This paper investigates for rising optical fiber transmission strength, increasing bandwidth, and decreasing communication system weakness by using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). WDM gives today's distention speed and communication traffic. Systems using WDM faces nonlinearities, which the most intensive nonlinear attack is, four wave mixing (FWM). FWM creates and increases crosstalk between WDM channels as a result slows down and impairs the performance of the communication system. This investigation uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) for evaluating execution of WDM fiber system by repairing Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD). We took results in the case of trying PMD-Emulator and without trying PMD-Emulator in the system design. We compared the results got in both cases. Furthermore, we compared the performance of the system with the investigations done using different ways, methods, and techniques for compensating PMD and FWM appears in WDM systems. As PMD-Emulator, helps enhancing the system design performance, and OFDM gives the feature of robustness and useful execution to the system. OFDM examined by appointing interfered orthogonal signal sets, for 16 channels; with equally spaced OFDM channels. Oure results showed that the optical fiber communication system using OFDM technique gives perfect removing FWM signal crosstalk, and accurate data transmission, comparing to other techniques used in other researches. We got a decreased FWM power to -77dBm, and the BER of -0.317. Furthermore, the system quality increased with applying PMD-Emulator and OFDM. In addition, using PMD-Emulator in the system design raised the results effectiveness. The program used in the present work is optisystem-15, and the results obtained in this study coincide with the theoretical and actual results obtained by the previous studies.
In this paper, we present a numerical method for solving a quadratic interval equation in its dual form. The method is based on the generalized procedure of interval extension called” interval extended zero” method. It is shown that the solution of interval quadratic equation based on the proposed method may be naturally treated as a fuzzy number. An important advantage of the proposed method is that it substantially decreases the excess width defect. Several numerical examples are included to demonstrate the applicability and validity of the proposed method.
The current work accomplished a comprehensive evaluation of heavy metals pollution in soil of agricultural areas from Tanjaro sub-district, Sulaimaniyah province, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq. Ninety soil samples were collected from thirty different locations. Concentrations of 16 heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry ICP-OES. The pollution index (PI), potential ecological risk index (Er), enrichment factor (EF), and ecological risk index (RI) were used to assess the pollution in soil samples. High levels of Li and Ni, and moderate Ba, Cd, Hg, and Pb according to the results of concentration analysis, pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk (ERI). High levels of Cd and Hg according to the results of Er. Agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) and principal component analysis (PCA) suggested that heavy metals were generated from different natural and anthropogenic sources like natural weathering, fertilizer application, and transportation. Origins of Hg, Cd, Ni, and Pb are probably from activities like overuse of pesticides and fertilizers, whereas Pb could be exhausted from vehicle exhausts as well. Furthermore, spatial distributions revealed nonpoint source pollution for the studied heavy metals. The obtained results help in the remediation techniques of contaminated soils such as dilution with decontaminated soil or extraction or separation of heavy metals.
Mosul Dam is located in the northwestern part of Iraq impounding the Tigris River; about 60 km north of Mosul city. This project is multipurpose project; to provide water for irrigation, flood control and hydropower generation. The dam is 113 m high and 3650 m long including the spillway. The dam is earth fill type with a mud core. The dam was designed to impound 11.11 km3 because it is based and underlain by gypsum beds alternated with limestone and marl. Therefore, it is planned to use continuous grouting to fill the karst caverns. The used quantity exceeded 95000 tons of solid grouting materials since 1986 up to 2014. After all, is the dam safe? The details are given in the current article.
Smartphones are used for many daily activities like tele-communication, gaming, web browsing, fitness and health monitoring and traditional office working. Smartphones are equipped with built-in sensors to be able to perform these activities. It is well known that the sensors affect the resolution of the smartphone applications which is very vital in life critical applications (LCA). In this paper, two main sensors, the gyroscope and accelerometer have been studied. All commercial smartphones contain these two sensors and support functions related to them. These two sensors have direct link with the physical measurements which feed the fitness and health applications. A fitness application has been selected and ran under Android and iOS operating systems in two different popular smartphones: Samsung Note5 and iPhone7s smartphones. Statistical methodology has been applied to analysis the data and evaluate the performance of the sensors. The results show that commercial smartphones are not reliable devices for motion-related measurements and they can only be used for general purpose monitoring but not in life critical applications.
