Triterpenoid CDDO-IM protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response and cytotoxicity in macrophages: The involvement of the NF-κB signaling pathway

2022 ◽  
pp. 153537022110669
Hassan Ahmed ◽  
Urooj Amin ◽  
Xiaolun Sun ◽  
Demetrius R Pitts ◽  
Yunbo Li ◽  

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), also known as endotoxin, can trigger septic shock, a severe form of inflammation-mediated sepsis with a very high mortality rate. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this endotoxin remain to be defined and detoxification of LPS is yet to be established. Macrophages, a type of immune cells, initiate a key response responsible for the cascade of events leading to the surge in inflammatory cytokines and immunopathology of septic shock. This study was undertaken to determine whether the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophage cells could be ameliorated via CDDO-IM (2-cyano-3,12 dioxooleana-1,9 dien-28-oyl imidazoline), a novel triterpenoid compound. Data from this study show that gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokine genes such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were considerably increased by treatment with LPS in macrophages differentiated from ML-1 monocytes. Interestingly, LPS-induced increase in expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels is reduced by CDDO-IM. In addition, endogenous upregulation of a series of antioxidant molecules by CDDO-IM provided protection against LPS-induced cytotoxicity in macrophages. LPS-mediated nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) transcriptional activity was also noted to decrease upon treatment with CDDO-IM in macrophages suggesting the involvement of the NF-κB signaling. This study would contribute to improve our understanding of the detoxification of endotoxin LPS by the triterpenoid CDDO-IM.

2001 ◽  
Vol 69 (11) ◽  
pp. 6912-6922 ◽  
Annette Kolb-Mäurer ◽  
Alexandra Unkmeir ◽  
Ulrike Kämmerer ◽  
Claudia Hübner ◽  
Thomas Leimbach ◽  

ABSTRACT Infection with Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B is responsible for fatal septicemia and meningococcal meningitis. The severity of disease directly correlates with the production of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and IL-8. However, the source of these cytokines has not been clearly defined yet. Since bacterial infection involves the activation of dendritic cells (DCs), we analyzed the interaction of N. meningitidis with monocyte-derived DCs. Using N. meningitidis serogroup B wild-type and unencapsulated bacteria, we found that capsule expression significantly impaired neisserial adherence to DCs. In addition, phagocytic killing of the bacteria in the phagosome is reduced by at least 10- to 100-fold. However, all strains induced strong secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8 by DCs (at least 1,000-fold at 20 h postinfection [p.i.]), with significantly increased cytokine levels being measurable by as early as 6 h p.i. Levels of IL-1β, in contrast, were increased only 200- to 400-fold at 20 h p.i. with barely measurable induction at 6 h p.i. Moreover, comparable amounts of cytokines were induced by bacterium-free supernatants of Neisseria cultures containing neisserial lipooligosaccharide as the main factor. Our data suggest that activated DCs may be a significant source of high levels of proinflammatory cytokines in neisserial infection and thereby may contribute to the pathology of meningococcal disease.

2001 ◽  
Vol 69 (12) ◽  
pp. 7277-7284 ◽  
Xiang Zhang ◽  
Marja Rimpiläinen ◽  
Egle Šimelyte ◽  
Paavo Toivanen

ABSTRACT Two almost-identical strains of Eubacterium aerofaciens isolated from the normal human gut flora were used. The cell wall (CW) of one strain with a peptidoglycan (PG) type A4α induces chronic arthritis in the rat after a single intraperitoneal injection, whereas CW of the other with PG type A4β induces only a transient acute arthritis. The CW of the arthritogenic E. aerofaciens was a twofold-more-potent stimulator of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) than the nonarthritogenic CW. After degradation with mutanolysin, the capacity of the arthritogenic PG to stimulate production of TNF-α and MCP-1 was significantly increased, whereas that of the nonarthritogenic PG was significantly decreased. In other words, after enzyme degradation the arthritogenic PG had a four- to fivefold-stronger stimulatory capacity than that of the enzyme-treated nonarthritogenic PG. These findings indicate that the arthritogenicity of CW or a PG is not dependent on the enzyme resistance alone but also on how the PG fragments released by enzyme degradation stimulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines.

