tree regeneration
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Van Vien Pham ◽  
Christian Ammer ◽  
Peter Annighöfer ◽  
Steffi Heinrichs

Abstract Background The ability of overstory tree species to regenerate successfully is important for the preservation of tree species diversity and its associated flora and fauna. This study investigated forest regeneration dynamics in the Cat Ba National Park, a biodiversity hotspot in Vietnam. Data was collected from 90 sample plots (500 m2) and 450 sub-sample plots (25 m2) in regional limestone forests. We evaluated the regeneration status of tree species by developing five ratios relating overstory and regeneration richness and diversity. By examining the effect of environmental factors on these ratios, we aimed to identify the main drivers for maintaining tree species diversity or for potential diversity gaps between the regeneration and the overstory layer. Our results can help to increase the understanding of regeneration patterns in tropical forests of Southeast Asia and to develop successful conservation strategies. Results We found 97 tree species in the regeneration layer compared to 136 species in the overstory layer. The average regeneration density was 3764 ± 1601 per ha. Around 70% of the overstory tree species generated offspring. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List, only 36% of threatened tree species were found in the regeneration layer. A principal component analysis provided evidence that the regeneration of tree species was slightly negatively correlated to terrain factors (percentage of rock surface, slope) and soil properties (cation exchange capacity, pH, humus content, soil moisture, soil depth). Contrary to our expectations, traces of human impact and the prevailing light conditions (total site factor, gap fraction, openness, indirect site factor, direct site factor) had no influence on regeneration density and composition, probably due to the small gradient in light availability. Conclusion We conclude that the tree species richness in Cat Ba National Park appears to be declining at present. We suggest similar investigations in other biodiversity hotspots to learn whether the observed trend is a global phenomenon. In any case, a conservation strategy for the threatened tree species in the Cat Ba National Park needs to be developed if tree species diversity is to be maintained.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 112
Humaira Enayetullah ◽  
Laura Chasmer ◽  
Christopher Hopkinson ◽  
Dan Thompson ◽  
Danielle Cobbaert

Wildland fires and anthropogenic disturbances can cause changes in vegetation species composition and structure in boreal peatlands. These could potentially alter regeneration trajectories following severe fire or through cumulative impacts of climate-mediated drying, fire, and/or anthropogenic disturbance. We used lidar-derived point cloud metrics, and site-specific locational attributes to assess trajectories of post-disturbance vegetation regeneration in boreal peatlands south of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada using a space-for-time-chronosequence. The objectives were to (a) develop methods to identify conifer trees vs. deciduous shrubs and trees using multi-spectral lidar data, (b) quantify the proportional coverage of shrubs and trees to determine environmental conditions driving shrub regeneration, and (c) determine the spatial variations in shrub and tree heights as an indicator of cumulative growth since the fire. The results show that the use of lidar-derived structural metrics predicted areas of deciduous shrub establishment (92% accuracy) and classification of deciduous and conifer trees (71% accuracy). Burned bogs and fens were more prone to shrub regeneration up to and including 38 years after the fire. The transition from deciduous to conifer trees occurred approximately 30 years post-fire. These results improve the understanding of environmental conditions that are sensitive to disturbance and impacts of disturbance on northern peatlands within a changing climate.

Melinda Gilhen-Baker ◽  
Valentina Roviello ◽  
Diana Beresford-Kroeger ◽  
Giovanni N. Roviello

AbstractOld forests containing ancient trees are essential ecosystems for life on earth. Mechanisms that happen both deep in the root systems and in the highest canopies ensure the viability of our planet. Old forests fix large quantities of atmospheric CO2, produce oxygen, create micro-climates and irreplaceable habitats, in sharp contrast to young forests and monoculture forests. The current intense logging activities induce rapid, adverse effects on our ecosystems and climate. Here we review large old trees with a focus on ecosystem preservation, climate issues, and therapeutic potential. We found that old forests continue to sequester carbon and fix nitrogen. Old trees control below-ground conditions that are essential for tree regeneration. Old forests create micro-climates that slow global warming and are irreplaceable habitats for many endangered species. Old trees produce phytochemicals with many biomedical properties. Old trees also host particular fungi with untapped medicinal potential, including the Agarikon, Fomitopsis officinalis, which is currently being tested against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Large old trees are an important part of our combined cultural heritage, providing people with aesthetic, symbolic, religious, and historical cues. Bringing their numerous environmental, oceanic, ecological, therapeutic, and socio-cultural benefits to the fore, and learning to appreciate old trees in a holistic manner could contribute to halting the worldwide decline of old-growth forests.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1779-1786
Issam Ifaadassan ◽  
Ahmed Karmaoui ◽  
Mohammed Messouli ◽  
Houssam Ayt Ougougdal ◽  
Mohammed Khebiza Yacoubi ◽  

