therapeutic modalities
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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 280-284
Putri Aliya Ahadini ◽  
Muhamad Bagus Wira Utama ◽  
Adhyatma Ismu Reihan ◽  
Reny I’tishom

Mental disorders are one of the health disorders that contribute to high rates of disability and mortality worldwide. The current therapeutic modalities used to treat mental disorders are medical and psychological approaches, but it becomes problematic in some conditions, such as drug-resistant mental disorders. Radio Electric Asymmetric Conveyer (REAC) technology can be used as an alternative to overcome this problem. This technology uses radio waves which are guaranteed to be non-invasive and do not cause side effects. This technology enables neuromodulation effects by maximizing cell polarity and optimizing endogenous bioelectric activity. Of course, the REAC's mechanism as a neuromodulator and being a non-invasive technology is safe to use. It allows REAC to be used as an adjuvant therapy to reduce symptoms of several mental disorders such as depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, phobias, and stress.

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 122
Michele Vitacca ◽  
Simonetta Scalvini

Telemedicine (TM)—the management of disease at a distance—has potential usefulness for patients with advanced respiratory disease. Underscoring this potential is the dramatic expansion of its applications in clinical medicine. However, since clinical studies testing this intervention often provide heterogeneous results, its role in the medical management of respiratory disorders remains inconclusive. A major problem in establishing TM’s effectiveness is that it is not a single intervention; rather, it includes a number of divergent diagnostic and therapeutic modalities—and each must be tested separately. Reflecting the discord between the need for further documentation of its approaches and effectiveness and its rapid utilization without this needed information, a major challenge is the lack of international guidelines for its integration, regulation, operational plans, and guidance for professionals. Tailored TM, with increased flexibility to address differing healthcare contexts, has the potential to improve access to and quality of services while reducing costs and direct input by health professionals. We should view TM as a tool to aid healthcare professionals in managing their patients with respiratory diseases rather than as a stand-alone substitute to traditional medical care. As such, TM is a means rather than an end.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Saket Jain ◽  
Eric J. Chalif ◽  
Manish K. Aghi

Glioblastoma is the most aggressive brain tumor with a median survival ranging from 6.2 to 16.7 months. The complex interactions between the tumor and the cells of tumor microenvironment leads to tumor evolution which ultimately results in treatment failure. Immunotherapy has shown great potential in the treatment of solid tumors but has been less effective in treating glioblastoma. Failure of immunotherapy in glioblastoma has been attributed to low T-cell infiltration in glioblastoma and dysfunction of the T-cells that are present in the glioblastoma microenvironment. Recent advances in single-cell sequencing have increased our understanding of the transcriptional changes in the tumor microenvironment pre and post-treatment. Another treatment modality targeting the tumor microenvironment that has failed in glioblastoma has been anti-angiogenic therapy such as the VEGF neutralizing antibody bevacizumab, which did not improve survival in randomized clinical trials. Interestingly, the immunosuppressed microenvironment and abnormal vasculature of glioblastoma interact in ways that suggest the potential for synergy between these two therapeutic modalities that have failed individually. Abnormal tumor vasculature has been associated with immune evasion and the creation of an immunosuppressive microenvironment, suggesting that inhibiting pro-angiogenic factors like VEGF can increase infiltration of effector immune cells into the tumor microenvironment. Remodeling of the tumor vasculature by inhibiting VEGFR2 has also been shown to improve the efficacy of PDL1 cancer immunotherapy in mouse models of different cancers. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in our understanding of the glioblastoma tumor microenvironment specially the tumor vasculature and its interactions with the immune cells, and opportunities to target these interactions therapeutically. Combining anti-angiogenic and immunotherapy in glioblastoma has the potential to unlock these therapeutic modalities and impact the survival of patients with this devastating cancer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 (3) ◽  
pp. 1443-1445
Vesri Yossy ◽  
Wydya Yenny ◽  
Lilik Norawati

