lymphatic drainage
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2022 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Franco Picciotto ◽  
Adriana Lesca ◽  
Luca Mastorino ◽  
Elena Califaretti ◽  
Luca Conti ◽  

Primary umbilical melanoma is rare tumor, representing about 5% of all umbilical malignancies.The lymphatic drainage from the tumor is challenging and can be to inguinal, axillary and retroperitoneal nodes. Dynamic and static lymphoscintigraphy with single-photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a widely validated technique in patients with clinically localized melanoma to search for and quantify nodal spread of cutaneous melanoma. Moreover, it offers the surgeon the preoperative information about the number and location of the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), which makes SLNB easier and quicker. This is the first report of an ulcerated thick melanoma of the umbilicus metastasizing only to an external iliac lymph-node without involvement of superficial inguinal SLNs. The preoperative high-resolution ultrasound (HR-US) examination of the regional lymph node field had been normal. This case-report shows how addition of SPECT/CT to planar imaging in a patient with clinically localized umbilical melanoma can help avoid incomplete SLNB when a deep SLN is not removed. A literature review of umbilical melanoma is also provided.

Cureus ◽  
2022 ◽  
Jose Maria Pereira de Godoy ◽  
Maria de Fatima Guerreiro Godoy ◽  
Henrique Jose Pereira de Godoy

BMC Cancer ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Karin Ekström ◽  
Rossella Crescitelli ◽  
Hafsteinn Ingi Pétursson ◽  
Junko Johansson ◽  
Cecilia Lässer ◽  

Abstract Background Breast cancer is the most common cancer, and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, among females world-wide. Recent research suggests that extracellular vesicles (EVs) play a major role in the development of breast cancer metastasis. Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is a procedure in patients with known lymph node metastases, and after surgery large amounts of serous fluid are produced from the axilla. The overall aim was to isolate and characterize EVs from axillary serous fluid, and more specifically to determine if potential breast cancer biomarkers could be identified. Methods Lymphatic drain fluid was collected from 7 patients with breast cancer the day after ALND. EVs were isolated using size exclusion chromatography, quantified and detected by nanoparticle tracking analysis, electron microscopy, nano flow cytometry and western blot. The expression of 37 EV surface proteins was evaluated by flow cytometry using the MACSPlex Exosome kit. Results Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved after surgery from all 7 patients contained EVs. The isolated EVs were positive for the typical EV markers CD9, CD63, CD81 and Flotillin-1 while albumin was absent, indicating low contamination from blood proteins. In total, 24 different EV surface proteins were detected. Eleven of those proteins were detected in all patients, including the common EV markers CD9, CD63 and CD81, cancer-related markers CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, platelet markers CD41b, CD42a and CD62p as well as HLA-DR/DP/DQ. Furthermore, CD29 and CD146 were enriched in Her2+ patients compared to patients with Her2- tumors. Conclusions Lymphatic drainage exudate retrieved from breast cancer patients after surgery contains EVs that can be isolated using SEC isolation. The EVs have several cancer-related markers including CD24, CD29, CD44 and CD146, proteins of potential interest as biomarkers as well as to increase the understanding of the mechanisms of cancer biology.

Xiaoyan Zhang ◽  
Jinrong Liu ◽  
hui xu ◽  
haiming yang ◽  
Shunying Zhao

Lymphatic plastic bronchitis (PB) most commonly occurs in children with congenital heart disease as a result of secondary pulmonary lymphatic flow disorder (PLFD). However, PB caused by primary PLFD is rare. The clinical symptoms of lymphocytic PB are nonspecific; thus, the diagnosis may be long delayed, especially in the absence of chylothorax. We made a retrospective analysis of two children diagnosed with PB due to primary PLFD, in order to contribute to further understanding of these disorders. Patient 1, an eight-year-old boy, presented with chronic productive cough and expectorated milky-white mucous plugs accompanied by intermitted wheezing for one year. Patient 2, a nine-month-old girl, presented with episodes of acute respiratory distress with expectoration of milky-white bronchial casts for four months. There was no obvious evidence of infection in either child. Bilateral thickening of bronchovascular bundles and interlobular septal, as well as multiple patchy ground-glass opacities were seen on chest computed tomography (CT) in both patients. Lymphangioscintigraphy demonstrated pulmonary lymph reflux in both patients and slowed lymphatic drainage of the lower limbs in patient 1. Primary PLFD was considered for both patients, and a diagnosis of yellow nail syndrome was made in patient 1. Both patients received lymphatic interventional treatment, but all experienced recurrence following the procedure.

2021 ◽  
Mohamed Ahmed ◽  
Magdy Gharib ◽  
Mahmoud Moustafa ◽  
Mohammed Qasheesh

