Clinical Specimens
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 514-522
Xiongsheng Xiao ◽  
Zhi Zhang ◽  
Hongpo Xie ◽  
Siyi Li ◽  
Jianwen Li

Our current study plans to dissect the impacts and its underlying mechanisms of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on the invasive and metastatic features of PTC. Clinical specimens from distantly metastatic PTC were collected to measure DRR2 level. After being identified via tri-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry, BMSCs were co-cultured with PTC cells followed by analysis of cell proliferation and migration by CCK-8 and Transwell assays, expression of DDR2 and EMT-associated proteins by Western blot. Eventually, shDDR2-transfected BMSCs were infused with PTC cells into the abdominal cavity of mice to establish a mouse model assess their effect on tumor growth and distant metastasis. DDR2 was upregulated in BMSCs and malignant cells located in the metastatic sites. Co-culture with BMSCs enhanced DRR2 expression in PTC cells, which was simultaneously accompanied by the escalated mesenchymalization process. In vivo experiments exhibited that co-injection with BMSCs facilitated disease progression and distant metastasis of malignancies. Instead, DDR2 knockdown significantly impeded BMSCs-triggered migrative and proliferative behaviors of malignant cells. In conclusion, DDR2 derived from BMSCs can function as a communication mediator to strengthen the invasiveness and metastasis of PTC.

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 131
Yanjun Liu ◽  
Yang Wang ◽  
Dan Yao ◽  
Xing Chen ◽  
Feifei Zhang ◽  

Objective: Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at increased risk ofendometrial carcinoma (EC). Previous studies indicated that the combined therapy of Diane-35 and metformin significantly suppresses disease progression in PCOS patients with early EC; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Methods: An established murine model of PCOS with early EC, clinical specimens, and human EC cells was used in this study. The levels of protein and mRNA were measured with Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. Cell proliferation was determined with MTT, colony formation, and flow cytometry. Proteins were analyzed with immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry. Results: Diane-35 and metformin significantly inhibited proliferative activity and promoted apoptosis in EC cells. Additionally, cell autophagy was induced by the combined therapy. Quantitive PCR revealed that Diane-35 and metformin decreased androgen receptor (AR) expression but elevated GLUT4 expression. AR was found to repress GLUT4 expression by binding to the promoter of GLUT4. Moreover, the combined treatment mediated the onset of cellular autophagy by regulating the mTORC pathway via the suppression of IGF-1 and inhibited the development of EC by the activation of the PI3K/mTORC pathway. Conclusion: The results and previous clinical evidence support the use of Diane-35 and metformin combination therapy for patients with PCOS and early EC.

2022 ◽  
Margaret Mills ◽  
Pooneh Hajian ◽  
Shah Mohamed Bakhash ◽  
Hong Xie ◽  
Derrek Mantzke ◽  

Background Mutations in the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein are associated with increased transmission or substantial reductions in vaccine efficacy, including in the recently described Omicron variant. The changing frequencies of these mutations combined with their differing susceptibility to available therapies have posed significant problems for clinicians and public health professionals. Objective To develop an assay capable of rapidly and accurately identifying variants including Omicron in clinical specimens to enable case tracking and/or selection of appropriate clinical treatment. Study Design Using three duplex RT-ddPCR reactions targeting four amino acids, we tested 419 positive clinical specimens from February to December 2021 during a period of rapidly shifting variant prevalences and compared genotyping results to genome sequences for each sample, determining the sensitivity and specificity of the assay for each variant. Results Mutation determinations for 99.7% of detected samples agree with NGS data for those samples, and are accurate despite wide variation in RNA concentration and potential confounding factors like transport medium, presence of additional respiratory viruses, and additional mutations in primer and probe sequences. The assay accurately identified the first 15 Omicron variants in our laboratory including the first Omicron in Washington State and discriminated against S-gene dropout Delta specimen. Conclusion We describe an accurate, precise, and specific RT-ddPCR assay for variant detection that remains robust despite being designed prior the emergence of Delta and Omicron variants. The assay can quickly identify mutations in current and past SARS-CoV-2 variants, and can be adapted to future mutations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 44 (1) ◽  
pp. 329-335
Panagiotis Halvatsiotis ◽  
Sofia Vassiliu ◽  
Panagiotis Koulouvaris ◽  
Kalliopi Chatzantonaki ◽  
Konstantinos Asonitis ◽  

