scholarly journals Enterotoxigenic methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus contamination in salted fish from Gwadar Balochistan

2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
N. Rashid ◽  
M. Shafee ◽  
S. Iqbal ◽  
A. Samad ◽  
S. A. Khan ◽  

Abstract Staphylococcus aureus is an important foodborne pathogen associated to food intoxication and other multiple infections in human being. Its presence in salted food is a serious issue due to its salt tolerance potential. A study was conducted to analyze the presence of enterotoxins producing drug resistance S. aureus in salted sea fish from Gwadar. Freshly persevered samples (n=50) of salted fish were subjected to analyze the presence of S. aureus using 16S rRNA and Nuc genes primers. The isolates were then evaluated for drug resistance and enterotoxins producing potential using specific primers for MecA (methicillin resistance gene), (SEA) staphylococcal enterotoxin A and (SEB) staphylococcal enterotoxin B genes. Total 13/50 (26%) of the samples were found positive for the presence of S. aureus, preliminary confirmed with biochemical profiling and finally with the help of target genes presence. The isolates were found showing 100% resistant to methicillin, which were molecularly confirmed by the presence of MecA gene present in genome. The isolates 5/13 (38%) were positive for SEA and 3/13 (23%) for SEB genes, whereas 2/13 (15%) were confirmed having both SEA and SEB genes in its genome. It was also confirmed that all the isolates were capable to form biofilm over the glass surfaces. It was concluded that the study confirmed the presence of enterotoxigenic methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aurous (MRSA) in salted fish product, that poses gross food safety concern. Preventive and control measures are necessary to handle this serious food safety concern.

2021 ◽  
Vol 28 (1) ◽  
pp. 66-74
D.A. Oche ◽  
U. Abdulrahim ◽  
A.S. Oheagbulem ◽  
B.O. Olayinka

Biofilm formation and resistance to methicillin are among the factors that makes Staphylococcus aureus a very important human pathogen in both health-care and community settings. This study investigated methicillin-resistance among biofilm-producing S. aureus isolated from 49 orthopaedic in-patients within a 3 months period. Wound swabs, nasal swabs, bed swabs and urine samples were collected from each patient. The samples were cultured and screened for presence of S. aureus while the micro-titre plate method was used to detect biofilm producing isolates. PCR technique was finally used to detect the presence of mecA gene in methicilin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates. Findings reveal 14.8% of bacterial isolates were Staphylococcus aureus of which 96.4% were biofilm-producers. However, strong biofilm producers constitute 11.1%. The mecA gene was detected in 15.8% of the MRSA isolates. Therefore, MRSA among biofilm-producing S. aureus is a potential threat primarily to the community of National Orthopaedic Hospital Dala and a major public health challenge. Keywords: Biofilm, Methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), mecA gene, Orthopaedic patient

Shamim Rahman ◽  
Ragini Ananth Kashid

MRSA causes nosocomial and community based infections. It is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Resistance in MRSA is encoded by mecA gene. Anterior nares are the ecological niche of Staphylococcus aureus. HCWs who are colonized with MRSA, act as agents of cross contamination of hospital and community acquired MRSA. Treating MRSA infections is a therapeutic challenge as it is resistant to beta lactam group of drugs. Therefore, there is a need for rapid and accurate detection of MRSA carriage in HCWs and to understand its antibiotic susceptibility pattern.The objective of the present study is to estimate the occurrence of MRSA in HCWs, using phenotypic and genotypic methods. A prospective study for six months was conducted after obtaining Institutional Ethical Committee clearance. Anterior nasal swabs of those HCWs who gave informed consent were taken processed for culture and sensitivity as per standard protocol. To detect MIC for oxacillin, E-strip method was used. mecA gene detection was done by PCR. A total of 300 HCWs were sampled.14.66% (44/300) of the isolates were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, of which 10 isolates were detected as MRSA. The overall isolation rate of MRSA is 3.33 %(10/300). MRSA carriage was high amongst nurses (5/59, 8.47%), followed by doctors (4/105, 3.80%).Antibiotic sensitivity pattern showed that highest resistance was to penicillin (75%) followed by amoxiclav (70.45 %).9 MRSA isolates were detected as mecA gene positive by PCR. MRSA carriers were decontaminated successfully with 2% mupirocin ointment and 2% chlorhexidine shampoo. This study reiterates the need for rapid and accurate identification of HCWs who have nasal colonization with MRSA, for reinforcing hospital infection control measures and decontamination protocol. This will help prevent the spread of MRSA in our community.