This study aims to evaluate the rank (or grade) and economic value of so–called coal horizons outcropping in the vicinity of Banik and Shiranish-Islam villages of Zakho District, Duhok Governorate. These coal-like beds (locally known as Banik Coal) make up few meters within the upper part of the Jurassic Naokelekan Formation. The evaluation was mainly based on standard chemical tests of coal (proximate and ultimate analyses) achieved in foreign and local laboratories. The test results were assessed according to the standard coal tests introduced by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).
The latest stratigraphic studies revealed that the presumable coal horizons were thin beds of limestone and dolomitic limestone alternated with frequent shales all impregnated with bituminous materials, mostly of hydrocarbon source. The bituminous beds were traced in both upper and lower parts of Naokelekan Formation.
The standard proximate coal analysis has shown low percent of fixed carbon and high percent of volatiles and ash which support the hydrocarbon source of these bituminous beds. Consequently, it would be difficult to classify these bituminous beds similarly to the standard coal ranks of ASTM. The high values of mineral matter display the dominance of minerals rather than the carbon in the local samples. However, the Gross Calorific Value (heating value) of these beds would imply that they can be used as relatively poor quality source of fuel. Besides, the exploitation of Banik coals would be influenced by the cost of extraction (or mining), the expected prices of produced coal, and the prices of alternative sources of energy.
The Qamchuqa Formation is widely exposed in Kurdistan Region (IKR); north of Iraq. The formation along with the Bekhme Formation form the bulk of the main mountains (anticlines) in the IKR. Among those anticlines is the Ranya anticline, which has a NW – SE trend, where the Qamchuqa Formations has a thickness of about 700 m. The main lithological facies of the formation are limestone, dolomitic limestone and dolomite. We have sampled the uppermost 89 meters of the northeastern limb, by collecting 10 samples of different sampling intervals that range from (3 – 12) m. The ten rock samples were tested by an XRF to measure the concentration of the oxides at each sample. The XRF results showed that the 10 rock samples are limestone with different percentages of oxides. The weighted averages of the oxides in the collected samples have been calculated, and the results showed that the limestone beds along the studied section in the upper part of the Qamchuqa Formations are suitable for the cement industry. The average concentration of CaO and MgO is 55.13 % and 0.26 %, respectively.
With the rapid use of the Four-Wheel Drive System (FWDS) worldwide, the necessity of having an adequate control system to control speed and direction in FWDS is extremely required. For this purpose, several control schemes are available in the literature to control the speed and direction in FWDS which should be fast convergence of the control, continuous control performance, and solving external disturbances. In latest years, finite-time controllers (FTC) have gained more consideration from many researchers in the control area, who have expressed applications in several procedures and systems. This research provides a major review of the FTC approaches via both input and output feedbacks for controlling FWDS.
The increasing number of cars inside cities creates problems in traffic control. This issue can be solved by implementing a computer-based automatic system known as the Automatic Car Plate Recognition System (ACPRS). The main purpose of the current paper is to propose an automatic system to detect, extract, segment, and recognize the car plate numbers in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). To do so, a frontal image of cars is captured and used as an input of the system. After applying the required pre-processing steps, the SURF descriptor is utilized to detect and extract the car plate from the whole input image. After segmentation of the extracted plate, an efficient projection-based technique is being exploited to describe the available digits and the city name of the registered car plate. The system is evaluated over 200 sample images, which are taken under various testing conditions. The best accuracy of the proposed system, under the controlled condition, shows the high performance and accuracy of the system which is 94%.
In this study, formation-water samples were collected by NOC Staff, during drilling time, from the Mauddud Formation reservoir of the Khabbaz Oilfield, for this reason four samples from four wells; Kz-3, Kz-4, Kz-7, and Kz-23 were selected to geochemical analysis. Analyzed geochemical parameters include TDS and the concentrations of the different dissolved cations and anions present in brines (Ca+2, Mg+2, Na+1, SO4-2, Cl-1, HCO3-1, and NaCl). Variations among the resulted data are discussed by comparison with other Cretaceous Brines. Geochemical ratios of Na/Cl, (Na-Cl)/SO4) and (Cl-Na)/Mg+2 was calculated for formation water classification following Bojarski, (1970). The calculated geochemical ratios of the studied samples in the studied four wells indicate that all of these waters are "chloride calcium" type under subsurface conditions, this type reflect closed system isolated associations reservoir, which are becoming high hydrostatic in deeper zones without influence by infiltration waters. A major transversal fault cutting the structure at its SE plunge had participated in the dilution of the Mauddud reservoir brine effectively.