The aim of this study is to investigate the circulating variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from Athens and from rural areas in Greece during July and August 2021. We also present a rapid review of literature regarding significant SARS-CoV-2 mutations and their impact on public health. A total of 2500 nasopharyngeal swab specimens were collected from suspected COVID-19 cases (definition by WHO 2021b). Viral nucleic acid extraction was implemented using an automatic extractor and the RNA recovered underwent qRT-PCR in order to characterize the specimens as positive or negative for SARS-CoV-2. The positive specimens were then used to identify specific Spike gene mutations and characterize the emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. For this step, various kits were utilized. From the 2500 clinical specimens, 220 were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 indicating a prevalence of 8.8% among suspected cases. The RT-PCR Ct (Cycle threshold) Value ranged from 19 to 25 which corresponds to medium to high copy numbers of the virus in the positive samples. From the 220 positive specimens 148 (67.3%) were from Athens and 72 (32.7%) from Greek rural areas. As far as the Spike mutations investigated: N501Y appeared in all the samples, D614G mutation appeared in 212 (96.4%) samples with a prevalence of 87.2% in Athens and 98.6% in the countryside, E484K had a prevalence of 10.8% and 12.5% in Athens and the rural areas, respectively. K417N was found in 18 (12.2%) samples from Athens and four (5.6%) from the countryside, P681H was present in 51 (34.5%) Athenian specimens and 14 (19.4%) specimens from rural areas, HV69-70 was carried in 32.4% and 19.4% of the samples from Athens and the countryside, respectively. P681R had a prevalence of 87.2% in Athens and 98.6% in rural areas, and none of the specimens carried the L452R mutation. 62 (28.2%) samples carried the N501Y, P681H, D614G and HV69-70 mutations simultaneously and the corresponding variant was characterized as the Alpha (UK) variant (B 1.1.7). Only six (2.7%) samples from the center of Athens had the N501Y, E484K, K417N and D614G mutations simultaneously and the virus responsible was characterized as the Beta (South African) variant (B 1.351). Our study explored the SARS-CoV-2 variants using RT-PCR in a representative cohort of samples collected from Greece in July and August 2021. The prevalent mutations identified were N501Y (100%), D614G (96.4%), P681R (90.1%) and the variants identified were the Delta (90.1%), Alpha (28.2%) and Beta (2.7%).

Metabolites ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Venugopal Gunda ◽  
Thiago C. Genaro-Mattos ◽  
Jyoti B. Kaushal ◽  
Ramakanth Chirravuri-Venkata ◽  
Gopalakrishnan Natarajan ◽  

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is characterized by metabolic deregulations that often manifest as deviations in metabolite levels and aberrations in their corresponding metabolic genes across the clinical specimens and preclinical PC models. Cholesterol is one of the critical metabolites supporting PC, synthesized or acquired by PC cells. Nevertheless, the significance of the de novo cholesterol synthesis pathway has been controversial in PC, indicating the need to reassess this pathway in PC. We utilized preclinical models and clinical specimens of PC patients and cell lines and utilized mass spectrometry-based sterol analysis. Further, we also performed in silico analysis to corroborate the significance of de novo cholesterol synthesis pathway in PC. Our results demonstrated alteration in free sterol levels, including free cholesterol, across in vitro, in vivo, and clinical specimens of PC. Especially, our sterol analyses established consistent alterations in free cholesterol across the different PC models. Overall, this study demonstrates the significance and consistency in deviation of cholesterol synthesis pathway in PC while showing the aberrations in sterol metabolite intermediates and the related genes using preclinical models, in silico platforms, and the clinical specimens.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. e0010112
Sirawit Jirawannaporn ◽  
Umaporn Limothai ◽  
Sasipha Tachaboon ◽  
Janejira Dinhuzen ◽  
Patcharakorn Kiatamornrak ◽  

Background One of the key barriers preventing rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis is the lack of available sensitive point-of-care testing. This study aimed to develop and validate a clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 12a (CRISPR/Cas12a) platform combined with isothermal amplification to detect leptospires from extracted patient DNA samples. Methodology/Principal findings A Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA)-CRISPR/Cas12a-fluorescence assay was designed to detect the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira spp. The assays demonstrated a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 cells/mL, with no cross-reactivity against several other acute febrile illnesses. The clinical performance of the assay was validated with DNA extracted from 110 clinical specimens and then compared to results from qPCR detection of Leptospira spp. The RPA-CRISPR/Cas12a assay showed 85.2% sensitivity, 100% specificity, and 92.7% accuracy. The sensitivity increased on days 4–6 after the fever onset and decreased after day 7. The specificity was consistent for several days after the onset of fever. The overall performance of the RPA-CRISPR/Cas12a platform was better than the commercial rapid diagnostic test (RDT). We also developed a lateral flow detection assay (LFDA) combined with RPA-CRISPR/Cas12a to make the test more accessible and easier to interpret. The combined LFDA showed a similar LOD of 100 cells/mL and could correctly distinguish between known positive and negative clinical samples in a pilot study. Conclusions/Significance The RPA-CRISPR/Cas12 targeting the lipL32 gene demonstrated acceptable sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of leptospires. This assay might be an appropriate test for acute leptospirosis screening in limited-resource settings.

