Composition, anti‐inflammatory, and antioxidant activities of avocado oil obtained from Duke and Fuerte cultivars

Ahmed H. Elosaily ◽  
Engy A. Mahrous ◽  
Abeer A. Salama ◽  
Ahmed M. Salama ◽  
Soheir M. Elzalabani
2020 ◽  
Vol 28 (2) ◽  
pp. 360-376 ◽  
Atefeh Amiri ◽  
Maryam Mahjoubin-Tehran ◽  
Zatollah Asemi ◽  
Alimohammad Shafiee ◽  
Sarah Hajighadimi ◽  

: Cancer and inflammatory disorders are two important public health issues worldwide with significant socio.economic impacts. Despite several efforts, the current therapeutic platforms are associated with severe limitations. Therefore, developing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of these diseases is a top priority. Besides current therapies, the utilization of natural compounds has emerged as a new horizon for the treatment of cancer and inflammatory disorders as well. Such natural compounds could be used either alone or in combination with the standard cancer therapeutic modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that is found in grapes as well as other foods. It has been found that this medicinal agent displays a wide pharmacological spectrum, including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and antioxidant activities. Recently, clinical and pre-clinical studies have highlighted the anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol. Increasing evidence revealed that resveratrol exerts its therapeutic effects by targeting various cellular and molecular mechanisms. Among cellular and molecular targets that are modulated by resveratrol, microRNAs (miRNAs) have appeared as key targets. MiRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that act as epigenetic regulators. These molecules are involved in many processes that are involved in the initiation and progression of cancer and inflammatory disorders. Herein, we summarized various miRNAs that are directly/indirectly influenced by resveratrol in cancer and inflammatory disorders.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Gamze Göger ◽  
Muhammed Allak ◽  
Ali Şen ◽  
Fatih Göger ◽  
Mehmet Tekin ◽  

Abstract Phytochemical profiles of essential oil (EO), fatty acids, and n-hexane (CAH), diethyl ether (CAD), ethyl acetate (CAE) and methanol extracts (CAM) of Cota altissima L. J. Gay (syn. Anthemis altissima L.) were investigated as well as their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial activites. The essential oil was characterized by the content of acetophenone (35.8%) and β-caryophyllene (10.3%) by GC-MS/FID. Linoleic and oleic acid were found as main fatty acids. The major constituents of the extracts were found to be 5-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isorhamnetin glucoside, quercetin and quercetin glucoside by LC-MS/MS. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were determined by scavenging of DPPH and ABTS free radicals. Also, the inhibitory effects on lipoxygenase and α-glucosidase enzymes were determined. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Gram positive, Gram negative bacteria and yeast pathogens. CAM showed the highest antioxidant activity against DPPH and ABTS radicals with IC50 values of 126.60 and 144.40 μg/mL, respectively. In the anti-inflammatory activity, CAE demonstrated the highest antilipoxygenase activity with an IC50 value of 105.40 μg/mL, whereas, CAD showed the best inhibition of α-glucosidase with an IC50 value of 396.40 μg/mL in the antidiabetic activity. CAH was effective against Staphylococcus aureus at MIC = 312.5 µg/mL. This is the first report on antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activities of different extracts of C. altissima.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (6) ◽  
pp. 1718
Kaimin Lu ◽  
Jing Zhou ◽  
Jie Deng ◽  
Yangjun Li ◽  
Chuanfang Wu ◽  

The incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disorders (IBD) are increasing around the world due to bacterial infection, abnormal immune response, etc. The conventional medicines for IBD treatment possess serious side effects. Periplaneta americana (P. americana), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been used to treat arthritis, fever, aches, inflammation, and other diseases. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of oligosaccharides from P. Americana (OPA) and its possible mechanisms in vivo. OPA were purified and biochemical characterization was analyzed by HPGPC, HPLC, FT-IR, and GC–MS. Acute colitis mice model was established, the acute toxicity and anti-inflammatory activity were tested in vivo. The results showed OPA with molecular mass of 1.0 kDa were composed of 83% glucose, 6% galactose, 11% xylose, and the backbone was (1→4)-Glcp. OPA had potent antioxidant activities in vitro and significantly alleviated the clinical symptoms of colitis, relieved colon damage without toxic side effects in vivo. OPA exhibited anti-inflammatory activity by regulating Th1/Th2, reducing oxidative stress, preserving intestinal barrier integrity, and inhibiting TLR4/MAPK/NF-κB pathway. Moreover, OPA protected gut by increasing microbial diversity and beneficial bacteria, and reducing pathogenic bacteria in feces. OPA might be the candidate of complementary and alternative medicines of IBD with low-cost and high safety.

