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Sunil E. Tambvekar ◽  
Shobha N. Gudi

Background: Premature rupture of membranes (PROM) is common obstetric entity, the management even at term is controversial and there is no consensus for definite protocol of management. Objective of the present study is to compare the effectiveness, safety of expectant management of 24 hours and immediate induction with PGE2 gel in terms of maternal and fetal outcome in term PROM.Methods: 200 women were randomized to group A expectant management and group B immediate induction, after strict Inclusion and exclusion criteria. In expectant group waiting period was 24 hours. Multiple end points were examined throughout management. Chi square test and independent t tests were performed for statistical analysis. P value<0.05 was considered significant.Results: Demographic parameters of patients, maternal and gestational age were similar in both groups. Primigravidae were more in both groups A and B. Vaginal delivery rate is more in expectant group and Caesarean Section rate is high in immediate induction group. CS rate was 37% and 23% in group A and B respectively; the difference is statistically significant (p value=0.031). ‘ROM to delivery interval’ was more in group A (16.31±8.67 hrs and 13.85±5.46 hrs) (p value=0.0256). Hospital stay was comparatively more in group A (5.40±0.81 days and 4.11±0.86 days) (p value=0.435). Infective morbidity of mother and baby was low in both groups and no difference was seen.Conclusions: An expectant management allows a good number of women to go into labour and deliver vaginally without an increase in CS rate and infectious morbidity for mother and fetus.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
Joseph Gyea Nuripuoh ◽  
Abudu Ballu Duwiejuah ◽  
Noel Bakobie

AbstractWaste picking is a pivotal in achieving sustainable waste management, environment health and economic development in the era of sustainable development. The study assessed the practices, knowledge, perception and health risk protection behaviours of waste scavengers in the Gbalahi landfill site. A total of 60 scavengers were conveniently sampled and interviewed. The study revealed that 93% of the waste scavengers sort waste using hooks and their bare hands. The study also showed 62% of the respondents have ever been physically abused by other scavengers. A good number of scavengers believed they have been fortified against “dirt diseases” during their childhood and have developed natural immunity against diseases. The knowledge of scavengers was skewed towards economic benefits as they viewed waste picking as a survival strategy. Discrimination and physical abuse posed a seemingly significant psychological health risk to majority of them. Safety and protection practices are limited to the use of pieces of clothes to cover the nose, wearing of multiple clothes and worn-out boots recovered from the landfill. Most of the respondents risk being exposed to the virus and pathogens. It is recommended that education and increased sensitisation should be encouraged and implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Ghana Health Service and other allied institutions in order to regularise and ensure the health and safety of waste scavengers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 531-541
Fellya Babaro ◽  
Dewi Risalah ◽  
Sandie Sandie

Number sense is a person towards numbers, number sense is needed for students in the process of learning mathematics. Students with good number sense will be able to use their knowledge of numbers in solving mathematical problems. Therefore, it is necessary to do about how students use their number sense skills in mathematical problem situations. This study aims to determine how the number sense of students in solving mathematical problems. This type of research is qualitative research. The method used is a descriptive method in the form of case study research. The subjects in this study were IKIP PGRI Pontianak students who came from the mathematics education study program which collected 8 people. The instruments used in this study were test questions and interviews. From the results of data analysis and subject representation in displaying number sense in each C1-C5 component, the researcher concluded that all subjects had good number sense, seen from all who had number sense with a percentage of more than 60%.

