pyrethroid resistance
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PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0261713
Assalif Demissew ◽  
Abebe Animut ◽  
Solomon Kibret ◽  
Arega Tsegaye ◽  
Dawit Hawaria ◽  

Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets are among the key malaria control intervention tools. However, their efficacy is declining due to the development and spread of insecticide resistant vectors. In Ethiopia, several studies reported resistance of An. arabiensis to multiple insecticide classes. However, such data is scarce in irrigated areas of the country where insecticides, pesticides and herbicides are intensively used. Susceptibility of An. gambiae s.l. to existing and new insecticides and resistance mechanisms were assessed in Arjo-Didessa sugarcane plantation area, southwestern Ethiopia. Methods Adult An. gambiae s.l. reared from larval/pupal collections of Arjo-Didessa sugarcane irrigation area and its surrounding were tested for their susceptibility to selected insecticides. Randomly selected An. gambiae s.l. (dead and survived) samples were identified to species using species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were further analyzed for the presence of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles using allele-specific PCR. Results Among the 214 An. gambiae s.l. samples analyzed by PCR, 89% (n = 190) were An. amharicus and 9% (n = 20) were An. arabiensis. Mortality rates of the An. gambiae s.l. exposed to deltamethrin and alphacypermethrin were 85% and 86.8%, respectively. On the other hand, mortalities against pirmiphos-methyl, bendiocarb, propoxur and clothianidin were 100%, 99%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Of those sub-samples (An. amharicus and An. arabiensis) examined for presence of kdr gene, none of them were found to carry the L1014F (West African) allelic mutation. Conclusion Anopheles amharicus and An. arabiensis from Arjo-Didessa sugarcane irrigation area were resistant to pyrethroids which might be synergized by extensive use of agricultural chemicals. Occurrence of pyrethroid resistant malaria vectors could challenge the ongoing malaria control and elimination program in the area unless resistance management strategies are implemented. Given the resistance of An. amharicus to pyrethroids, its behavior and vectorial capacity should be further investigated.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Corine Ngufor ◽  
Josias Fagbohoun ◽  
Abel Agbevo ◽  
Hanafy Ismail ◽  
Joseph D. Challenger ◽  

Abstract Background Pyrethroid-PBO nets were conditionally recommended for control of malaria transmitted by mosquitoes with oxidase-based pyrethroid-resistance based on epidemiological evidence of additional protective effect with Olyset Plus compared to a pyrethroid-only net (Olyset Net). Entomological studies can be used to assess the comparative performance of other brands of pyrethroid-PBO ITNs to Olyset Plus. Methods An experimental hut trial was performed in Cové, Benin to compare PermaNet 3.0 (deltamethrin plus PBO on roof panel only) to Olyset Plus (permethrin plus PBO on all panels) against wild pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Both nets were tested unwashed and after 20 standardized washes compared to Olyset Net. Laboratory bioassays were also performed to help explain findings in the experimental huts. Results With unwashed nets, mosquito mortality was higher in huts with PermaNet 3.0 compared to Olyset Plus (41% vs. 28%, P < 0.001). After 20 washes, mortality declined significantly with PermaNet 3.0 (41% unwashed vs. 17% after washing P < 0.001), but not with Olyset Plus (28% unwashed vs. 24% after washing P = 0.433); Olyset Plus induced significantly higher mortality than PermaNet 3.0 and Olyset Net after 20 washes. PermaNet 3.0 showed a higher wash retention of PBO compared to Olyset Plus. A non-inferiority analysis performed with data from unwashed and washed nets together using a margin recommended by the WHO, showed that PermaNet 3.0 was non-inferior to Olyset Plus in terms of mosquito mortality (25% with Olyset Plus vs. 27% with PermaNet 3.0, OR = 1.528, 95%CI = 1.02–2.29) but not in reducing mosquito feeding (25% with Olyset Plus vs. 30% with PermaNet 3.0, OR = 1.192, 95%CI = 0.77–1.84). Both pyrethroid-PBO nets were superior to Olyset Net. Conclusion Olyset Plus outperformed PermaNet 3.0 in terms of its ability to cause greater margins of improved mosquito mortality compared to a standard pyrethroid net, after multiple standardized washes. However, using a margin of non-inferiority defined by the WHO, PermaNet 3.0 was non-inferior to Olyset Plus in inducing mosquito mortality. Considering the low levels of mortality observed and increasing pyrethroid-resistance in West Africa, it is unclear whether either of these nets would demonstrate the same epidemiological impact observed in community trials in East Africa.