2022 ◽  
Tung Phan ◽  
Stephanie Boes ◽  
Melissa McCullough ◽  
Jamie Gribschaw ◽  
Alan Wells

A new SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) Variant of Concern has been emerging worldwide. We are seeing an unprecedented surge in patients due to Omicron in this COVID-19 pandemic. A rapid and accurate molecular test that effectively differentiates Omicron from other SARS-CoV-2 variants would be important for both epidemiologic value and for directing variant-specific therapies such as monoclonal antibody infusions. In this study, we developed a real-time RT-PCR assay for the qualitative detection of Omicron from routine clinical specimens sampling the upper respiratory tract. The limit of detection of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant RT-PCR assay was 2 copies/μl. Notably, the assay did not show any cross-reactivity with other SARS-CoV-2 variants including Delta (B.1.617.2). This SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant RT-PCR laboratory-developed assay is sensitive and specific to detect Omicron in nasopharyngeal and nasal swab specimens.

Cancers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 243
Chia-Hung Lin ◽  
Chen-Chung Liao ◽  
Shu-Ying Wang ◽  
Chia-Yi Peng ◽  
Yi-Chen Yeh ◽  

O-GlcNAcylation is a reversible and dynamic post-translational protein modification catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). Despite the reported association of O-GlcNAcylation with cancer metastasis, the O-GlcNAc proteome profile for cancer aggressiveness remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we report our comparative O-GlcNAc proteome profiling of two differentially invasive lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, which identified 158 down-regulated and 106 up-regulated candidates in highly invasive cells. Among these differential proteins, a nuclear RNA-binding protein, SAM68 (SRC associated in mitosis of 68 kDa), was further investigated. Results showed that SAM68 is O-GlcNAcylated and may interact with OGT in the nucleus. Eleven O-GlcNAcylation sites were identified, and data from mutant analysis suggested that multiple serine residues in the N-terminal region are important for O-GlcNAcylation and the function of SAM68 in modulating cancer cell migration and invasion. Analysis of clinical specimens found that high SAM68 expression was associated with late cancer stages, and patients with high-OGT/high-SAM68 expression in their tumors had poorer overall survival compared to those with low-OGT/low-SAM68 expression. Our study revealed an invasiveness-associated O-GlcNAc proteome profile and connected O-GlcNAcylated SAM68 to lung cancer aggressiveness.

2022 ◽  
Pragya D Yadav ◽  
Nivedita Gupta ◽  
Varsha Potdar ◽  
Sreelekshmy Mohandas ◽  
Rima R Sahay ◽  

Due to failure of virus isolation of Omicron variant in Vero CCL-81 from the clinical specimens of COVID-19 cases, we infected Syrian hamsters and then passage into Vero CCL-81 cells. The Omicron sequences were studied to assess if hamster could incorporate any mutation to changes its susceptibility. L212C mutation, Tyrosine 69 deletion, and C25000T nucleotide change in spike gene and absence of V17I mutation in E gene was observed in sequences of hamster passage unlike human clinical specimen and Vero CCL-81 passages. No change was observed in the furin cleavage site in any of the specimen sequence which suggests usefulness of these isolates in future studies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 88-92
M Swapna ◽  
G Sumathi ◽  
M Anitha

Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most prevalent nosocomial pathogens that cause a life-threatening infection. One of the important characteristics of P. aeruginosa is biofilm formation which leads to antibiotic resistance. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to study the antibiotic resistance pattern of P. aeruginosa isolates and correlation with their biofilm-production. Materials and Methods: A total of 87 P. aeruginosa isolates from different clinical specimens were processed and confirmed by conventional microbiological methods as per standard methodology. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was done for all isolates. Biofilm producing isolates were identified by the microtiter plate method (MTPM). Results: Of 87 P. aeruginosa isolates, majority were from pus 33 (38%), followed by urine 26 (30%), sputum 19 (22%), body fluids 7 (8%), and blood 2 (2%). Biofilm producing isolates showed more resistance in comparison to non-biofilm producers. The observed difference between biofilm formation for multidrug resistant and susceptible isolates was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: MTPM method was an effective test for detection of biofilm formation and was also able to verify biofilm production by P. aeruginosa. This indicated a higher propensity among the clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa to form biofilm and revealed a positive correlation between biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. This indicates the need for testing of even susceptible isolates for virulence factors such as biofilm production.

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