Disc Diffusion
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 31-37
Vijay Kumar ◽  
Swayambhu Shubham ◽  
Satyendra Narayan Singh

Background: UTI constitute a major public health problem in India accounting 2nd most common infection next to respiratory tract infection. They are responsible for increasing treatment cost and significant morbidity.Aim:-To determine the incidence of UTI, evaluation of pathogens responsible and their antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in the population.Methods:Urine samples were collected from 300 patients attending the OPD Patna medical college, Patna during the period of 18 months (January 2017 to June 2018) Antimicrobial sensitivity testing was done for the bacterial isolates present in the sample by Kirby- Bauer disc diffusion method. Only those samples were taken into consideration which develops count equal to or greater than 1*105CFU/ml as indicated by Kass.Results:Out of 300 samples collected 146 (48.66%)) yielded bacterial growth. Out of 146 culture isolates E.Coli was the most common pathogen followed by klebsiella, CoNS and staphylococcus. Antibiotic sensitivity was performed on all the isolates. It was observed that highest sensitivity was 49.31% to amikacin, gentamycin (45.89%), nitrofurantoin (38.35%) meropenem (27.39%).Conclusions:It was observed that high grade of resistance to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, chloramphenicol, cefotaxime, cefazolin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and gentamycin is present as a result of misuse or improper use of antibiotic in the community. Hence urine culture is necessary for the diagnostic screening of UTI before the treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 165
Violah Jepkogei Kemboi ◽  
Carolyne Kipkoech ◽  
Moses Njire ◽  
Samuel Were ◽  
Mevin Kiprotich Lagat ◽  

Globally, Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) is ranked one of the most destructive bacterial pathogens inducing rapid and fatal wilting symptoms on tomatoes. Yield losses on tomatoes vary from 0 to 91% and most control measures are unaffordable to resource-poor farmers. This study investigated the antimicrobial activities of chitin and chitosan extracted from black soldier fly (BSF) pupal exuviae against R. solanacearum. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular techniques were used to isolate and characterize R. solanacearum for in vitro pathogenicity test using disc diffusion technique. Our results revealed that BSF chitosan significantly inhibited the growth of R. solanacearum when compared to treatments without chitosan. However, there was no significant difference in the antibacterial activities between BSF and commercial chitosan against R. solanacearum. Soil amended with BSF-chitin and chitosan demonstrated a reduction in bacterial wilt disease incidence by 30.31% and 34.95%, respectively. Whereas, disease severity was reduced by 22.57% and 23.66%, when inoculated tomato plants were subjected to soil amended with BSF chitin and chitosan, respectively. These findings have demonstrated that BSF pupal shells are an attractive renewable raw material for the recovery of valuable products (chitin and chitosan) with promising ability as a new type of eco-friendly control measure against bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum. Further studies should explore integrated pest management options that integrate multiple components including insect-based chitin and chitosan to manage bacterial wilt diseases, contributing significantly to increased tomato production worldwide.

2022 ◽  
Kokab Jabeen ◽  
Sidrah Saleem ◽  
Faiqa Arshad ◽  
Zill-e-Huma ◽  
Shah Jahan ◽  

Abstract Typhoid fever is a significant health problem in developing countries like Pakistan. Salmonella Typhi the causative agent of typhoid has developed resistant to almost all recommended antibiotics. Emergence of resistance to third generation cephalosporins has further complicated the situation and such strains are called as extensively drug resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi. Currently only available options are azithromycin and cabapenems. Recently few reports of azithromycin resistance have emerged from countries like Pakistan, India, Bangladesh and Nepal. As azithromycin is the only oral option available to treat XDR Typhoid, development of resistance may change treatment strategy altogether from out patient management to hospitalization of every patient. This may increase the burden on already weak health care system of countries like Pakistan. So there is dire need to look for the alternative treatment options. Manuka honey is well known for its therapeutic potential against wide range of bacteria including Salmonella Typhimurium. In this study 3 azithromycin resistant isolates were isolated and identified using disc diffusion, E-test and broth micro dilution methods and antibacterial activity, MIC and MBC of manuka honey was performed by agar well diffusion assay and broth micro dilution assay respectively. Manuka honey manifested significant antibacterial activity against all test isolates with zone of inhibition ranging from 7.3mm to 7.5mm, MIC and MBC values were between 10 to 15% v/v Here, we conclude that Manuka honey possess potent antibacterial activity and might be used as an alternative treatment option against azithromycin resistant XDR Typhid. However, further clinical trials are mandatory to validate our initial findings.