Tamar E. Carter ◽  
Araya Gebresilassie ◽  
Shantoy Hansel ◽  
Lambodhar Damodaran ◽  
Callum Montgomery ◽  

The malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi, which is typically restricted to South Asia and the Middle East, was recently detected in the Horn of Africa. Addressing the spread of this vector could involve integrated vector control that considers the status of insecticide resistance of multiple vector species in the region. Previous reports indicate that the knockdown resistance mutations (kdr) in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) are absent in both pyrethroid-resistant and pyrethroid-sensitive An. stephensi in eastern Ethiopia; however, similar information about other vector species in the same areas is limited. In this study, kdr and the neighboring intron were analyzed in An. stephensi, An. arabiensis, and Culex pipiens s.l. collected between 2016 and 2017 to determine the evolutionary history of kdr in eastern Ethiopia. A sequence analysis revealed that all of Cx. pipiens s.l. (N = 42) and 71.6% of the An. arabiensis (N = 67) carried kdr L1014F, which is known to confer target-site pyrethroid resistance. Intronic variation was only observed in An. stephensi (six segregating sites, three haplotypes), which was previously shown to have no kdr mutations. In addition, no evidence of non-neutral evolutionary processes was detected at the An. stephensi kdr intron, thereby further supporting the target-site mechanism not being a major resistance mechanism in this An. stephensi population. Overall, these results show key differences in the evolution of target-site pyrethroid/dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane resistance mutations in populations of vector species from the same region. Variations in insecticide resistance mechanism profiles between eastern Ethiopian mosquito vectors may lead to different responses to insecticides used in integrated vector control.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Michelle E. Roh ◽  
Brenda Oundo ◽  
Grant Dorsey ◽  
Stephen Shiboski ◽  
Roly Gosling ◽  

Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the main vector control tool for pregnant women, but their efficacy may be compromised, in part, due to pyrethroid resistance. In 2017, the Ugandan Ministry of Health embedded a cluster randomized controlled trial into the national LLIN campaign, where a random subset of health subdistricts (HSDs) received LLINs treated with piperonyl butoxide (PBO), a chemical synergist known to partially restore pyrethroid sensitivity. Using data from a small, non-randomly selected subset of HSDs, this secondary analysis used quasi-experimental methods to quantify the overall impact of the LLIN campaign on pregnancy outcomes. In an exploratory analysis, differences between PBO and conventional (non-PBO) LLINs on pregnancy outcomes were assessed. Methods Birth registry data (n = 39,085) were retrospectively collected from 21 health facilities across 12 HSDs, 29 months before and 9 months after the LLIN campaign (from 2015 to 2018). Of the 12 HSDs, six received conventional LLINs, five received PBO LLINs, and one received a mix of conventional and PBO LLINs. Interrupted time-series analyses (ITSAs) were used to estimate changes in monthly incidence of stillbirth and low birthweight (LBW; <2500 g) before-and-after the campaign. Poisson regression with robust standard errors modeled campaign effects, adjusting for health facility-level differences, seasonal variation, and time-varying maternal characteristics. Comparisons between PBO and conventional LLINs were estimated using difference-in-differences estimators. Results ITSAs estimated the campaign was associated with a 26% [95% CI: 7–41] reduction in stillbirth incidence (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.74 [0.59–0.93]) and a 15% [-7, 33] reduction in LBW incidence (IRR=0.85 [0.67–1.07]) over a 9-month period. The effect on stillbirth incidence was greatest for women delivering 7–9 months after the campaign (IRR=0.60 [0.41–0.87]) for whom the LLINs would have covered most of their pregnancy. The IRRs estimated from difference-in-differences analyses comparing PBO to conventional LLINs was 0.78 [95% CI: 0.52, 1.16] for stillbirth incidence and 1.15 [95% CI: 0.87, 1.52] for LBW incidence. Conclusions In this region of Uganda, where pyrethroid resistance is high, this study found that a mass LLIN campaign was associated with reduced stillbirth incidence. Effects of the campaign were greatest for women who would have received LLINs early in pregnancy, suggesting malaria protection early in pregnancy can have important benefits that are not necessarily realized through antenatal malaria services. Results from the exploratory analyses comparing PBO and conventional LLINs on pregnancy outcomes were inconclusive, largely due to the wide confidence intervals that crossed the null. Thus, future studies with larger sample sizes are needed.

