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2022 ◽  
Vol 194 (2) ◽  
D’Souza Nishitha ◽  
Vadakkeveedu Narayan Amrish ◽  
Kumar Arun ◽  
Anish Kumar Warrier ◽  
Harikripa Narayana Udayashankar ◽  

AbstractThe present study aims to assess the extent of trace metal pollution in the sediments of Sita-Swarna estuary, west coast of India, and investigate their possible ecological risk on the aquatic environment. The sediment cores were analyzed for sand, silt, clay, organic carbon, and trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, As, Cd, Co, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cu) at 2-cm intervals. The study revealed that sediments have deposited in relatively violent to very violent hydrodynamic energy conditions. Factor analysis indicated that the metal distribution is mainly controlled by Fe–Mn oxyhydroxides and organic carbon. Further, the geochemical approach, pollution indices, and statistical evaluation revealed moderate pollution in the catchment. From an ecotoxicological perspective, the estimated risk index (RI) value was found to less than 150, indicating low risk for aquatic life. Thus, this baseline study would help to adopt strategies in pollution control and protect the fragile marine environment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes ◽  
Júlio César Moreira Brito ◽  
Fabio Vieira ◽  
Rafael Shinji Akiyama Kitamura ◽  
Philippe Juneau

This study investigated the occurrence and risk assessment of ten pharmaceutical products and two herbicides in the water of rivers from the Doce river watershed (Brazil). Of the 12 chemicals studied, ten (acyclovir, amoxicillin, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, fluoxetine, erythromycin, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid) had a 100% detection rate. In general, total concentrations of all target drugs ranged from 4.6 to 14.5 μg L−1, with fluoroquinolones and sulfonamides being the most representative classes of pharmaceutical products. Herbicides were found at concentrations at least ten times higher than those of the individual pharmaceutical products and represented the major class of contaminants in the samples. Most of the contaminants studied were above concentrations that pose an ecotoxicological risk to aquatic biota. Urban wastewater must be the main source of contaminants in waterbodies. Our results show that, in addition to the study of metal in water (currently being conducted after the Fundão dam breach), there is an urgent need to monitor emerging contaminant in waters from Doce river watershed rivers, as some chemicals pose environmental risks to aquatic life and humans due to the use of surface water for drinking and domestic purposes by the local population. Special attention should be given to glyphosate, aminomethylphosaphonic acid, and to ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin (whose concentrations are above predicted levels that induce resistance selection).

Jacopo Umberto Verga ◽  
Matthew Huff ◽  
Diarmuid Owens ◽  
Bethany J. Wolf ◽  
Gary Hardiman

Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDC) has been linked with several adverse outcomes. In this review, we examine EDCs that are pervasive in the environment and are of concern in the context of human, animal, and environmental health. We explore the consequences of EDC exposure on aquatic life, terrestrial animals, and humans. We focus on the exploitation of genomics technologies and in particular whole transcriptome sequencing. Genome-wide analyses using RNAseq provides snap shots of cellular, tissue and whole organism transcriptomes under normal physiological and EDC perturbed conditions. A global view of gene expression provides highly valuable information as it uncovers gene families or more specifically, pathways that are affected by EDC exposures, but also reveals those that are unaffected. Hypotheses about genes with unknown functions can also be formed by comparison of their expression levels with genes of known function. Risk assessment strategies leveraging genomic technologies and the development of toxicology databases are explored. Finally, we review how the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) has exploited this high throughput data to provide a framework for toxicology studies.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260803
Amrita Banerjee ◽  
Lloyd O. Billey ◽  
Weilin L. Shelver

