scholarly journals Immunosuppression impaired the immunogenicity of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in non-dialysis kidney disease patients

Yuemiao Zhang ◽  
Xingzi Liu ◽  
Miaomiao Lin ◽  
Jincan Zan ◽  
Yitong Hu ◽  

Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at higher risk for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related morbidity and mortality. However, a significant portion of CKD patients showed hesitation toward vaccination in telephone survey of our center. Yet no serial data available on humoral response in patients with CKD, especially those on immunosuppression. We conducted a pilot, prospective study to survey the safety and humoral response to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in CKD patients receiving a 2-dose immunization of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We found the neutralizing antibody titers in CKD patients was significantly lower than that in healthy controls, hypertension patients, and diabetes patients. Notably, immunosuppressive medication rather than eGFR levels or disease types showed effect on the reduction of immunogenicity. Interestingly, a third dose significantly boosted neutralizing antibody in CKD patients while immunosuppressants impeded the boosting effects. In conclusion, our data demonstrates that CKD patients, even for those on immunosuppression treatment, can benefit from a third vaccination boost by improving their humoral immunity.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Chih-Yu Yang ◽  
Ting-Wen Chen ◽  
Wan-Lun Lu ◽  
Shih-Shin Liang ◽  
Hsien-Da Huang ◽  

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has long been known to cause significant digestive tract pathology. Of note, indoxyl sulfate is a gut microbe-derived uremic toxin that accumulates in CKD patients. Nevertheless, the relationship between gut microbiota, fecal indole content, and blood indoxyl sulfate level remains unknown. In our study, we established an adenine-induced CKD rat model, which recapitulates human CKD-related gut dysbiosis. Synbiotic treatment in CKD rats showed a significant reduction in both the indole-producing bacterium Clostridium and fecal indole amount. Furthermore, gut microbiota diversity was reduced in CKD rats but was restored after synbiotic treatment. Intriguingly, in our end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) patients, the abundance of indole-producing bacteria, Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Clostridium, is similar to that of healthy controls. Consistently, the fecal indole tends to be higher in the ESKD patients, but the difference did not achieve statistical significance. However, the blood level of indoxyl sulfate was significantly higher than that of healthy controls, implicating that under an equivalent indole production rate, the impaired renal excretion contributes to the accumulation of this notorious uremic toxin. On the other hand, we did identify two short-chain fatty acid-producing bacteria, Faecalibacterium and Roseburia, were reduced in ESKD patients as compared to the healthy controls. This may contribute to gut dysbiosis. We also identified that three genera Fusobacterium, Shewanella, and Erwinia, in the ESKD patients but not in the healthy controls. Building up gut symbiosis to treat CKD is a novel concept, but once proved effective, it will provide an additional treatment strategy for CKD patients.

2007 ◽  
Vol 85 (1) ◽  
pp. 96-101 ◽  
Christelle Raffaitin ◽  
Catherine Lasseur ◽  
Philippe Chauveau ◽  
Nicole Barthe ◽  
Henri Gin ◽  

2018 ◽  
Vol 314 (3) ◽  
pp. F423-F429 ◽  
Danielle L. Kirkman ◽  
Bryce J. Muth ◽  
Meghan G. Ramick ◽  
Raymond R. Townsend ◽  
David G. Edwards

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Mitochondrial dysfunction secondary to CKD is a potential source of oxidative stress that may impair vascular function. This study sought to determine if mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to microvascular dysfunction in stage 3–5 CKD. Cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating was assessed in 20 CKD patients [60 ± 13 yr; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 46 ± 13 ml·kg−1·1.73 m−2] and 11 matched healthy participants (58 ± 2 yr; eGFR >90 ml·kg−1·1.73 m−2). Participants were instrumented with two microdialysis fibers for the delivery of 1) Ringer solution, and 2) the mitochondria- specific superoxide scavenger MitoTempo. Skin blood flow was measured via laser Doppler flowmetry during standardized local heating (42°C). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as a percentage of the maximum conductance achieved with sodium nitroprusside infusion at 43°C. Urinary isofuran/F2-isoprostane ratios were assessed by gas-chromatography mass spectroscopy. Isofuran-to-F2-isoprostane ratios were increased in CKD patients (3.08 ± 0.32 vs. 1.69 ± 0.12 arbitrary units; P < 0.01) indicative of mitochondria-derived oxidative stress. Cutaneous vasodilation was impaired in CKD compared with healthy controls (87 ± 1 vs. 92 ± 1%CVCmax; P < 0.01). Infusion of MitoTempo significantly increased the plateau phase CVC in CKD patients (CKD Ringer vs. CKD MitoTempo: 87 ± 1 vs. 93 ± 1%CVCmax; P < 0.01) to similar levels observed in healthy controls ( P = 0.9). These data provide in vivo evidence that mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species contribute to microvascular dysfunction in CKD and suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction may be a potential therapeutic target to improve CKD-related vascular dysfunction.