Background: There are various therapeutic modalities for acne and post acne scarring, but the best option is to have a safe, effective with affordable cost such as monotherapy or combination therapy. One of the recommended combination therapy for acne vulgaris with atrophic acne scars is microneedling radiofrequency which can improve skin structure. Case report: A 25 year old male with moderate comedonal acne vulgaris and severe scarring. The patient came with complaints of uneven skin surface on both cheeks, forehead and chin which had been felt to increase since 3 years ago. The appearance of acne on the face has been felt since 12 years ago. The patient's parents and sister also had acne complaints. On dermatological examination, on the forehead, temples, cheeks, nose and chin found blackheads, whiteheads, papules, hyperpigmented macules, multiple atrophic acne scars. The treatment choice for this patient is microneedling radiofrequency in combination with topical therapy. Discussion: The combination of microneedling with radiofrequency is one of the therapeutic modalities for acne vulgaris and also post-acne scarring with minimal side effects. In the evaluation for 2 weeks after the procedure, this patient did not complaint of any adverse events.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Pierre Reynard ◽  
Samar Idriss ◽  
Aicha Ltaief-Boudrigua ◽  
Pierre Bertholon ◽  
Andreea Pirvan ◽  

Introduction: An increased number of otic capsule dehiscence (OCD) variants relying on the third window pathomechanism have been reported lately. Therefore, a characterization of the anatomical structures involved and an accurate radiological description of the third window (TW) interface location have become essential for improving the diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic modalities. The purpose of this article is to propose a classification based on clinical, anatomical, and radiological data of third mobile window abnormalities (TMWA) and to discuss the alleged pathomechanism in lesser-known clinical variants.Materials and Methods: The imaging records of 259 patients who underwent, over the last 6 years, a high-resolution CT (HRCT) of the petrosal bone for conductive hearing loss were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with degenerative, traumatic, or chronic infectious petrosal bone pathology were excluded. As cases with a clinical presentation similar to those of a TW syndrome have recently been described in the literature but without these being confirmed radiologically, we thought it necessary to be integrated in a separated branch of this classification as “CT - TMWA.” The same goes for certain intralabyrinthine pathologies also recently reported in the literature, which mimic to some extent the symptoms of a TW pathology. Therefore, we suggest to call them intralabyrinthine TW-like abnormalities.Results: Temporal bone HRCT and, in some cases, 3T MRI of 97 patients presenting symptomatic or pauci-symptomatic, single or multiple, unilateral or bilateral OCD were used to develop this classification. According to the topography and anatomical structures involved at the site of the interface of the TW, a third-type classification of OCD is proposed.Conclusions: A classification reuniting all types of TMWA as the one proposed in this article would allow for a better systematization and understanding of this complex pathology and possibly paves the way for innovative therapeutic approaches. To encompass all clinical and radiological variants of TMWA reported in the literature so far, TMWAs have been conventionally divided into two major subgroups: Extralabyrinthine (or “true” OCD with three subtypes) and Intralabyrinthine (in which an additional mobile window-like mechanism is highly suspected) or TMWA-like subtype. Along these subgroups, clinical forms of OCD with multiple localization (multiple OCD) and those that, despite the fact that they have obvious characteristics of OCD have a negative CT scan (or CT – TMWA), were also included.

Hendrik Stephan Goedee ◽  
Yusuf A Rajabally

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, its variants and multifocal motor neuropathy belong to a spectrum of peripheral nerve disorders with complex dysimmune disease mechanisms. Awareness of the unique clinical phenotypes but also heterogeneity between patients is vital to arrive at early suspicion and ordering appropriate tests. This includes requirements for optimal electrodiagnostic protocol, aimed to capture sufficient electrophysiologic evidence for relevant abnormalities, a case-based approach on the eventual need to further expand the diagnostic armamentarium and correct reading of their results. Considerable phenotypical variation, diverse combinations of abnormalities found on diagnostic tests and heterogeneity in disease course and treatment response, all contribute to widespread differences in success rates on timely diagnosis and optimal treatment. We aim to provide a practical overview and guidance on relevant diagnostic and management strategies, including pitfalls and present a summary of the relevant novel developments in this field.