Separations ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (5) ◽  
pp. 57
Rokayya Sami ◽  
Abeer Elhakem ◽  
Mona Alharbi ◽  
Manal Almatrafi ◽  
Nada Benajiba ◽  

Onions contain high antioxidants compounds that fight inflammation against many diseases. The purpose was to investigate some selected bioactive activities of onion varieties (Yellow, Red, Green, Leek, and Baby). Antioxidant assays and anti-inflammatory activities such as NO production with the addition of some bioactive components were determined and analyzed by using a spectrophotometer. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used for the volatile compounds, while an Atomic absorption spectrometer was used for mineral determinations. Red variety achieved the highest antioxidant activities. The total flavonoids were between (12.56 and 353.53 mg Quercetin/gin dry weight) (dw) and the total phenol was (8.75–25.73 mg/g dw). Leek, Yellow and Green extracts achieved highly anti-inflammatory values (3.71–4.01 μg/mL) followed by Red and Baby extracts, respectively. The highest contents of sodium, potassium, zinc, and calcium were established for Red onions. Furfuraldehyde, 5-Methyl-2-furfuraldehyde, 2-Methyl-2-pentenal, and 1-Propanethiol were the most predominant, followed by a minor abundance of the other compounds such as Dimethyl sulfide, Methyl allyl disulfide, Methyl-trans-propenyl-disulfide, and Methyl propyl disulfide. The results recommend that these varieties could act as sources of essential antioxidants and anti-inflammatories to decrease inflammation and oxidative stresses, especially red onions that recorded high activities.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (11) ◽  
pp. 3303
Amina M. G. Zedan ◽  
Mohamed I. Sakran ◽  
Omar Bahattab ◽  
Yousef M. Hawsawi ◽  
Osama Al-Amer ◽  

The use of insects as a feasible and useful natural product resource is a novel and promising option in alternative medicine. Several components from insects and their larvae have been found to inhibit molecular pathways in different stages of cancer. This study aimed to analyze the effect of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Vespa orientalis larvae on breast cancer MCF7 cells and investigate the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that individual treatment with 5% aqueous or alcoholic larval extract inhibited MCF7 proliferation but had no cytotoxic effect on normal Vero cells. The anticancer effect was mediated through (1) induction of apoptosis, as indicated by increased expression of apoptotic genes (Bax, caspase3, and p53) and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2; (2) suppression of intracellular reactive oxygen species; (3) elevation of antioxidant enzymes (CAT, SOD, and GPx) and upregulation of the antioxidant regulator Nrf2 and its downstream target HO-1; (4) inhibition of migration as revealed by in vitro wound healing assay and downregulation of the migration-related gene MMP9 and upregulation of the anti-migratory gene TIMP1; and (5) downregulation of inflammation-related genes (NFκB and IL8). The aqueous extract exhibited the best anticancer effect with higher antioxidant activities but lower anti-inflammatory properties than the alcoholic extract. HPLC analysis revealed the presence of several flavonoids and phenolic compounds with highest concentrations for resveratrol and naringenin in aqueous extract and rosmarinic acid in alcoholic extract. This is the first report to explain the intracellular pathway by which flavonoids and phenolic compounds-rich extracts of Vespa orientalis larvae could induce MCF7 cell viability loss through the initiation of apoptosis, activation of antioxidants, and inhibition of migration and inflammation. Therefore, these extracts could be used as adjuvants for anticancer drugs and as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents.

Abhishek Chatterjee ◽  
Dileep Singh Baghel ◽  
Bimlesh Kumar ◽  
Saurabh Singh ◽  
Narendra Kumar Pandey ◽  

Objective: The aims of the present investigation were to develop the herbal and/or herbomineral formulations of Hinguleswara rasa and to compare their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, in vitro, with that of standard drug samples.Methods: This study was an interventional investigation in three samples: In the first sample, Hinguleswara rasa (HR1) was prepared as per methodology described in Rasatarangini using Shuddha Hingula (10 g), Shuddha Vatsanabha (10 g), and Pippali (10 g). In the second and third sample, respectively, Hinguleswara rasa was prepared by replacing Shuddha Hingula with Kajjali where Kajjali made from Hingulotha parada and Sodhita parada constitutes two varieties of Hinguleswara rasa, i.e. HR2 and HR3. In vitro antioxidant activity was studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, and the absorbance was recorded at 517 nm. For evaluating the in vitro anti-inflammatory studies, the inhibition of albumin denaturation technique was performed.Results: The results showed that the formulation of Hinguleswara rasa has shown dose-dependent activity which was observed in 100 μg concentration. HR1, HR2, and HR3 showed 36.11, 17.22, and 16.11% radical scavenging activity.Conclusion: It could be concluded that the changes made in the formulations did not affect the in vitro anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of the herbomineral formulations.

2014 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1934578X1400901 ◽  
Reina M. Toro ◽  
Diana M. Aragón ◽  
Luis F. Ospina ◽  
Freddy A. Ramos ◽  
Leonardo Castellanos

Physalis peruviana calyces are used extensively in folk medicine. The crude ethanolic extract and some fractions of calyces were evaluated in order to explore antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by the TPA-induced ear edema model. The antioxidant in vitro activity was measured by means of the superoxide and nitric oxide scavenging activity of the extracts and fractions. The butanolic fraction was found to be promising due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Therefore, a bio-assay guided approach was employed to isolate and identify rutin (1) and nicotoflorin (2) from their NMR spectroscopic and MS data. The identification of rutin in calyces of P. peruviana supports the possible use of this waste material for phytotherapeutic, nutraceutical and cosmetic preparations.

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