The Warburg Effect
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 ◽  
Yiyan Song Yang ◽  
Songyisha Yang ◽  
Dejia Li ◽  
Wen Li

Background: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most prevalent form of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 85% of all lung cancer cases and resulting in high morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have demonstrated that 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin-D3 (vitamin D) exhibited anti-cancer activity against breast and prostate cancer. Objectives: The aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of vitamin D on NSCLC and its underlying mechanism. Methods: The effects of vitamin D on stemness maintenance and the Warburg effect in NSCLC cells were investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Results & Discussion: In vitro experiments revealed that vitamin D inhibited glycolysis and stemness maintenance in A549 and NCI-H1975 cells. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that vitamin D attenuated the expression of metabolism-related enzymes associated with the Warburg effect (GLUT1, LDHA, HK2, and PKM2). In addition, vitamin D down-regulated the expression of stemness-related genes (Oct-4, SOX-2, and Nanog) and the expression of PI3K, AKT, and mTOR. Conclusion: Overall, these findings suggest that vitamin D suppresses the Warburg effect and stemness maintenance in NSCLC cells via the inactivation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, thereby inhibiting the progression of NSCLC. The current study indicates that vitamin D is a potential candidate in therapeutic strategies against NSCLC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Linling Zhang ◽  
Jingjing Ke ◽  
Shengping Min ◽  
Nan Wu ◽  
Fei Liu ◽  

BackgroundTumor cells initiate hypoxia-induced mechanisms to fuel cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, largely mediated by low O2-responsive Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha (HIF-1α). Therefore, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is now being studied in cancer patients, but its impact upon non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell metabolism remains uncharacterized.MethodsWe employed the NSCLC cell lines A549 and H1299 for in vitro studies. Glucose uptake, pyruvate, lactate, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were used to assess aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect). A quantitative glycolytic flux model was used to analyze the flux contributions of HIF-1α-induced glucose metabolism genes. We used a Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) murine model to measure lung tumorigenesis in C57BL/6J mice.ResultsHBO suppressed hypoxia-induced HIF-1α expression and downstream HIF-1α signaling in NSCLC cells. One HIF-1α-induced glucose metabolism gene—Phosphofructokinase, Platelet (PFKP)—most profoundly enhanced glycolytic flux under both low- and high-glucose conditions. HBO suppressed hypoxia-induced PFKP transactivation and gene expression via HIF-1α downregulation. HBO’s suppression of the Warburg effect, suppression of hyperproliferation, and suppression of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in hypoxic NSCLC cell lines is mediated by the HIF-1α/PFKP axis. In vivo, HBO therapy inhibited murine LLC lung tumor growth in a Pfkp-dependent manner.ConclusionsHBO’s repression of the Warburg effect, repression of hyperproliferation, and repression of EMT in hypoxic NSCLC cells is dependent upon HIF-1α downregulation. HIF-1α’s target gene PFKP functions as a central mediator of HBO’s effects in hypoxic NSCLC cells and may represent a metabolic vulnerability in NSCLC tumors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (14) ◽  
pp. 7265
Kristina M. Cook ◽  
Han Shen ◽  
Kelly J. McKelvey ◽  
Harriet E. Gee ◽  
Eric Hau

As the cornerstone of high-grade glioma (HGG) treatment, radiotherapy temporarily controls tumor cells via inducing oxidative stress and subsequent DNA breaks. However, almost all HGGs recur within months. Therefore, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms of radioresistance, so that novel strategies can be developed to improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy. While currently poorly understood, radioresistance appears to be predominantly driven by altered metabolism and hypoxia. Glucose is a central macronutrient, and its metabolism is rewired in HGG cells, increasing glycolytic flux to produce energy and essential metabolic intermediates, known as the Warburg effect. This altered metabolism in HGG cells not only supports cell proliferation and invasiveness, but it also contributes significantly to radioresistance. Several metabolic drugs have been used as a novel approach to improve the radiosensitivity of HGGs, including dichloroacetate (DCA), a small molecule used to treat children with congenital mitochondrial disorders. DCA reverses the Warburg effect by inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases, which subsequently activates mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation at the expense of glycolysis. This effect is thought to block the growth advantage of HGGs and improve the radiosensitivity of HGG cells. This review highlights the main features of altered glucose metabolism in HGG cells as a contributor to radioresistance and describes the mechanism of action of DCA. Furthermore, we will summarize recent advances in DCA’s pre-clinical and clinical studies as a radiosensitizer and address how these scientific findings can be translated into clinical practice to improve the management of HGG patients.

2021 ◽  
Elizabeth K. Wiese ◽  
Sadae Hitosugi ◽  
Sharon T. Loa ◽  
Annapoorna Sreedhar ◽  
Lindsey G. Andres-Beck ◽  

2021 ◽  
Xiangyun Chen ◽  
Bingjie Hao ◽  
Dan Li ◽  
Russel J. Reiter ◽  
Yidong Bai ◽  

2021 ◽  
Julie E. Burns ◽  
Carolyn D. Hurst ◽  
Margaret A. Knowles ◽  
Roger M. Phillips ◽  
Simon J. Allison

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (7) ◽  
Liang Zhang ◽  
Jianong Zhang ◽  
Yan Liu ◽  
Pingzhao Zhang ◽  
Ji Nie ◽  

AbstractSignal transducer and activator 5a (STAT5A) is a classical transcription factor that plays pivotal roles in various biological processes, including tumor initiation and progression. A fraction of STAT5A is localized in the mitochondria, but the biological functions of mitochondrial STAT5A remain obscure. Here, we show that STAT5A interacts with pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), a mitochondrial gatekeeper enzyme connecting two key metabolic pathways, glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Mitochondrial STAT5A disrupts PDC integrity, thereby inhibiting PDC activity and remodeling cellular glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. Mitochondrial translocation of STAT5A is increased under hypoxic conditions. This strengthens the Warburg effect in cancer cells and promotes in vitro cell growth under hypoxia and in vivo tumor growth. Our findings indicate distinct pro-oncogenic roles of STAT5A in energy metabolism, which is different from its classical function as a transcription factor.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (12) ◽  
pp. 6434
Aldona Kasprzak

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common aggressive carcinoma types worldwide, characterized by unfavorable curative effect and poor prognosis. Epidemiological data re-vealed that CRC risk is increased in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its serum components (e.g., hyperglycemia). High glycemic index diets, which chronically raise post-prandial blood glucose, may at least in part increase colon cancer risk via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling pathway. However, the underlying mechanisms linking IGF-1 and MetS are still poorly understood. Hyperactivated glucose uptake and aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect) are considered as a one of six hallmarks of cancer, including CRC. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling during the acquisition of the Warburg metabolic phenotypes by CRC cells is still poorly understood. It most likely results from the interaction of multiple processes, directly or indirectly regulated by IGF-1, such as activation of PI3K/Akt/mTORC, and Raf/MAPK signaling pathways, activation of glucose transporters (e.g., GLUT1), activation of key glycolytic enzymes (e.g., LDHA, LDH5, HK II, and PFKFB3), aberrant expression of the oncogenes (e.g., MYC, and KRAS) and/or overexpression of signaling proteins (e.g., HIF-1, TGF-β1, PI3K, ERK, Akt, and mTOR). This review describes the role of IGF-1 in glucose metabolism in physiology and colorectal carcinogenesis, including the role of the insulin/IGF system in the Warburg effect. Furthermore, current therapeutic strategies aimed at repairing impaired glucose metabolism in CRC are indicated.

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