We performed a hydrogen combustion analysis in the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe (APR1400) containment during a severe accident initiated by a small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) which occurred at a lower part of the cold leg using a multi-dimensional hydrogen analysis system (MHAS) to confirm the integrity of the APR1400 containment. The MHAS was developed by combining MAAP, GASFLOW, and COM3D to simulate hydrogen release, distribution and combustion in the containment of a nuclear power plant during the severe accidents in the containment of a nuclear power reactor. The calculated peak pressure due to the flame acceleration by the COM3D, using the GASFLOW results as an initial condition of the hydrogen distribution, was approximately 555 kPa, which is lower than the fracture pressure 1223 kPa of the APR1400 containment. To induce a higher peak pressure resulted from a strong flame acceleration in the containment, we intentionally assumed several things in developing an accident scenario of the SBLOCA. Therefore, we may judge that the integrity of the APR1400 containment can be maintained even though the hydrogen combustion occurs during the severe accident initiated by the SBLOCA.
The key issues for the use of dibenzyltoluene (DBT) as a Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) are the high dehydrogenation temperature and the sluggish hydrogen releasing rate. Therefore, highly active...
This work was focused on revealing the relation between the microstructure and corrosion dynamics in dilute Mg97.94Zn0.56Y1.5 (at.%) alloys prepared by the consolidation of rapidly solidified (RS) ribbons. The dynamics of the corrosion were followed by common electrochemical methods and the acoustic emission (AE) technique. AE monitoring offers instantaneous feedback on changes in the dynamics and mode of the corrosion. In contrast, the electrochemical measurements were performed on the specimens, which had already been immersed in the solution for a pre-defined time. Thus, some short-term corrosion processes could remain undiscovered. Obtained results were completed by scanning electron microscopy, including analysis of a cross-section of the corrosion layer. It was shown that the internal strain distribution, the grain morphology, and the distribution of the secondary phases play a significant role in the corrosion. The alloys are characterized by a complex microstructure with elongated worked and dynamically recrystallized α-Mg grains with an average grain size of 900 nm. Moreover, the Zn- and Y-rich stacking faults (SFs) were dispersed in the grain interior. In the alloy consolidated at a lower extrusion speed, the homogeneous internal strain distribution led to uniform corrosion with a rate of 2 mm/year and a low hydrogen release. The consolidation at a higher extrusion speed resulted in the formation of uneven distribution of internal strains with remaining high strain levels in non-recrystallized grains, leading to inhomogeneous growth and breakdown of the corrosion layers. Therefore, homogeneity of the internal strain distribution is of key importance for the uniform formation of a protective layer.
About 25 years ago, Bogdanovic and Schwickardi (B. Bogdanovic, M. Schwickardi: J. Alloys Compd. 1–9, 253 (1997) discovered the catalyzed release of hydrogen from NaAlH4. This discovery stimulated a vast research effort on light hydrides as hydrogen storage materials, in particular boron hydrogen compounds. Mg(BH4)2, with a hydrogen content of 14.9 wt %, has been extensively studied, and recent results shed new light on intermediate species formed during dehydrogenation. The chemistry of B3H8−, which is an important intermediate between BH4− and B12H122−, is presented in detail. The discovery of high ionic conductivity in the high-temperature phases of LiBH4 and Na2B12H12 opened a new research direction. The high chemical and electrochemical stability of closo-hydroborates has stimulated new research for their applications in batteries. Very recently, an all-solid-state 4 V Na battery prototype using a Na4(CB11H12)2(B12H12) solid electrolyte has been demonstrated. In this review, we present the current knowledge of possible reaction pathways involved in the successive hydrogen release reactions from BH4− to B12H122−, and a discussion of relevant necessary properties for high-ionic-conduction materials.
In this study, hydrogen boride films are fabricated by ion-exchange treatment on magnesium diboride (MgB2) films under ambient temperature and pressure. We prepared oriented MgB2 films on strontium titanate (SrTiO3) substrates using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Subsequently, these films were treated with ion exchangers in acetonitrile solution. TOF-SIMS analysis evidenced that hydrogen species were introduced into the MgB2 films by using two types of ion exchangers: proton exchange resin and formic acid. According to the HAXPES analysis, negatively charged boron species were preserved in the films after the ion-exchange treatment. In addition, the FT-IR analysis suggested that B-H bonds were formed in the MgB2 films following the ion-exchange treatment. The ion-exchange treatment using formic acid was more efficient compared to the resin treatment; with respect to the amount of hydrogen species introduced into the MgB2 films. These ion-exchanged films exhibited photoinduced hydrogen release as observed in a powder sample. Based on the present study, we expect to be able to control the morphology and hydrogen content of hydrogen boride thin films by optimising the ion-exchange treatment process, which will be useful for further studies and device applications.