Marco Antonio de la Ossa Martínez

In this paper we will focus on Morente-Lorca, the explicit recording that Enrique dedicated in 1998 to Fuente Vaqueros on the centenary of his birth. Produced by La Barbería del Sur under the artistic direction of the cantaor and arranged in two sections by Giorgi Petkov and Giorgi Krassimirov, it was structured in 14 tracks. In a good number of them, Morente started from different poems and fragments of Lorca dramas (So after five years, Doña Rosita la soltera, Yerma, Poeta en Nueva York, Poema del cante jondo and Diwán del Tamarit) that were put to music by Juan Manuel Cañizares, Juan Carlos Romero and by himself (he also took letters from San Juan de la Cruz and Francisco García Lorca). Among them, “Campanas por el poeta” stands out, a song recorded live by the engineer José Ángel Ruiz in the Plaza de la Catedral in Barcelona at the 1998 Mercè Festival. In addition to the live performance, they also added the sound of the bells of the city of Granada collected from the Plaza de San Nicolás del Albaicín at 5 in the morning. They also picked up other echoes of the dawn atmosphere of the city of the Alhambra. En este artículo nos centraremos en Morente-Lorca, la explícita grabación que el del Albaicín dedicó en 1998 al de Fuente Vaqueros en el centenario de su nacimiento. Producida por La Barbería del Sur bajo la dirección artística del cantaor y con arreglos en dos secciones de Giorgi Petkov y Giorgi Krassimirov, se estructuró en catorce cortes. En varios de ellos, Enrique partió de distintos poemas y fragmentos de dramas lorquianos (Así que pasen cinco años, Doña Rosita la soltera, Yerma, Poeta en Nueva York, Poema del cante jondo y Diwán del Tamarit) que fueron puestos en música por Juan Manuel Cañizares, Juan Carlos Romero y por él mismo (también tomó letras de san Juan de la Cruz y Francisco García Lorca).Entre ellos, sobresale “Campanas por el poeta”, tema grabado en vivo por el ingeniero José Ángel Ruiz en la plaza de la Catedral de Barcelona en las Fiestas de la Mercè de 1998. Además de la interpretación en vivo, también añadieron el sonido de las campanas de la ciudad de Granada recogido desde la plaza de san Nicolás del Albaicín a las cinco de la mañana. Del mismo modo, tomaron otros ecos del ambiente del amanecer de la ciudad de la Alhambra.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Lei Zhu

Targeted gene knockout is particularly useful for analyzing gene functions in plant growth, signaling, and development. By transforming knockout cassettes consisting of homologous sequences of the target gene into protoplasts, the classical gene targeting method aims to obtain targeted gene replacement, allowing for the characterization of gene functions in vivo. The moss Physcomitrella patens is a known model organism for a high frequency of homologous recombination and thus harbors a remarkable rate of gene targeting. Other moss features, including easy to culture, dominant haploidy phase, and sequenced genome, make gene targeting prevalent in Physcomitrella patens. However, even gene targeting was powerful to generate knockouts, researchers using this method still experienced technical challenges. For example, obtaining a good number of targeted knockouts after protoplast transformation and regeneration disturbed the users. Off-target mutations such as illegitimate random integration mediated by nonhomologous end joining and targeted insertion wherein one junction on-target but the other end off-target is commonly present in the knockouts. Protoplast fusion during transformation and regeneration was also a problem. This review will discuss the advantages and technical challenges of gene targeting. Recently, CRISPR-Cas9 is a revolutionary technology and becoming a hot topic in plant gene editing. In the second part of this review, CRISPR-Cas9 technology will be focused on and compared to gene targeting regarding the practical use in Physcomitrella patens. This review presents an updated perspective of the gene targeting and CRISPR-Cas9 techniques to plant biologists who may consider studying gene functions in the model organism Physcomitrella patens.

Philippa Osim Inyang

The international community has awoken to the reality that transnational corporations (TNCs) do not only control more resources than a good number of states. They wield enormous influence in the corporate world which greatly impacts on local cultures and initiatives. Many of these TNCs, who operate in developing states, engage in activities which frequently result in human rights abuses. Several states rely on the resources extracted by these large corporations as the main stay of their economies. Consequently, they lack the economic capacity and political will to effectively regulate the activities of the TNCs, leaving these entities to perpetrate human rights abuses in the local communities with impunity. Although the Human Rights Council, through the Inter-governmental working group on Business and Human Rights, has begun a treaty process on business and human rights to address these issues, the work of the IGWG, so far, has not adequately responded the root cause of the corporate impunity, which is their unwillingness and inability to hold corporate entities accountable for their harmful activities. Thus, this paper proposes that the issue of direct human rights obligations on corporate entities should be revisited in order to ensure that corporate entities do not escape accountability for human rights harm resulting from their activities.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (4) ◽  
pp. 525-537
András Faragó ◽  

