeted therapies, blocking “driver” mutations (e.g., BRAF V600E), enabled long-term remission in patients with LCH. The effect of BRAF inhibition on the course and the prognosis of co-existing clonal hematopoiesis is poorly understood. We report on a 61-year-old patient with systemic BRAF V600E positive LCH and concomitant BRAF wild-type (wt) clonal cytopenia of unknown significance (CCUS) with unfavorable somatic mutations including loss of function (LOF) of NF1. While manifestations of LCH improved after blocking BRAF by dabrafenib treatment, the BRAF wt CCUS progressed to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The patient eventually underwent successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We performed an in-depth analyzes of the clonal relationship of CCUS and the tissue affected by LCH by using next-generation sequencing (NGS). The findings suggest activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in the CCUS clone due to the presence of the RAS deregulating NF1 mutations and wt BRAF, which is reportedly associated with paradoxical activation of CRAF and hence MEK. Patients with LCH should be carefully screened for potential additional clonal hematological diseases. NGS can help predict outcome of the latter in case of BRAF inhibition. Blocking the MAP kinase pathway further downstream (e.g., by using MEK inhibitors) or allogeneic HSCT may be options for patients at risk.

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