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 284
Hulda R. Jonsdottir ◽  
Michel Bielecki ◽  
Denise Siegrist ◽  
Thomas W. Buehrer ◽  
Roland Züst ◽  

Neutralizing antibodies are an important part of the humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2. It is currently unclear to what extent such antibodies are produced after non-severe disease or asymptomatic infection. We studied a cluster of SARS-CoV-2 infections among a homogeneous population of 332 predominantly male Swiss soldiers and determined the neutralizing antibody response with a serum neutralization assay using a recombinant SARS-CoV-2-GFP. All patients with non-severe COVID-19 showed a swift humoral response within two weeks after the onset of symptoms, which remained stable for the duration of the study. One month after the outbreak, titers in COVID-19 convalescents did not differ from the titers of asymptomatically infected individuals. Furthermore, symptoms of COVID-19 did not correlate with neutralizing antibody titers. Therefore, we conclude that asymptomatic infection can induce the same humoral immunity as non-severe COVID-19 in young adults.

2021 ◽  
pp. 75-76
Bharat Bhushan ◽  
Debarshi Jana

Background: Dyslipidemia is very much common in chronic kidney disease patients and is responsible for cardiovascular disease (CKD) which is most common cause of mortality in them. So, it is necessary to study the lipid prole in CKD patients to prevent morbidity and mortality. Methods: Subjects each of 50 in number are grouped into healthy controls (group-1), CKD patients without hemodialysis (group-2), CKD patients with hemodialysis (group-3). After fasting of 12 hours, lipid prole is assessed in all cases. Results: In this study, there is increase in Total cholesterol (TC), Low Density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low-Density lipoprotein (VLDL) and Triglycerides (TG) and decrease in High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) in all CKD patients compared to healthy controls (p-value for each parameter <0.001). There is increase in TC, TG and VLDL in diabetic CKD patients compare to non-diabetic CKD patients and p-value for each parameter is <0.05. It was found that TG and VLDL increase and HDL decrease in group-3 compare to group-2 is statistically signicant (p-value for each <0.05) and no signicant variation in TC and LDL in these groups. Conclusions: Present study demonstrated that there is dyslipidemia in CKD patients irrespective of mode of management, but the derangement is much more common and signicant in CKD with hemodialysis group and they are at risk of cardiovascular disease. It is better to start lipid lowering drugs which decreases disease progression and dyslipidemia.

2014 ◽  
Vol 29 (12) ◽  
pp. 2293-2302 ◽  
Rajiv Agarwal ◽  
Kevin L. Duffin ◽  
Dennis A. Laska ◽  
James R. Voelker ◽  
Matthew D. Breyer ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Chun-Yu Chen ◽  
Kuan-Ting Liu ◽  
Shin-Ru Shih ◽  
Jung-Jr Ye ◽  
Yih-Ting Chen ◽  

Background: Data are lacking regarding predictors of quantification of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) based on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) 50% neutralization titer (NT50) after a single dose of COVID-19 vaccine in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods: This prospective single-center study enrolled 200 HD patients and 82 healthy subjects to estimate antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein 1 and receptor-binding domain after a first dose of a COVID-19 vaccine (ChAdOx1 or mRNA-1273), measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and applied spline-based generalized additive model regression analysis to predict NT50 converted to international units. Results: After the first dose of ChAdOx1, multiple linear regression showed that age (p = 0.011) and cardiothoracic ratio (p = 0.002) were negatively associated with NT50. Older age (OR = 0.958, p = 0.052) and higher cardiothoracic ratio (OR < 0.001, p = 0.037) could predict negative humoral response (NT50 < 35.13 IU/mL). NT50 was lower in HD patients compared with healthy controls receiving ChAdOx1 (10.68 vs. 43.01 IU/m, p < 0.001) or mRNA-1273 (36.39 vs. 262.2 IU/mL, p < 0.001). ChAdOx1 elicited lower GMTs than mRNA-1273 in the HD cohort (10.68 vs. 36.39 IU/mL, p < 0.001) and in healthy controls (43.01 vs. 262.22 IU/mL, p < 0.001). Conclusion: High cardiothoracic ratio and old age could independently predict a decline in nAb titers in an HD cohort vaccinated with a single dose of ChAdOx1.

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