The argan tree is exclusively endemic in the drylands of Southwest Morocco, an agroecosystem of great ecological, cultural, and economic importance. The argan agroecosystem is already damaged. It is particularly vulnerable to climate change as well as the harsh natural conditions aggravated by the current population growth and the exploitation in excess of the production capacities. Unfortunately, during the 20th century, its area has been reduced by half. Current projections indicate an increase in temperature under climate scenarios. Anticipated climate change could accelerate this trend resulting in the argan tree degradation. To assess the climate change impact, the authors used the SDSM model at the argan agroecosystem scale and the thermal stress model to assess its vulnerability and estimate its tolerance response in relation to temperature stress for a projected climate in the near term (2010-2025 years). In this chapter, the authors explored the impact of climate change on the argan tree regeneration.

Maksym Matsala ◽  
Cornelius Senf ◽  
Andrii Bilous ◽  
Petro Diachuk ◽  
Roman Zadorozhniuk ◽  

2021 ◽  
Sherry Leis ◽  
Mary Short

The Heartland Inventory and Monitoring Network completed its sixth year of plant community monitoring at George Washington Carver National Monument in 2020. Plant community monitoring focused on the restored prairie community. We visited seven monitoring sites in each of the six years and collected data on plant species and ground cover. In this report we also included two environmental factors—precipitation and recent fire history—to better understand the vegetation community status and trends. Since 2000, precipitation has often been below the 30-year normal. Moreover, annual precipitation was below normal for all but one of the monitoring years. We found that the drought in 2012 stood out as possibly influencing plant guild cover. Although prairies are adapted to drought, further analyses might reveal more about the role of climate change in these vegetation communities. Fire management also plays an important role in shaping plant communities. Prescribed fire occurrence became more frequent and consistent through the period of plant monitoring. Additional treatments, including herbicide and mowing, also supported a healthy prairie. The prairie plant community continues to be moderately diverse despite recent increases in tree seedlings and small saplings. Species richness in 2012 was different than in two of the six years monitored. However, diversity indices (H′ and J′) were very similar across monitored years. Species guilds (also known as functional groups) exhibited differing patterns. Woody plants, long a concern at the monument, were statistically similar across years. In 2020, grass-like species increased, but grass species appeared to have declined below prior years. Grass cover in 2004 was statistically different (greater) than in 2008 and 2020. The reasons for this are not clear. Of particular interest to the park is the status of two sumac species (Rhus glabra and R. copallinum). These species were in decline as a result of focused management actions since 2012. However, the blackberry species (Rubus spp.) seemed to be replacing the sumac in some sites. In 2020, nonnative species richness and cover were below peak levels, demonstrating management actions have been successful in maintaining low levels. The vegetation monitoring protocol experienced some changes between 2004 and 2020. A key difference was a shift from sampling twice during the field season to sampling only once in a monitoring year. Although a decline in species richness was anticipated, that pattern was not apparent. However, the abundance of grasses may have been affected by the shift in seasonality of sampling. Additionally, we remedied inconsistencies in how tree regeneration was recorded (stem tallies in some cases and cover estimates in other cases). We converted all cover data to stem tallies and density was calculated to be consistent with the protocol. The monument has had success with coordinating fire management and invasive species management. A decrease in sumac across the prairie is evidence of this success. These actions will continue to be important for maintaining the prairie in good condition into the future.

Yuandong Zhang ◽  
Ning Miao ◽  
Shirong Liu

Abstract Treeline densification, along with increased growth rates, is considered a primary manifestation of climate warming at alpine treelines. However, treeline densification has typically been inferred from comparisons of present-day tree density with estimates of former densities inferred from current age structure; the densification has not been verified with long-term monitoring data and thus empirical testing is needed. In this study, a series of plots was established along an altitudinal gradient in a treeline ecotone on the eastern Tibetan Plateau; the plots were then surveyed repeatedly for ten years to analyse spatiotemporal variation in tree regeneration. The densities of Abies fargesii var. faxoniana seedlings and saplings increased from low altitude sites to high altitude sites, before dropping to zero beyond the treeline. The density of fir seedlings at the treeline in 2018 was significantly lower than in 2008. There were no significant differences in the density of saplings, small trees, medium trees, or old-growth trees between 2018 and 2008. As compared to regeneration patterns from 65 years ago, treeline densification represents a spatial phenomenon related to altitude, but not a temporal pattern on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. A more comprehensive understanding of the effects of climate warming on treeline regeneration will require further long-term monitoring and research.