2020 ◽  
Vol 27 (07) ◽  
pp. 1363-1370
Aneela Khawaja ◽  
Iffat Javed ◽  
Sohaila Mushtaq ◽  
Saeed Anwar ◽  
Faiqa Arshad ◽  

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a devastating question that is threatening the health globally. The extensive and indiscriminative use of antibiotics has evolved a notorious resistance in Staphylococcus aureus.  This resistance developed through possession of mecA gene, which codes for modified penicillin binding protein (PBP2a) and the emergent strain being labeled “methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus”. Conventional phenotypic techniques for detection of MRSA rely on standardization of cultural characteristics. The drawbacks of diagnostic error to report MRSA include: poor prognosis, expensive treatment, dissemination of multi-drug resistant strains and even treatment failure. Latex agglutination method can be adopted as a more accurate and quick strategy for rapid detection of methicillin resistance. Objectives: To compare detection of mecA gene in methicillin resistant isolates of Staphylococcus aureus by latex agglutination and PCR; by assessing the sensitivity and specificity of both methods. Study Design: Descriptive Cross-Sectional study. Setting: Pathology Department, Post Graduate Medical Institute, Lahore. Period: From January 2015 to December 2015; according to standard operating procedures at Microbiology laboratory. Material & Methods: A total 713 consecutive, non-duplicate isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were processed. Methicillin resistance was determined using cefoxitin (30mg) by Kirby-Bauer method using CLSI guideline (2016), latex agglutination method; and PCR for mecA gene. Results: The results showed that out of 713 Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 92 (12.90%) isolates were resistant to cefoxitin and were labelled as MRSA. majority MRSA isolates recovered from pus (44.57%) and wound swab (20.65%), followed by blood (13.04%), fluid (8.70%), CSF (4.35%), CVP (3.26%), HVS (3.26%) and tracheal secretion (2.17%). By latex agglutination method, 87 (94.50%) were positive for PBP2a; while on PCR mecA gene was detected only in 82 (89.10%) MRSA isolates. When assessed with PCR (gold standard) the sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of latex agglutination was 100% and 94.57%, respectively. Conclusion: Latex agglutination test can be employed as rapid and reliable diagnostic technique in MRSA isolates for mecA gene detection, where resources for molecular methods are inadequate. This can effectually lessen the misdiagnosis of resistant strains, and over/ ill-use of antibiotics.

Gholamreza Goudarzi ◽  
Yaser Hasanvand ◽  
Faranak Rezaei ◽  
Somayeh Delfani

Background and Objectives: Recently, the rise of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from hos- pital healthcare workers (HCWs) and various infectious samples has become one of the main concerns in hospital settings. Therefore, epidemiological studies are necessary to monitor antibiotic resistance patterns in each region and to study the pathogenesis of this strain to control infections. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 100 S. aureus isolates, including 50 isolates obtained from the anterior nares of healthcare workers, as well as 50 other isolates cultured from the various clinical specimens from the referral hospitals in Khorramabad (West of Iran) were tested. All isolates were examined to determine antibiotic resistance pattern, and the presence of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (sea), staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb) and mecA genes. Results: The mecA gene was found among 36% (18/50) of the clinical S. aureus isolates (CSIs) and 14% (7/50) of nasal S. aureus isolates (NSIs), with statistically significant difference (X2 = 6.53; p = 0.011). The difference between the frequency rate of sea gene among MRSA strains isolated from clinical specimens (46.6%, 7/15) was significant compared to strains isolated from nostrils (14.3%, 1/7) (X2 = 3.85; p = 0.049). Conclusion: The frequency of mecA, sea, and seb genes among the clinical samples was more than strains isolated from the nostrils of healthcare personnel.

2001 ◽  
Vol 183 (22) ◽  
pp. 6525-6531 ◽  
Mariana G. Pinho ◽  
Sérgio R. Filipe ◽  
Hermı́nia de Lencastre ◽  
Alexander Tomasz

ABSTRACT The essential function of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) in methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus RN4220 was clearly established by placing the pbp2 gene under control of the inducible Pspac promoter; the resulting bacteria were unable to grow in the absence of inducer. In contrast, the deficit in PBP2 caused by inhibition of transcription of the pbp2gene did not block growth of a methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain expressing the extra penicillin-binding protein PBP2A, a protein of extraspecies origin that is central to the mechanism of methicillin resistance. Several lines of evidence indicate that the essential function of PBP2 that can be compensated for by PBP2A is the transpeptidase activity. This provides direct genetic evidence that PBP2A has transpeptidase activity.