2013 ◽  
Vol 25 (3) ◽  
pp. 137-143 ◽  
Utkan Tiyekli ◽  
Okan Çalıyurt ◽  
Nimet Dilek Tiyekli

ObjectiveIt was aimed to evaluate the relationship between proinflammatory cytokine levels and conversion disorder both commonly known as stress regulated.MethodBaseline proinflammatory cytokine levels–[Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α), Interleukin‐1 beta (IL‐1β), Interleukin‐6 (IL‐6)]–were evaluated with enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay in 35 conversion disorder patients and 30 healthy controls. Possible changes in proinflammatory cytokine levels were evaluated again, after their acute phase in conversion disorder patients.ResultsStatistically significant decreased serum TNF‐α levels were obtained in acute phase of conversion disorder. Those levels increased after acute conversion phase. There were no statistically significant difference observed between groups in serum IL‐1β and (IL‐6) levels.ConclusionsStress associated with conversion disorder may suppress immune function in acute conversion phase and may have diagnostic and therapeutic value.

1998 ◽  
Vol 17 (3) ◽  
pp. 223-229 ◽  
Elien M. Kurt ◽  
Robert J. Schafer ◽  
Carmen M. Arroyo

The release of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α was measured from epiderm alkeratinocytes in an attempt to characterize the immunologic response in keratinocytes following exposure to bis (2-chloroethyl)sulfide (sulfur mustard, HD). Enzyme-linked immunosorbentassay (ELISA) was used to measure cytokine levels in adult and neonatal culture human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK) 3 h after exposure to 0.50 and 1.0 m M HD. A two-way analysis of variance was carried out for cell type and HD concentration. That analysis showed significant differences between cell types for IL-1α and IL-1β(p =.001 and p =.015, respectively). In both of these cytokines, release in neonatal HEK decreased less than in adult HEK. A significant effectof HD concentration was shown only for IL-1β (P <.001), with cytokine release decreasing with increasing HD dose. In addition, a significant cell donor type by HD concentration interaction effect was found for IL-1β under the experimental conditions described in materials and methods. With increasing HD concentration, the relative decrease in cytokine release was much greater for adult than for neonatal HEK.

2010 ◽  
Vol 78 (11) ◽  
pp. 4912-4921 ◽  
Giuliana Giribaldi ◽  
Mauro Prato ◽  
Daniela Ulliers ◽  
Valentina Gallo ◽  
Evelin Schwarzer ◽  

ABSTRACT Hemozoin (HZ)-fed monocytes are exposed to strong oxidative stress, releasing large amounts of peroxidation derivatives with subsequent impairment of numerous functions and overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines. However, the histopathology at autopsy of tissues from patients with severe malaria showed abundant HZ in Kupffer cells and other tissue macrophages, suggesting that functional impairment and cytokine production are not accompanied by cell death. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of HZ in cell survival, focusing on the qualitative and temporal expression patterns of proinflammatory and antiapoptotic molecules. Immunocytochemical and flow cytometric analyses showed that the long-term viability of human monocytes was unaffected by HZ. Short-term analysis by macroarray of a complete panel of cytokines and real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR experiments showed that HZ immediately induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) gene expression, followed by transcription of eight additional chemokines (IL-8, epithelial cell-derived neutrophil-activating peptide 78 [ENA-78], growth-regulated oncogene α [GROα], GROβ, GROγ, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α [MIP-1α], MIP-1β, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1]), two cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α] and IL-1receptor antagonist [IL-1RA]), and the cytokine/chemokine-related proteolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). Furthermore, real-time RT-PCR showed that 15-HETE, a potent lipoperoxidation derivative generated by HZ through heme catalysis, recapitulated the effects of HZ on the expression of four of the chemokines. Intermediate-term investigation by Western blotting showed that HZ increased expression of HSP27, a chemokine-related protein with antiapoptotic properties. Taken together, the present data suggest that apoptosis of HZ-fed monocytes is prevented through a cascade involving 15-HETE-mediated upregulation of IL-1β transcription, rapidly sustained by chemokine, TNF-α, MMP-9, and IL-1RA transcription and upregulation of HSP27 protein expression.

2007 ◽  
Vol 86 (9) ◽  
pp. 878-882 ◽  
C. Bodet ◽  
F. Chandad ◽  
D. Grenier

Vascular disruption and bleeding during periodontitis likely increase the levels of hemoglobin in gingival crevicular fluid. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hemoglobin on the inflammatory responses of human macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) isolated from periodontopathogens. The production of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by macrophages following challenges with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum LPS in the presence or absence of human hemoglobin was analyzed by ELISA. The effect of hemoglobin on LPS-binding to macrophages was evaluated with 3H-LPS. Hemoglobin and LPS from periodontopathogens acted in synergy to stimulate the production of high levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α by macrophages. Hemoglobin also enhanced LPS-binding to macrophages. This study suggests that hemoglobin contributes to increases in the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in periodontal sites by acting in synergy with LPS from periodontopathogens, thus favoring the progression of periodontitis.