Nutrients ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 265
Md Minarul Islam ◽  
Rashedul Alam ◽  
Hea-Jong Chung ◽  
Nazim Uddin Emon ◽  
Mohammad Fazlul Kabir ◽  

Bauhinia scandens L. (Family: Fabaceae) is commonly used to treat cholera, diarrhea, asthma, and diabetes disorder in integrative medicine. This study aimed to screen the presence of phytochemicals (preliminary and UPLC-QTOF–M.S. analysis) and to examine the pharmacological activities of Bauhinia scandens L. stems (MEBS) stem extracts. Besides, in silico study was also implemented to elucidate the binding affinity and drug capability of the selected phytochemicals. In vivo anti diarrheal activity was investigated in mice models. In vitro, antibacterial and antifungal properties of MEBS against several pathogenic strains were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. In addition, in silico study has been employed using Discovery studio 2020, UCFS Chimera, PyRx autodock vina, and online tools. In the anti-diarrheal investigation, MEBS showed a significant dose-dependent inhibition rate in all three methods. The antibacterial and antifungal screening showed a remarkable zone of inhibition, of the diameter 14–26 mm and 12–28 mm, by MEBS. The present study revealed that MEBS has remarkable anti-diarrheal potential and is highly effective in wide-spectrum bacterial and fungal strains. Moreover, the in silico study validated the results of biological screenings. To conclude, MEBS is presumed to be a good source in treating diarrhea, bacterial and fungal infections.

Soudabeh Alizadeh Matboo ◽  
Shahram Nazari ◽  
Ali Niapour ◽  
Mehdi Vosoughi Niri ◽  
Esrafil Asgari ◽  

Abstract This study investigated the bacterial removal using TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) modified with poly-amidoamine dendrimer macromolecule (PAMAM, G3). The PAMAM G3/TiO2 (nanohybrid) was used to specify antibacterial properties via broth microdilution (MBC-Minimum Bactericidal Concentration and MIC-Minimum Inhibitory Concentration- determination), paper disc diffusion, and surface plate count methods. The nanohybrid was characterized via the different techniques. The effects of different factors including initial bacteria count, run time, solution pH, and the nanohybrid concentration were studied. The nanohybrid cytotoxicity was studied on AGS and MKN45 cells line by MTT assay. It was revealed that the nanohybrid was effective in intercepting both bacterial strains growth. The MIC value for S. aureus and E. coli were determined to be 4 and 2 μg/mL, respectively. The MBC value for both strains were calculated to be 32 μg/mL. The results showed removal efficiency of 100% for S. aureus and E. coli bacteria in optimum situation. The decrease in cell viability in the dosage of 32 μg/mL after 72 h treatment for AGS and MKN45 cells line were shown to be 6.2 and 4.6%, respectively. The nanohybrid was able to decrease the S. aureus and E. coli count in solution, which meets the drinking water criterions aligned with WHO guidelines.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 192
Tatiana G. Volova ◽  
Svetlana V. Prudnikova ◽  
Evgeniy G. Kiselev ◽  
Ivan V. Nemtsev ◽  
Alexander D. Vasiliev ◽  

The synthesis of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Komagataeibacter xylinus strain B-12068 was investigated on various C-substrates, under submerged conditions with stirring and in static surface cultures. We implemented the synthesis of BC on glycerol, glucose, beet molasses, sprat oil, and a mixture of glucose with sunflower oil. The most productive process was obtained during the production of inoculum in submerged culture and subsequent growth of large BC films (up to 0.2 m2 and more) in a static surface culture. The highest productivity of the BC synthesis process was obtained with the growth of bacteria on molasses and glycerol, 1.20 and 1.45 g/L per day, respectively. We obtained BC composites with silver nanoparticles (BC/AgNPs) and antibacterial drugs (chlorhexidine, baneocin, cefotaxime, and doripenem), and investigated the structure, physicochemical, and mechanical properties of composites. The disc-diffusion method showed pronounced antibacterial activity of BC composites against E. coli ATCC 25922 and S. aureus ATCC 25923.

Swati Sharma ◽  
Tuhina Banerjee ◽  
Ashok Kumar ◽  
Ghanshyam Yadav ◽  
Sriparna Basu

Abstract Background Extensive drug resistance in Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) causing major outbreaks in large hospitals is an emerging challenge. We describe a near fatal outbreak of colistin resistant, carbapenem resistant K. pneumoniae (CRKp) producing metallo beta-lactamases (blaNDM) and blaOXA-48 in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at the background of a larger outbreak involving multiple parts of the hospital and the challenges in its containment. Methods Following identification of an outbreak due to colistin resistant CRKp between April to June 2017 in the NICU, a thorough surveillance of similar cases and the hospital environment was performed to trace the source. All the isolated K. pneumoniae were tested for susceptibility to standard antibiotics by disc diffusion and microbroth dilution methods. Molecular detection of extended spectrum beta lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases (classes A, B, D) genes was done. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) was done to determine the genetic relatedness of the isolates. Characteristics of different sequence types were statistically compared (Student’s t-test). Results A total of 45 K. pneumoniae isolates were studied from NICU (14 cases of neonatal sepsis), ICU (18 cases), other wards (7 cases) along with 6 isolates from hospital environment and human colonizers. The primary case was identified in the ICU. All the K. pneumoniae from NICU and 94.4% from the ICU were colistin resistant CRKp. Majority (59.37% and 56.25%) harbored blaSHV/blaCTXM and blaOXA-48 genes, respectively. Two distinct sequence types ST5235 and ST5313 were noted with colistin resistance, distribution within the NICU and mortality as significant attributes of ST5235 (p < 0.05). The outbreak was contained with strengthening of the infection control practices and unintended short duration closure of the hospital. Conclusion Large hospital outbreaks with considerable mortality can be caused by non-dominant clones of colistin resistant CRKp harboring blaOXA-48 and blaNDM carbapenemases in endemic regions. The exact global impact of these sequence types should be further studied to prevent future fatal outbreaks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wei Shi ◽  
Qianqian Du ◽  
Lin Yuan ◽  
Wei Gao ◽  
Qing Wang ◽  