Toxicity of micro or nanoplastics (MP/NP) in aquatic life is well-documented, however, information about the consequences of exposure to these particles in terrestrial species is scarce. This study was used to evaluate the uptake and/or toxicity of polystyrene MP/NP in human gastric cells, comparing doses, particle sizes (50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 or 5000 nm) and surface functionalization (aminated, carboxylated or non-functionalized). In general, the uptake of 50 nm particles was significantly higher than 1000 nm particles. Among the 50 nm particles, the aminated particles were more avidly taken up by the cells and were cytotoxic at a lower concentration (≥ 7.5 μg/mL) compared to same sized carboxylated or non-functionalized particles (≥ 50 μg/mL). High toxicity of 50 nm aminated particles corresponded well with significantly high rates of apoptosis-necrosis induced by these particles in 4 h (29.2% of total cells) compared to all other particles (≤ 16.8%). The trend of apoptosis-necrosis induction by aminated particles in 4 h was 50 > 5000 > 1000 > 500 > 200 > 100 nm. The 50 nm carboxylated or non-functionalized particles also induced higher levels of apoptosis-necrosis in the cells compared to 100, 1000 and 5000 nm particles with same surface functionalization but longer exposure (24 h) to 50 nm carboxylated or non-functionalized particles significantly (p<0.0001) increased apoptosis-necrosis in the cells. The study demonstrated that the toxicity of MP/NP to gastric cells was dependent on particle size, dose surface functionalization and exposure period.

I.M. Abu Zeid ◽  
M.F. Rahman ◽  
Mohd Yunus Shukor

More and more people are looking at bioremediation as a cheaper option to physhiochemical techniques for cleaning up pollution from farming, mines, and other chemical industries. Toxic effects of molybdenum on spermatogenesis harm not only humans but also livestock and aquatic life. As a result, efforts are being made to remove it from the ecosystem. A microorganism that can convert soluble molybdenum into colloidal molybdenum blue has been discovered. Phosphate concentrations were optimum between 2.5 and 5, molybdate concentrations between 15 and 20, pH between 6, and temperature between 25 and 34 degrees Celsius for the bacteria to thrive. Absorption spectrum of Mo-blue shows a peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm, which indicates that it is in fact reduced phosphomolybdate. Copper, mercury, silver, copper, and chromium are all hazardous heavy metals that hinder the synthesis of Mo-blue. Bacillus sp. strain Zeid 15 is the most likely candidate for the bacterium's identity. As part of our screening, we look for the bacterium's capacity to employ different nitriles and amides as potential electron donors for molybdenum reduction or as substrates for growth. A microplate format was used for the screening. The bacterium was able to use the amides acrylamide and propionamide as sources of electron donor for reduction. Mo-blue production was best supported by acrylamide between 750 and 1250 mg/L, and propionamide between 750 and 1000 mg/L. In addition, these amides including acetamide could support the growth of the bacterium. The modified Gompertz model was utilized to model the growth of this bacterium on amides. The model’s growth parameters obtained were lag periods of 1.372, 1.562 and 1.639 d and maximum specific growth rates of 1.38, 0.95 and 0.734 d-1, for acrylamide, acetamide and propionamide, respectively. The capacity of this bacterium to decontaminate simultaneously amides and molybdenum is a novel characteristic that will be very beneficial in bioremediation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 19-22
Salihu Yahuza ◽  
Ibrahim Alhaji Sabo ◽  
Hadiza Aliyu Biu

Azo dyes, such as Remazol Black B, are different from conventional dyes in that they establish covalent bonds with textile fibers like cotton. They are widely utilized in the textile industry because of their favorable properties of bright color, water resistance, simple application procedures, and low energy consumption. Their discharge into receiving streams has major environmental consequences, such as reducing photosynthesis in aquatic life due to lower light penetration. The biosorption isotherm data of Remazol Black B dye biosorption by Aspergillus flavus were investigated using two models—pseudo-1st order and pseudo-2nd order—and fitted using non-linear regression. The pseudo-1st order model was found to be the best by statistical analysis using root-mean-square error (RMSE), adjusted coefficient of determination (adjR2), bias factor (BF), accuracy factor (AF), corrected AICc (Akaike Information Criterion), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC), and Hannan–Quinn information criterion (HQC). At 250 mg/L, kinetic analysis using the pseudo-1st order model yielded an equilibrium sorption capacity qe of 4.61 mg/g (95 % confidence interval from 4.54 to 4.68) and a pseudo-1st-order rate constant, k1 of 0.15 (95% C.I. from 0.128 to 0.164).