Random graphs are frequently used models of real-life random networks. The classical Erdös–Rényi random graph model is very well explored and has numerous nontrivial properties. In particular, a good number of important graph parameters that are hard to compute in the deterministic case often become much easier in random graphs. However, a fundamental restriction in the Erdös–Rényi random graph is that the edges are required to be probabilistically independent. This is a severe restriction, which does not hold in most real-life networks. We consider more general random graphs in which the edges may be dependent. Specifically, two models are analyzed. The first one is called a p-robust random graph. It is defined by the requirement that each edge exist with probability at least p, no matter how we condition on the presence/absence of other edges. It is significantly more general than assuming independent edges existing with probability p, as exemplified via several special cases. The second model considers the case when the edges are positively correlated, which means that the edge probability is at least p for each edge, no matter how we condition on the presence of other edges (but absence is not considered). We prove some interesting, nontrivial properties about both models.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Francisco Muñoz

Abstract Oxide glasses are the most commonly studied non-crystalline materials in Science and Technology, though compositions where part of the oxygen is replaced by other anions, e.g. fluoride, sulfide or nitride, have given rise to a good number of works and several key applications, from optics to ionic conductors. Oxynitride silicate or phosphate glasses stand out among all others because of their higher chemical and mechanical stability and their research continues particularly focused onto the development of solid electrolytes. In phosphate glasses, the easiest way of introducing nitrogen is by the remelting of the parent glass under a flow of ammonia, a method that allows the homogeneous nitridation of the bulk glass and which is governed by diffusion through the liquid-gas reaction between NH3 and the PO4 chemical groupings. After nitridation, two new structural units appear, the PO3N and PO2N2 ones, where nitrogen atoms can be bonded to either two or three neighboring phosphorus, thus increasing the bonding density of the glass network and resulting in a quantitative improvement of their properties. This short review will gather all important aspects of the synthesis of oxynitride phosphate glasses with emphasis on the influence of chemical composition and structure.

2021 ◽  
Andrey Yugay ◽  
Hamdi Bouali Daghmouni ◽  
Andrey Nestyagin ◽  
Fouad Abdulsallam ◽  
Annie Morales ◽  

Abstract Well Cementing can be divided into two phases – primary and remedial cementing. Primary cementing may have 3 functions: casing support, zonal isolation and casing protection against corrosion. First two functions are commonly recognized while the third one might be a point of discussion, as the full casing coverage with 100% clean cement is not something common in most of the fields. In fact, poorly cemented areas of the casing may become negatively charged and create a zones of accelerated corrosion rate. This paper is about main role of cementing - zonal isolation. The process of primary cementing assumes that cement slurry is being pumped into the casing and displaced outside. After wait on cement time (WOC) it becomes hard, develops compressive strength and creates impermeable seal that ensures hydraulic isolation. Old and well-known technique, it still remains one of the most challenging rig operations. It is unlikely to find a service company that would guarantee 100% cement displacement behind the casing all the way from top to bottom. Main challenges in this region are quiet common for many other fields – displacement in deviated sections, losses before and during cementing, exposure to pressure during cement settling. In case the main target is not achieved (no hydraulic isolation behind the casing) – we may observe behind casing communications resulting in sustainable pressures in casing-casing annuluses. In this situation the remedial cementing takes place. It's function is to restore isolation so the cement can work as a barrier that seals off the pressure source. Despite of the good number of sealants available on the market (time, pressure, temperature activated) that can be injected from surface to cure this casing-casing pressure, Company prefers not to do so unless there is a proven injectivity capability that would allow for the sealant to reach deep enough, to protect aquifers in case of outer casing corrosion. Otherwise that would be just a ‘masking" the pressure at surface. Therefore in general Company prefers rig intervention to cure the pressure across the cap rock in between the aquifers and the reservoir. Those aquifers are illustrated on the Figure 1 below: More details on Company casing design, cement evaluation issues, sustained casing pressure phenomena and challenges have been mentioned previously [Yugay, 2019].

2021 ◽  
Yuliya Minets

This is the story of the transformation of the ways in which the increasingly Christianized elites of the late antique Mediterranean experienced and conceptualized linguistic differences. The metaphor of Babel stands for the magnificent edifice of classical culture that was about to reach the sky, but remained self-sufficient and self-contained in its virtual monolingualism – the paradigm within which even Latin was occasionally considered just a dialect of Greek. The gradual erosion of this vision is the slow fall of Babel that took place in the hearts and minds of a good number of early Christian writers and intellectuals who represented various languages and literary traditions. This step-by-step process included the discovery and internalization of the existence of multiple other languages in the world, as well as subsequent attempts to incorporate their speakers meaningfully into the holistic and distinctly Christian picture of the universe.

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