Background: The isolation rate of serogroup 15 Streptococcus pneumoniae has been increasing since developing countries began administering the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.Methods: We detected the antibiotic resistance and molecular characteristics of 126 serogroup 15 S. pneumoniae strains isolated from children in China. Serotypes were determined via the Quellung reaction. Antibiotic resistance was tested using the E-test or disc diffusion method. Sequence types were assigned via multilocus sequence typing. Data were analyzed using WHONET 5.6 software.Results: The frequencies of S. pneumoniae serotypes 15A, 15B, 15C, and 15F were 29.37, 40.48, 28.57, and 1.59%, respectively. Continuous-monitoring data from Beijing showed that the annual isolation rates of serogroup 15 S. pneumoniae were 7.64, 7.17, 2.58, 4.35, 3.85, 7.41, and 10.53%, respectively, from 2013 to 2019. All 126 serogroup 15 strains were susceptible to vancomycin and ceftriaxone. The non-susceptibility rate to penicillin was 78.57%. All strains were resistant to erythromycin with high minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). The multidrug resistance rate was 78.57%. The most common clonal complexes were CC3397, CC6011, CC10088, CC9785, and ST8589.Conclusion: Serogroup 15 S. pneumoniae is common among children in China, and these strains should be continuously monitored.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 57
Corina Pascu ◽  
Viorel Herman ◽  
Ionica Iancu ◽  
Luminita Costinar

The present study aimed to determine the bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis and their antimicrobial resistance in the western part of Romania. Clinical mastitis was diagnosed based on local inflammation in the udder, changes in milk, and when present, generalized symptoms. Subclinical mastitis was assessed using a rapid test—the California Mastitis Test. The identification of bacterial strains was performed based on biochemical profiles using API system tests (API 20 E, API Staph, API 20 Strep, API Coryne, API 20 NE (bioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France), and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The prevalent isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus spp. (50/116; 43.19%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (26/116; 22.41%), E. coli (16/116; 13.79%), Corynebacterium spp. (9/116; 7.75%), Enterococcus spp. (10/116; 8.62%), and Enterobacter spp. (5/116; 4.31%). Phenotype antimicrobial resistance profiling was performed used the disc diffusion method. Generally, Gram-positive bacteria showed low susceptibility to most of the antimicrobials tested, except cephalothin. Susceptibilities to penicillins and quinolones were fairly high in Gram-negative bacteria, whereas resistance was observed to macrolides, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines. The highest number of isolates were multidrug resistant (MDR), the resistance pathotypes identified including the most frequently antimicrobials used in cow mastitis treatment in Romania.

2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 56-67
Gaffar Sarwar Zaman ◽  
Mohammad Y. Alshahrani ◽  
Pranab Barua ◽  
Alanoud Aladel ◽  
Forhad Akhtar Zaman ◽  

During the previous few decades, it has been seen that there is a rapid emergence of pathogens resistant to multiple antibiotics. This has now become a global crisis. Some unexplored or less explored plants also provide some antibacterial, bactericidal and antioxidant properties. The antibacterial, bactericidal effects of extracted essential oils (EEOs) of Thunbergia coccinea, Acacia polyacantha, Polygonum micrpcephallum, Abies spectabilis and Clerodendrum colebrookianum was tested in comparison with standard antibiotics. The methods chosen were disc diffusion and deduction of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by microbroth dilution assays of the EEOs against the bacterial strains.The antioxidant activity was found out utilizing DPPH free radical scavenging assay, MDA, Hydrogen peroxide radical inhibition assay and Superoxide radical inhibition assay (O 2 -). Some commonly used standard antibiotics (metronidazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, rifampicin, clindamycin and oxacillin,) were utilized to compare the EEO antibacterial action. Clerodendrum colebrookianum (85.17 ± 3.06 µg MDA/g extract) had a reasonable MDA. Acacia polyacantha in MIC had values of 3.86 ± 0.25 to 6.20 ± 0.16. Polygonum micrpcephallum had excessive H2O2 (48.27 ± 2.4 5%). The antibacterial actions determined by the paper disc‑diffusion technique of the EEO extracted from these plants showed that most had some antibacterial actions. Also, it was seen that the bactericidal action of the EEO extracted from E. alba was most potent against S. pyogenes (4.06 ± 0.15). The extract of the plant at varying concentrations (20, 40, 60, 80 and100 mg/mL) demonstrated noteworthy (P< 0.001) anthelmintic action in an effective change when the dose was adjusted. In conclusion, most of the tested plants contain a medicinal value, which can be utilized in the future to supplement artificial medicines and cure emerging diseases that create havoc for mankind. 

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