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 7-10
Ibrahim Alhaji Sabo ◽  
Salihu Yahuza ◽  
Mohd Yunus Shukor

Industrial effluents (Azo dyes) are brightly coloured, making their disposal into receiving waters undesirable not only because many Azo dyes and their breakdown products are toxic to aquatic life and mutagenic to humans, but also because many Azo dyes and their breakdown products are harmful to aquatic life due to the presence of aromatics and metals, chlorides, and other chemicals. Various kinetic models, including modified Gompertz, Baranyi-Roberts, modified Richards, Von Bertalanffy, modified Logistics, modified Schnute, Buchanan three-phase, and the most recently presented Huang, were used in this study. Based on statistical tests, the modified Schnute model provided the best fit, with the lowest values for RMSE and corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc), the greatest value for adjusted R2, and the closest to unity for both Accuracy and Bias Factor. The Modified Schnute parameters such as λ (lag time), µmax (maximum specific bacterial growth rate) and curve fitting parameters α and β (Constant), were found to be -4.39 (95% confidence interval of -77.58 to 68.79), 57.00 (95% confidence interval of -2854.30 to 2968.30), 0.78 (95% confidence interval of -0.34 to 1.89) and 0.96 (95% confidence interval of -0.85 to 2.78, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 62-75
Adedamola Akinbadewa ◽  
Henry Adewole ◽  
Stephen Adeyeni ◽  
Victor Olaleye

This study used a static bioassay to investigate the histological effects of glyphosate on the gill, liver and muscle of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fingerlings. This was done with a view of further characterising the effect of glyphosate on C. gariepinus fingerlings and other aquatic life forms. Six-week old C. gariepinus fingerlings with an average weight of 10.02 ± 0.2 g were stocked into three exposure sets (control, 2.75 ppm (25% of the 96 h LC50 value) and 5.50 ppm (50% of the 96 h LC50 value)) in triplicate at 30 fish per tank for 70 days. The 96 h LC50  value was 11.00 mg/L. Histological examination of the C. gariepinus exposed to various sublethal concentrations of glyphosate showed that major histological changes in their organs were concentration dependent such as gill arch vacuolation, excessive mucosal secretions, lifting of epithelial, and epithelium thickening, hyperplasia and telangiectasis in the gills, discolouration, change in form and consistent alterations involving hyperplasia, narrowing of the central nerve, necrosis, pkynosis, blood congestion and vacuolation of the liver, mild hyperplasia and inflammatory responses in the muscle of the fish. The severity of histological alteration was more pronounced in fish organs exposed to 5.50 ppm of glyphosate concentration. This study concluded that the toxicant (glyphosate) is highly toxic to C. gariepinus particularly at a concentration of 5.50 ppm, therefore its use near farm lands or adjacent water bodies should be discouraged.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 624-628
Muhammad Mujahid ◽  
Iis Diatin ◽  
Juang Rata Matangaran

We analyzed the heavy metals and water quality of a post-mining area of ​​silica for material of cement factory. The research was located in the Cibadak district, Sukabumi West Java Indonesia. The water sampling method was carried out in two locations, namely a large settling pond and a small settling pond. Water quality parameters were analyzed such as pH, alkalinity, turbidity, total organic matter, and total ammonia nitrogen. The results showed that the water in both pond contents heavy metals. The heavy metals in the form were Mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Arsen (As), Ferrum (Fe), and Cromium (Cr6+) in the both settling ponds. However, in small ponds there was a higher Fe value so the water is yellowish. There is a difference in acidity showed in the two ponds, pH 3-4 in the small pond and the large pond pH 7-8. Total organic matter was higher in large pond. Small settling pond has a very low pH value, so they are classified as acidic waters and contain high iron content so they cannot be used for human needs or aquatic life. Large settling ponds can still be used for aquaculture activities.

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