F1000Research ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. 200
Dewi Susanna ◽  
Dian Pratiwi

Background: The application of insecticides for malaria vector control has led to a global problem, which is the current trend of increased resistance against these chemicals. This study aimed to review the insecticide resistance status was previously determined in Asia and how to implement the necessary interventions. Moreover, the implications of resistance in malaria vector control in this region were studied. Methods: This systematic review was conducted using a predefined protocol based on PRISMA-retrieved articles from four science databases, namely ProQuest, Science Direct, EBSCO, and PubMed in the last ten years (2009 to 2019). The searching process utilized four main combinations of the following keywords: malaria, vector control, insecticide, and Asia. In ProQuest, malaria control, as well as an insecticide, were used as keywords. The following criteria were included in the filter, namely full text, the source of each article, scholarly journal, Asia, and publication date as in the last ten years. Results: There were 1408 articles retrieved during the initial search (ProQuest=722, Science Direct=267, EBSCO=50, PubMed=285, and Scopus=84). During the screening, 27 articles were excluded because of duplication, 1361 based on title and abstract incompatibility with the inclusion criteria, and 20 due to content differences. In the final screening process, 15 articles were chosen to be analyzed. From the 15 articles, it is known that there was organochlorine (DDT), organophosphate (malathion), and pyrethroids resistance in several Anopheles species with a less than 80% mortality rate. Conclusion: This review found multiple resistance in several Anopheles includes resistance to pyrethroid. The reports of pyrethroid resistance were quite challenging because it is considered effective in the malaria vector control. Several countries in Asia are implementing an insecticide resistance management (IRM) strategy against malaria vectors following the Global Plan for IRM.

Dyah Widiastuti ◽  
Agustiningsih Agustiningsih ◽  
Ihda Zuyina Ratna Sari ◽  
Tri Ramadhani

Detection of V1016G mutation is important for identifying the mechanism of  synthetic pyrethroid resistance in Aedes aegypti population. The previous method has described an allele specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) using conventional PCR to detect the mutation. Although the method has great differentiating power and reproducibility, faster and more sensitive genotyping method is essential to accurately detect the mutation. This study evaluate the used of SYBR® Green real-time PCR and melting curve analysis (MCA) to identify the V1016G mutation. The collection of homozygous 1016G, heterozygous, and wild type (1016 V) mosquitoes DNA genome was extracted using genomic DNA mini kit. The SsoAdvanced™ Universal SYBR® Green Supermix was used to identify alleles by real-time PCR followed melting curve analysis of the amplicons. Melting curve analysis produced reproducible results for the loci tested. The melting temperature was reached at 78.5 oC for homozygous 1016G mosquito and at 86 oC for wild type mosquito. Meanwhile, the heterozigous mosquito revealed two peaks of melting temperature at both 78.5 oC and 86 oC. These easily interpretable and distinguishable melting curve results were consistent with AS-PCR results obtained for the same alleles. The described MCA application for screening V1016G mutation is fast and widely accessible also could be implemented under field conditions

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1948
Moussa Diallo ◽  
Majidah Hamid-Adiamoh ◽  
Ousmane Sy ◽  
Pape Cheikh Sarr ◽  
Jarra Manneh ◽  

The evolution and spread of insecticide resistance mechanisms amongst malaria vectors across the sub-Saharan Africa threaten the effectiveness and sustainability of current insecticide-based vector control interventions. However, a successful insecticide resistance management plan relies strongly on evidence of historical and contemporary mechanisms circulating. This study aims to retrospectively determine the evolution and spread of pyrethroid resistance mechanisms among natural Anopheles gambiae s.l. populations in Senegal. Samples were randomly drawn from an existing mosquito sample, collected in 2013, 2017, and 2018 from 10 sentinel sites monitored by the Senegalese National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP). Molecular species of An. gambiae s.l. and the resistance mutations at the Voltage-gated Sodium Channel 1014 (Vgsc-1014) locus were characterised using PCR-based assays. The genetic diversity of the Vgsc gene was further analyzed by sequencing. The overall species composition revealed the predominance of Anopheles arabiensis (73.08%) followed by An. gambiae s.s. (14.48%), Anopheles coluzzii (10.94%) and Anopheles gambiae–coluzii hybrids (1.48%). Both Vgsc-1014F and Vgsc-1014S mutations were found in all studied populations with a spatial variation of allele frequencies from 3% to 90%; and 7% to 41%, respectively. The two mutations have been detected since 2013 across all the selected health districts, with Vgsc-L1014S frequency increasing over the years while Vgsc-1014F decreasing. At species level, the Vgsc-1014F and Vgsc-1014S alleles were more frequent amongst An. gambiae s.s. (70%) and An. arabiensis (20%). The Vgsc gene was found to be highly diversified with eight different haplotypes shared between Vgsc-1014F and Vgsc-1014S. The observed co-occurrence of Vgsc-1014F and Vgsc-1014S mutations suggest that pyrethroid resistance is becoming a widespread phenomenon amongst malaria vector populations, and the NMCP needs to address this issue to sustain the gain made in controlling malaria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Yong Wei ◽  
Xueli Zheng ◽  
Song He ◽  
Xuli Xin ◽  
Jiachun Zhang ◽  