Biology Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Bryan A. Nerger ◽  
Tia M. Jones ◽  
Keron W. J. Rose ◽  
Anna Barqué ◽  
Justin S. Weinbaum ◽  

ABSTRACT The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex assembly of macromolecules that provides both architectural support and molecular signals to cells and modulate their behaviors. Originally considered a passive mechanical structure, decades of research have since demonstrated how the ECM dynamically regulates a diverse set of cellular processes in development, homeostasis, and disease progression. In September 2021, the American Society for Matrix Biology (ASMB) organized a hybrid scientific meeting, integrating in-person and virtual formats, to discuss the latest developments in ECM research. Here, we highlight exciting scientific advances that emerged from the meeting including (1) the use of model systems for fundamental and translation ECM research, (2) ECM-targeting approaches as therapeutic modalities, (3) cell-ECM interactions, and (4) the ECM as a critical component of tissue engineering strategies. In addition, we discuss how the ASMB incorporated mentoring, career development, and diversity, equity, and inclusion initiatives in both virtual and in-person events. Finally, we reflect on the hybrid scientific conference format and how it will help the ASMB accomplish its mission moving forward.

Pharmaceutics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 137
Eun-Jeong Won ◽  
Hyeji Park ◽  
Tae-Jong Yoon ◽  
Young-Seok Cho

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide, and its incidence is increasing. PDAC often shows resistance to several therapeutic modalities and a higher recurrence rate after surgical treatment in the early localized stage. Combination chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer has minimal impact on overall survival. RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising tool for regulating target genes to achieve sequence-specific gene silencing. Here, we summarize RNAi-based therapeutics using nanomedicine-based delivery systems that are currently being tested in clinical trials and are being developed for the treatment of PDAC. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) genome editing has been widely used for the development of cancer models as a genetic screening tool for the identification and validation of therapeutic targets, as well as for potential cancer therapeutics. This review discusses current advances in CRISPR/Cas9 technology and its application to PDAC research. Continued progress in understanding the PDAC tumor microenvironment and nanomedicine-based gene therapy will improve the clinical outcomes of patients with PDAC.

2022 ◽  
Vol 62 (1) ◽  
pp. 341-363
Susanne Page ◽  
Tarik Khan ◽  
Peter Kühl ◽  
Gregoire Schwach ◽  
Kirsten Storch ◽  

Innovative formulation technologies can play a crucial role in transforming a novel molecule to a medicine that significantly enhances patients’ lives. Improved mechanistic understanding of diseases has inspired researchers to expand the druggable space using new therapeutic modalities such as interfering RNA, protein degraders, and novel formats of monoclonal antibodies. Sophisticated formulation strategies are needed to deliver the drugs to their sites of action and to achieve patient centricity, exemplified by messenger RNA vaccines and oral peptides. Moreover, access to medical information via digital platforms has resulted in better-informed patient groups that are requesting consideration of their needs during drug development. This request is consistent with health authority efforts to upgrade their regulations to advance age-appropriate product development for patients. This review describes formulation innovations contributingto improvements in patient care: convenience of administration, preferred route of administration, reducing dosing burden, and achieving targeted delivery of new modalities.

2022 ◽  
Vol 20 (1) ◽  
Wencheng Wu ◽  
Yinying Pu ◽  
Jianlin Shi

AbstractChemotherapy remains one of the most prevailing regimens hitherto in the fight against cancer, but its development has been being suffering from various fatal side effects associated with the non-specific toxicity of common chemical drugs. Advances in biomedical application of nanomedicine have been providing alternative but promising approaches for cancer therapy, by leveraging its excellent intrinsic physicochemical properties to address these critical concerns. In particular, nanomedicine-enabled chemotherapy has been established as a safer and promising therapeutic modality, especially the recently proposed nanocatalytic medicine featuring the capabilities to generate toxic substances by initiating diverse catalytic reactions within the tumor without directly relying on highly toxic but non-selective chemotherapeutic agents. Of special note, under exogenous/endogenous stimulations, nanomedicine can serve as a versatile platform that allows additional therapeutic modalities (photothermal therapy (PTT), photodynamic therapy (PDT), chemodynamic therapy (CDT), etc.) to be seamlessly integrated with chemotherapy for efficacious synergistic treatments of tumors. Here, we comprehensively review and summarize the representative studies of multimodal synergistic cancer treatments derived from nanomedicine and nanocatalytic medicine-enabled chemotherapy in recent years, and their underlying mechanisms are also presented in detail. A number of existing challenges and further perspectives for nanomedicine-synergized chemotherapy for malignant solid tumor treatments are also highlighted for understanding this booming research area as comprehensively as possible. Graphical Abstract

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