Beef Meat
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xenia Vázquez ◽  
Vanesa García ◽  
Javier Fernández ◽  
Margarita Bances ◽  
María de Toro ◽  

Colistin is a last-resort antibiotic in fighting severe infections caused by multidrug resistant Gram negative pathogens in hospitals. Zoonotic bacteria acquire colistin resistance in animal reservoirs and mediate its spread along the food chain. This is the case of non-typhoid serovars of Salmonella enterica. Colistin-resistant S. enterica in foods represents a threat to human health. Here, we assessed the prevalence of colistin-resistance in food-borne isolates of S. enterica (2014–2019; Asturias, Spain), and established the genetic basis and transferability of this resistance. Five out of 231 isolates tested (2.2%) were resistant to colistin. Four of them, belonging to the European monophasic ST34 clone of S. Typhimurium, were characterized in the present study. They were collected from pork or pork and beef meat-derived products, either in 2015 (three isolates) or 2019 (one isolate). Molecular typing with XbaI-PFGE and plasmid profiling revealed distinct patterns for each isolate, even though two of the 2015 isolates derived from the same sample. The MICs of colistin ranged from 8 to 16 mg/L. All isolates carried the mcr-1.1 gene located on conjugative plasmids of the incompatibility groups IncX4 (2015 isolates) or IncHI2 (2019 isolate). Apart from colistin resistance, the four isolates carried chromosomal genes conferring resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides and tetracycline [blaTEM–1, strA-strB, sul2, and tet(B)] and heavy metals, including copper and silver (silESRCFBAGP and pcoGE1ABCDRSE2), arsenic (arsRSD2A2BCA1D1) ± mercury (merEDACPTR), which are characteristically associated with the European ST34 monophasic clone. The 2019 isolate was also resistant to other antibiotics, comprising third generation cephalosporins and cephamycins. The latter phenotype was conferred by the blaCMY–2 gene located on an IncI1-I(α)-ST2 plasmid. Results in the present study identified meat-derived products as a reservoir of a highly successful clone harboring transferable plasmids which confer resistance to colistin and other clinically important antibiotics. An important reduction in the number of food-borne S. enterica detected during the period of the study, together with the low frequency of colistin resistance, underlines the success of One Health initiatives, such as those implemented at the UE, to control zoonotic bacteria along the food chain and to halt the spread of antimicrobial resistance.

2022 ◽  
Lateefat Modupe Habeeb ◽  
Opasola Afolabi Olaniyi ◽  
Adiama Babatunde Yusu ◽  
Ibrahim Azaman ◽  
Morufu O Raimi

Antibiotics, which are commonly used to treat human illnesses, are also used in animals for therapy, prophylaxis, and growth promotion. Sub-therapeutic antibiotic doses have typically been utilized for the last-mentioned purpose, which has contributed to resistance development. According to scientific data, certain antibiotic applications in food-producing animals can result in antibiotic resistance in intestinal bacteria, which can then be passed to the general population, causing treatment-resistant sickness. These antibiotic applications can also result in antibiotic resistance in non-pathogenic bacteria, whose resistance genes can be passed to disease-causing bacteria, resulting in antibiotic-resistant illnesses in people. Thus, this study assessed the antibiotics residues in raw meat sold in 6 slaughter houses in Kaduna State. The study is a descriptive cross-sectional study involving 6 slaughter houses in Central market Kaduna. Muscle, Kidney and liver samples were collected from each slaughterhouse. The antibiotic residues in the meat samples were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and oxytetracycline residue results were presented in charts and tables. 18 different samples of beef (6 Muscles, 6 Liver and 6 Kidney) collected from abattoirs and meat vendors, the results shown that all beefs use three or more antimicrobial drugs. This research result revealed that 4(67%) tetracycline (oxytetracycline)were detected in meat samples at higher concentration), Oxytetraxycline (352.88, 221.58) of muscles is higher than (332.2, 217.05 of Liver and (263.33, 153.98) of Kidney is lower to muscles and liver. The Concentration of oxytetracycline were highest in muscles in samples 2. 3 and 6 which is above the WHO maximum residual limit. The concentration of streptomycin in the muscle, liver and kidney were detected (182.78, 56.23), (169.2, 58.39), (155.1, 50.20) but were within WHO Maximum residual limit. These high level of oxytetracycline residues in greater proportion of muscle samples destined for human consumption beyond MRLs could be as a result of the abuse of veterinary drugs as commonly practiced among livestock producers and vendors without observing withdrawal period prior to slaughter. The high-contamination rate of beef meat in the study areas is likely that consumers experience a high risk of exposure to drug residues.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-6
Kiandokht Babolhavaeji ◽  
Leili Shokoohizadeh ◽  
Morteza Yavari ◽  
Abbas Moradi ◽  
Mohammad Yousef Alikhani

Background. The aims of the current study are the identification of O157 and non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups isolated from fresh raw beef meat samples in an industrial slaughterhouse, determination of antimicrobial resistance patterns, and genetic linkage of STEC isolates. Materials and Methods. A total of 110 beef samples were collected from the depth of the rump of cattle slaughtered at Hamadan industrial slaughterhouse. After detection of E. coli isolates, STEC strains were identified according to PCR for stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA virulence genes, and STEC serogroups (O157 and non-O157) were identified by PCR. The genetic linkage of STEC isolates was analyzed by the ERIC- (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus-) PCR method. The antimicrobial susceptibility of STEC isolates was detected by the disk diffusion method according to CLSI guidelines. Results. Among 110 collected beef samples, 77 (70%) were positive for E. coli. The prevalence of STEC in E. coli isolates was 8 (10.4%). The overall prevalence of O157 and non-O157 STEC isolates was 12.5% (one isolate) and 87.5% (7 isolates), respectively. The hemolysin gene was detected in 25% (2 isolates) of STEC strains. Evaluation of antibiotic resistance indicated that 100% of STEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, ampicillin-sulbactam, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and cefazolin. Resistance to tetracycline and ciprofloxacin was detected in 62.5% and 12.5% of isolates, respectively. The analysis of the ERIC-PCR results showed five different ERIC types among the STEC isolates. Conclusion. The isolation of different clones STECs from beef and the presence of antibiotic-resistant isolates indicate that more attention should be paid to the hygiene of slaughterhouses.

Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3517
Chenchen Xu ◽  
Shou Zhang ◽  
Baozhong Sun ◽  
Peng Xie ◽  
Xiaochang Liu ◽  

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with microalgae (Schizochytrium sp.) containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the antioxidant enzyme activity, physicochemical quality, fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of beef meat. Eighteen male Qaidamford cattle were randomly allocated into three treatments (n = 6): no micro-algae supplementation (Control group, C), 100 g microalgae supplementation per bull per day (FD1), and 200 g microalgae supplementation per bull per day (FD2), and fed for 49 days before slaughter. The results showed that, compared with the C group, the addition of DHA-rich microalgae to the diet could significantly increase the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in meat. In the FD2 group, it was found that the concentration of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) was significantly higher than that of the control group (p < 0.05). DHA-rich microalgae supplementation increased polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; C20:5 n-6), DHA, EPA + DHA, and n-3 PUFA and reduced n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio. Twenty-four volatile compounds identified in beef were mainly aldehydes, alcohols and ketones from the fingerprints. The contents of short-chain fatty aldehydes, 1-octen-3-ol and 2-pentylfuran, were higher in the FD2 group than in the other two groups. The microalgae diet improved the sensory attribute score of beef. The results demonstrated that dietary supplementation of DHA-rich microalgae improved the antioxidant status, increased the deposition of DHA and enhanced the characteristic flavor of beef.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (16) ◽  
pp. e330101623847
Matheus Campos Castro ◽  
Eloize Silva Alves ◽  
Bruno Henrique Figueiredo Saqueti ◽  
Jéssica Souza Alves ◽  
Joice Camila Martins Costa ◽  

O presente estudo tem como objetivo fornecer uma compreensão sobre a relação das condições do bem-estar animal antecedentes ao abate à qualidade da carne baseada em uma revisão bibliográfica. Para isso foi realizado uma busca na literatura utilizando as seguintes palavras-chaves: Welfare, Animal Welfare, Pre-slaughter, Beef, Meat Quality. A partir do início do século XXI foi possível observar um crescente aumento de pesquisas pertencentes ao tema, isso acontece devido ao fato de que cada vez mais o bem-estar animal está relacionado ao estresse do animal, metabolismo durante o rigor mortis – responsável pela conversão do tecido muscular em carne de consumo, assim consequentemente os consumidores finais estão cada vez mais exigentes em relação a isso. No pós-abate de bovinos, podem surgir defeitos da qualidade da carne, denominadas como PSE (pálido, mole, exsudativo) e DFD (escuro, duro, seco), associados a um pH anormal da carne. O bem-estar animal está intimamente ligado desde a criação dos animais até a etapa de pré-abate da carne. A partir do estudo realizado, pode-se definir a necessidade de novas pesquisas que avaliem métodos de prevenção de estresse durante ao pré-abate.


In the present study, the effect of different salt concentrations on some quality properties such as the total number of coliform bacteria, texture, cooking loss, total salt content, metmyoglobin, pH, the water activity of steaks prepared from longissimus dorsi muscle of fresh beef was investigated. For this purpose, steaks prepared from longissimus dorsi muscle were dipped in marination brine in four different concentrations; 0% (control group), 1.5% NaCl, 2% NaCl and 2.5% NaCl, and marinated for 24 hours at +4 °C. The initial crude protein, crude fat, pH, moisture, and ash contents of beef were determined as 20.50%, 5.80%, 6.13, 72.63%, 1.07%, respectively. In the cooked meat samples, the hardness, chewiness and gumminess of the samples marinated with 1.5% and 2% NaCl was found to be higher than the control group. Metmyoglobin content of the meat samples marinated with NaCl is lower than the control group. The results revealed that the total number of coliform bacteria decreased drastically in parallel with the increase in salt concentration. As a result, the changes in the quality of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle with different salt concentrations and marination were investigated, and positive effects on the textural properties and coliform bacterial load of the meat were observed.

Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 2802
Konan Charles Aimeric N’Gatta ◽  
Alain Kondjoyan ◽  
Raphael Favier ◽  
Jacques Rouel ◽  
Annie Vénien ◽  

Tenderness is a major factor in consumer perception and acceptability of beef meat. Here we used a laboratory tumbling simulator to investigate the effectiveness of the tumbling process in reducing the toughness of raw beef cuts. Twelve Semitendinosus beef muscles from cows were tumbled according to four programs: T1 (2500 consecutive compression cycles (CC), for about 3 h), T2 (6000 CC, about 7.5 h), T3 (9500 CC, about 12 h), and T4 (13,000 CC, about 16 h). The effect of tumbling on the toughness of raw meat was assessed using compression tests (stresses measured at 20% and 80% of deformation ratios) and microscopic observations made at the periphery and centre of meat samples, and compared against non-tumbled controls. Longer tumbling times significantly reduced the stresses measured at 20% and 80% compression rates, which reflected the toughness of muscle fibres and connective tissue, respectively. At the microscopic level, longer tumbling times led to reduced extracellular spaces, increased degradation of muscle structure, and the emergence of amorphous zones. A 12-h tumbling protocol ultimately makes the best compromise between the process time demand and toughness reduction in beef Semitendinosus meat pieces.

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