Abstract Background Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) is the main vector of dengue virus in China. The resistance to insecticides is a huge obstacle for the control of this species, and determining its resistance status and mechanisms in China is essential for the implementation of vector management strategies. Methods We have investigated the larval and adult resistance status of Ae. albopictus to deltamethrin in eight field populations in China. Mutations at the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, related to the knockdown resistance (kdr) effect, were detected by sequencing of PCR products. The eight field populations were examined for pyrethroid resistance using the World Health Organization standard bioassays, and the association between the mutations and phenotypic resistance was tested. Results The eight field populations of larvae of Ae. albopictus in China exhibited high resistance to deltamethrin; the RR50 values ranged from 12 (ZJ) to 44 (GZ). Adult bioassay revealed that Ae. albopictus populations were resistant to deltamethrin (mortality rate < 90%), except ZJ population (probably resistant, mortality rate = 93.5%). Long knockdown time in the field populations was consistent with low mortality rates in adult bioassay. F1534S mutation showed increased protection against deltamethrin in all populations except BJ and SJZ populations, whereas I1532T mutation showed increased protection against deltamethrin in only BJ population. Conclusion There were different degrees of resistance to deltamethrin in field Ae. albopictus populations in China. The longest knockdown time and lowest mortality rate observed in Ae. albopictus population in Guangzhou indicate the severity of high resistance to deltamethrin. The patchy distribution of deltamethrin resistance and kdr mutations in Ae. albopictus mosquitoes suggests the necessity for resistance management and developing counter measures to mitigate the spread of resistance. Graphical Abstract

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Henk van den Berg ◽  
Haroldo Sergio da Silva Bezerra ◽  
Samira Al-Eryani ◽  
Emmanuel Chanda ◽  
Bhupender N. Nagpal ◽  

AbstractInsecticides have played a major role in the prevention, control, and elimination of vector-borne diseases, but insecticide resistance threatens the efficacy of available vector control tools. A global survey was conducted to investigate vector control insecticide use from 2010 to 2019. Out of 140 countries selected as sample for the study, 87 countries responded. Also, data on ex-factory deliveries of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) were analyzed. Insecticide operational use was highest for control of malaria, followed by dengue, leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Vector control relied on few insecticide classes with pyrethroids the most used overall. Results indicated that IRS programs have been slow to react to detection of pyrethroid resistance, while proactive resistance management using insecticides with unrelated modes of action was generally weak. The intensive use of recently introduced insecticide products raised concern about product stewardship regarding the preservation of insecticide susceptibility in vector populations. Resistance management was weakest for control of dengue, leishmaniasis or Chagas disease. Therefore, it will be vital that vector control programs coordinate on insecticide procurement, planning, implementation, resistance monitoring, and capacity building. Moreover, increased consideration should be given to alternative vector control tools that prevent the development of insecticide resistance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (11) ◽  
pp. e0009871
Haina Sun ◽  
Robert W. Mertz ◽  
Letícia B. Smith ◽  
Jeffrey G. Scott

Aedes aegypti is an important vector of human viral diseases. This mosquito is distributed globally and thrives in urban environments, making it a serious risk to human health. Pyrethroid insecticides have been the mainstay for control of adult A. aegypti for decades, but resistance has evolved, making control problematic in some areas. One major mechanism of pyrethroid resistance is detoxification by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), commonly associated with the overexpression of one or more CYPs. Unfortunately, the molecular basis underlying this mechanism remains unknown. We used a combination of RNA-seq and proteomic analysis to evaluate the molecular basis of pyrethroid resistance in the highly resistant CKR strain of A. aegypti. The CKR strain has the resistance mechanisms from the well-studied Singapore (SP) strain introgressed into the susceptible Rockefeller (ROCK) strain genome. The RNA-seq and proteomics data were complimentary; each offering insights that the other technique did not provide. However, transcriptomic results did not quantitatively mirror results of the proteomics. There were 10 CYPs which had increased expression of both transcripts and proteins. These CYPs appeared to be largely trans-regulated, except for some CYPs for which we could not rule out gene duplication. We identified 65 genes and lncRNAs as potentially being responsible for elevating the expression of CYPs in CKR. Resistance was associated with multiple loci on chromosome 1 and at least one locus on chromosome 3. We also identified five CYPs that were overexpressed only as proteins, suggesting that stabilization of CYP proteins could be a mechanism of resistance. Future studies to increase the resolution of the resistance loci, and to examine the candidate genes and lncRNAs identified here will greatly enhance our understanding of CYP-mediated resistance in A. aegypti.

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