B B Fishman ◽  
M A Toneeva ◽  
V E Kulikov ◽  
V A Kornilova ◽  
E R Antonova

The research objectives are to determine serum interleukins (IL-2, IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF - α) and evaluate their interrelation in liver cirrhosis (class A, B, C according to Chad - Pugh). 117 patients were examined and their cytokines levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Elevation of cytokine levels IL-2, I-6 and TNF-α within reference values was found in liver cirrhosis cases, expect for level IL-6 in liver cirrhosis cases of class C. In these cases IL-6 level exceeds reference values and is within the limit of 9,94 - 25,21 pg / ml with average concentration of 14,89±4,96 pg / ml. Correlation is found between TNF- α and IL-6 (r = - 0,499) in liver cirrhosis of class A and correlation between TNF- α and IL-2 (r = 0,421) is found in liver cirrhosis of class B.

1998 ◽  
Vol 42 (8) ◽  
pp. 1911-1916 ◽  
Anja Lührmann ◽  
Jürgen Thölke ◽  
Ingrid Behn ◽  
Jens Schumann ◽  
Gisa Tiegs ◽  

ABSTRACT We show that the coumeromycin antibiotic novobiocin, a potent inhibitor of ADP ribosylation, prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, and IL-10 secretion in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It shares these cytokine-suppressing properties with other inhibitors of ADP ribosylation. We found that novobiocin prevents TNF-α production by inhibiting translation of the TNF-α mRNA. Elevated TNF-α levels in mice treated withd-galactosamine (GalN)-LPS or GalN-TNF were not reduced by novobiocin; however, the drug exhibited hepatoprotective properties. Novobiocin causes downregulation of the surface molecules on monocytes, among which CD14 was the most affected. The diminished expression of surface molecules was not observed on T and B lymphocytes. Similar to other inhibitors of ADP ribosylation, novobiocin prevents LPS-induced phosphate labelling of γ-actins.

2020 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Sverre Urnes Johnson ◽  
Asle Hoffart ◽  
Terje Tilden ◽  
Helge Toft ◽  
Sudan P. Neupane ◽  

Abstract Psychotherapy research aims to investigate predictors and moderators of treatment outcome, but there are few consistent findings. This study aimed to investigate cytokines in patients undergoing treatment for anxiety disorders and whether the level of cytokines moderated the treatment outcome. Thirty-seven patients with comorbid and treatment-resistant anxiety disorders were investigated using multilevel modelling. Serum cytokine levels were measured three times: pretreatment, in the middle of treatment, and at the end of treatment. Anxiety and metacognitions were measured weekly throughout treatment by self-report. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist did not change during therapy or were not related to the level of anxiety. Metacognitive beliefs predicted anxiety, but the relationship between metacognitions and anxiety was not moderated by cytokines. Limitations of the study include that the patients were not fasting at blood sampling, and we did not assess body mass index, which may affect cytokine levels. The lack of significance for cytokines as a predictor or moderator may be due to a lack of power for testing moderation hypotheses, a problem associated with many psychotherapy studies. Cytokines did not predict the outcome in the treatment of comorbid anxiety disorders in our sample. Furthermore, cytokines did not moderate the relationship between metacognitions and anxiety.

2000 ◽  
Vol 68 (9) ◽  
pp. 5329-5334 ◽  
Carl Granert ◽  
Hana Abdalla ◽  
Lars Lindquist ◽  
Asim Diab ◽  
Moiz Bakhiet ◽  

ABSTRACT CNI-1493, a potent macrophage deactivator, was used to treat infant rats systemically infected with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). CNI-1493 was injected 1 h prior to bacterial inoculation and 24 h later and resulted in a 75 percent increased rate of survival compared to that for untreated controls. The effect of CNI-1493 on the inflammatory response was studied by immunohistochemical detection of individual tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-, interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β)-, and gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing cells in the spleen. A significant reduction of the incidence of TNF-α- and IL-1β-expressing cells was found for CNI-1493-treated animals. IFN-γ expression was not suppressed by CNI-1493, indicating that cytokine inhibition was specific in macrophages. CNI-1493 significantly reduced the number of infiltrating granulocytes in the brain from that for controls. This study provides evidence that CNI-1493 protects against lethal Hib infection by deactivating the inflammatory cascade in infant rats.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document