2021 ◽  
Denyse Dawe ◽  
Marc-André Parisien ◽  
Angeline Van Dongen ◽  
Ellen Whitman

Abstract Wildfires in the boreal forest of North America are generally stand renewing, with the initial phase of vegetation recovery often governing the vegetation trajectory for decades. Here, we investigate post-fire vegetation changes in dry boreal forests of the Northwest Territories, Canada, during the first five years following the unusually severe 2014 wildfire season. We sampled post-fire tree regeneration and the overall plant community at one, three, and five years post-fire across different fire severities and stand types within fires that burned in 2014. Post-fire trajectories of tree recruitment, cover by plant functional types, and plant diversity varied widely among sampled stands, as well as among years post-fire. Tree seedling density reaches relative equilibrium by three years post-fire, whereas trends in understory plant cover and understory species assemblages suggest an ongoing change that will extend beyond five years of observation. In almost half of sampled stands, the composition of recruited trees differs from that of the pre-fire stand, suggesting a change in tree-species dominance. An analysis of regional climate reveals a significant, albeit spatially variable, warming and drying trend that will further accelerate forest-stand transformation through both climate drivers of plant community composition and indirectly through increasing fire activity. While the 2014 wildfires enhanced the structural and compositional heterogeneity of the region, they also triggered vegetation changes that are likely to be persistent. As such, this study exemplifies the speed and variability that characterizes post-fire stand development in a strongly moisture-limited part of North America.

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1355
Larissa Robinov ◽  
Chris Hopkinson ◽  
Mark C. Vanderwel

Changes to historic fire and grazing regimes have been associated with the expansion of tree cover at forest–grassland boundaries. We evaluated forest expansion across a mosaic landscape in western Canada using aerial photos, airborne laser scanning, and field transects. The annual rate of forest expansion (0.12%) was on the low end of rates documented across North America and was greater from the 1970s to the 1990s than from the 1990s to 2018. Most forest expansion occurred within 50 m of established forests, and 68% of all tree regeneration in grasslands was within 15 m of the forest edge. The intensity of cattle grazing did not affect the tree regeneration density. Despite the slow pace of land cover change, grassland areas near the forest edge had an average of 20% canopy cover and 9 m canopy height, indicating the presence of tall but sporadic trees. The rate of forest expansion, density of tree regeneration, and tree cover within grasslands were all greater at lower elevations where trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) and white spruce (Picea glauca) were the dominant tree species. We conclude that proportions of forest–grassland cover on this landscape are not expected to change dramatically in the absence of major fire over the next several decades.

Min Zhang ◽  
Jiaojun Zhu

AbstractElucidating the regulatory mechanisms of environmental factors on seed dormancy and germination will provide guidance for tree regeneration. Toward understanding the coupled effect of light and temperature on dormancy release and germination of Pinus koraiensis seeds, we set up three light conditions (L200: 200 μmol m−2 s−1, L20: 20 μmol m−2 s−1, L0: 0 μ m−2 s−1) and four storage temperatures [T-5: − 5 °C (50 days), T5: − 5 °C (50 days) + 5 °C (50 days), T25: − 5 °C(50 days) + 5 °C (50 days) + 25 °C (50 days), T15: − 5 °C (50 days) + 5 °C (50 days) + 25 °C (50 days) + 15 °C (50 days)] using imbibed seeds, then quantified phytohormones gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) during the stratification. Germination percentage (GP), mean germination time (TM), and germination value (GV) under 25/15 °C temperature and the three light conditions were then determined. Phytohormone levels and germination performances were significantly affected by light and temperature. No consistent trend was found between the phytohormone levels and GP caused by light levels. Under the three light conditions, ABA concentrations in the embryo and endosperm decreased as storage temperature shifted from T-5 to T25 and increased from T25 to T15; GA3 decreased in nearly all four storage temperatures. GP reached 40–60% in T25 storage without light irradiance. In the three light conditions, GP and GV were higher at T5 and T25 than at T-5 and T15; so T5 and T25 are considered as optimum storage temperatures for dormancy release and germination. At optimum temperatures, light (L200, L20) significantly increased the GP and GV compared with the dark (L0). At L200 and L20, significant negative correlations between GV and the ABA concentrations and positive correlations between GV and GA/ABA in the seed embryo were found. Temperature played a more important role in primary dormancy release and germination; light was unnecessary for primary dormancy release. Light facilitated seed germination at optimum temperatures. The dormancy release and germination of P. koraiensis seeds were controlled by a decrease in ABA concentrations or an increase in GA/ABA induced by temperature variations.

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