2017 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-16 ◽  
Shahana Khanam ◽  
Jalaluddin Ashraful Haq ◽  
SM Shamsuzzaman ◽  
Md Motlabur Rahman ◽  
Kazi Zulfiquer Mamun

Background: Glycopeptides such as vancomycin are frequently the choice of antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). For the last 7 years incidence of vancomycin intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VISA and VRSA respectively) has been increasing in various parts of the world.Objective: The present study was carried out to find out the presence of VISA and VRSA among isolated MRSA strains.Methodology: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology in Dhaka medical college during period of January 2010 to December 2011. All S. aureus isolates were screened to detect methicillin resistance and then all MRSA isolates were subjected for MIC testing against vancomycin and oxacillin by agar dilution method, disc diffusion testing and PCR for mecA and pvl genes detection.Result: A total 112 S. aureus were isolated from 500 nasal swab sample collected from adult patients who were admitted in various departments and wards in Dhaka Medical College Hospital. Among 38 MRSA strains out of 112 Staph aureus isolates 3(7.89%) strains were resistance to vancomycin of which 2(5.26%) strains had MIC > 256 mg/mL and one strain had MIC 256mg/mL. All vancomycin resistance strains had MIC of oxacillin > 256 mg/mL. All isolates possess mec-A gene.Conclusion: The present study reveals that emergence of VRSA upon admission at a tertiary care of hospital in Bangladesh. Continuous efforts should be made to prevent the spread and the emergence of VRSA by early detection of the resistant strains and using the proper infection control measures in the hospital setting.Bangladesh Journal of Infectious Diseases 2016;3(1):11-16

Molecules ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 25 (19) ◽  
pp. 4583
Gamal Enan ◽  
Abdul-Raouf Al-Mohammadi ◽  
Samir Mahgoub ◽  
Seham Abdel-Shafi ◽  
Eman Askar ◽  

Bacterial outbreaks caused by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are interesting due to the existence of multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates. Therefore, there is a need to develop novel ways to control such MDR S. aureus. In this study, some natural agents such as honey bee (HB), extracts of either Moringa oleifera seeds (MSE), or leaves (MLE) and essential oils of garlic, clove, and moringa were studied for their inhibitory activity against this S. aureus pathogen. About 100 food samples including beef luncheon (n = 25), potato chips (n = 50), and corn flakes (n = 25) were investigated for possible pollution with the S. aureus bacteria. The isolated bacteria suspected to belong S. aureus that grew well onto Baird–Parker agar (Oxoid) and shiny halo zones and positive coagulase reaction were selected and identified by API-Kits; all of them that were approved belong to S. aureus (18 strains). The sensitivity of the obtained 18 S. aureus bacterial strains to 12 antibiotics were evaluated; all of them were resistant to ofloxacin; however, other antibiotics tested showed variable results. Interestingly, the S. aureus No. B3 isolated from beef luncheon was resistant to 10 antibiotics out of 12 ones tested. Multiple antibiotic resistance index (MAR) of this S. aureus strain was about 83.3%. Therefore, its identification was confirmed by sequencing of a 16S rRNA gene which approved a successful biochemical identification carried out by API Kits and such strain was designated S. aureus LC 554891. The genome of such strain appeared to contain mecA gene encoding methicillin resistance; it was found to contain hla, hlb, tsst-1, and finbA that encode α-blood hemolysis, β-blood hemolysis, toxic shock syndrome gene, and fibrinogen-binding protein gene, respectively. In addition, the virulence factors viz. sea; seb; sec encoding enterotoxins were detected in the DNA extracted from S. aureus B3 strain. Aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera seeds (MSE) showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus LC 554891 better than that obtained by tetracycline, essential oils or HB. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of MSE was 20µg/mL. Instrumental analysis of MSE showed 14 bioactive chemical compounds. Combinations of both MSE and tetracycline showed distinctive inhibitory activity against S. aureus LC 554891 than that obtained by either tetracycline or MSE singly.

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