Abstract Background: Hallux Valgus HV was first proposed as a common pathologic condition affecting the great toe. The mechanism behind it is yet unknown. It has an impact on one's quality of life and ability to perform since it alters the mechanics of the foot and causes pain. conservative treatment is crucial. Kinesiotape (KT) has been demonstrated to be challengeable, cost-effective, and effective tool for restoring muscle function and strength, improving range of motion, reducing discomfort, and increasing lymphatic drainage, as well as having a mechanical correction effect. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of 8 weeks KT for HV-on-HV angle (HVA) and subsequently on pain.Design: pretest posttest control group randomized controlled trial.Subjects: Thirty HV patients their mean age 29.07 ±6.3 years.Methods: Patients were assigned randomly to study(A) and control(B) groups, study group received KT for HV which is replaced every 5 days for 8 weeks, and home regular exercise program for HV, control group received placebo KT replaced every 5 days and the same exercise program for HV, HVA was measured using x-ray pre and post taping also pain intensity was measured using visual analogue scale (VAS) Results: HVA showed a significant reduction in study group (p = 0.001) for right and left feet while non-significant reduction occurred in control group (p = 0.11 for right foot, p = 0.09 for left foot, while pain showed significant improvement in both study and control groups in both feet (p = 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that KT in mobile hallux valgus for 8 weeks is effective on improving the metatarsophalangeal joint angle, decreasing pain, and hence may has positive functional impact in patients with hallux valgus.Clinical trial registration: retrospectively registered 5th of DEC. (NCT05165134)

Viruses ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 48
Kaho H. Tisthammer ◽  
Christopher Kline ◽  
Tara Rutledge ◽  
Collin R. Diedrich ◽  
Sergio Ita ◽  

Co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a worldwide public health concern, leading to worse clinical outcomes caused by both pathogens. We used a non-human primate model of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-Mtb co-infection, in which latent Mtb infection was established prior to SIVmac251 infection. The evolutionary dynamics of SIV env was evaluated from samples in plasma, lymph nodes, and lungs (including granulomas) of SIV-Mtb co-infected and SIV only control animals. While the diversity of the challenge virus was low and overall viral diversity remained relatively low over 6–9 weeks, changes in viral diversity and divergence were observed, including evidence for tissue compartmentalization. Overall, viral diversity was highest in SIV-Mtb animals that did not develop clinical Mtb reactivation compared to animals with Mtb reactivation. Among lung granulomas, viral diversity was positively correlated with the frequency of CD4+ T cells and negatively correlated with the frequency of CD8+ T cells. SIV diversity was highest in the thoracic lymph nodes compared to other sites, suggesting that lymphatic drainage from the lungs in co-infected animals provides an advantageous environment for SIV replication. This is the first assessment of SIV diversity across tissue compartments during SIV-Mtb co-infection after established Mtb latency.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0260404
Yuiko Suzuki ◽  
Yukari Nakajima ◽  
Toshio Nakatani ◽  
Mayumi Okuwa ◽  
Junko Sugama

In the present study, we aimed to identify the normal hindlimb lymphatic systems in rats and compare them with the detours after lymphatic flow blockage. The lymphatic systems of the hindlimbs of normal rats were investigated via lymphography using a near-infrared fluorescence imaging system. The lymphatic vessels were stained using Evans Blue. The lymphatic flow was blocked through lymphatic vessel ligation combined with inguinal and popliteal lymph node dissection. Detours that appeared after 30 days were visualized using lymphography and immunostaining with anti-podoplanin antibodies. Three main results were obtained in the present study. First, the deep medial system, the superficial medial system, a connection between the superficial and deep medial lymphatic systems, and the superficial lateral system, were elucidated. Second, three types of detours, namely the detour of the lateral abdomen, the detour to the lymphatic vessel near the midline of the abdomen, and the detour to the contralateral inguinal lymph node, were identified after lymphatic flow blockage. Lastly, detours were located in the fatty layer above the panniculus carnosus muscle and their lumina were wide. The histology suggested that the detour was a pre-collecting lymphatic vessel. Lymphatic routes in the rat hindlimbs after lymphatic flow blockage were different from those of the normal rat lymphatic system. It was suggested that the detour is a pre-collecting lymphatic vessel and that encouraging its development may be a new method of simple lymphatic drainage.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Nuria Sánchez-Izquierdo ◽  
Sergi Vidal-Sicart ◽  
Francisco Campos ◽  
Aureli Torné ◽  
Martina Aida Angeles ◽  

Abstract Purpose Indocyanine green (ICG) is frequently used for the detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in gynecology, but it carries the loss of the presurgical SLN mapping provided by [99mTc]-based colloids. Hybrid tracers such as ICG-[99mTc]Tc-albumin nanocolloid combine the benefits of both components. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and applicability of this hybrid tracer injected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided myometrial injection of radiotracer (TUMIR) approach in the detection of SLNs in patients with intermediate- and high-risk EC. Methods Fifty-two patients with intermediate- and high-risk EC underwent SLN biopsy after injection of a hybrid tracer using the TUMIR approach, followed by pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy. SLNs were detected preoperatively by lymphoscintigraphic study and intraoperatively by gamma probe and near-infrared (NIR) optical laparoscopic camera. Results Preoperative lymphatic drainage was obtained in 69% and intraoperative detection in 71.4% of patients. A total of 146 SLNs (4.17 SLNs/patient) were biopsied. Pelvic bilateral detection was observed in 57% of the women and paraaortic drainage in 34% of the patients. The radioactive component allowed the detection of SLN in 97.1% of the patients, while the fluorescent component detected 80%. In more than 17% of the patients with intraoperative detection, SLNs were detected only by the radioactive signal. Lymph node metastasis was identified in 14.3% of patients submitted to SLNB. The sensitivity and negative predictive value for metastatic involvement were 100%. Conclusion TUMIR injection of a hybrid tracer in patients with intermediate- and high-risk EC combines the benefits of the radiotracer and the fluorescence methods with a single tracer. The method increases the paraaortic detection rate and allows a potential increase in SLN detection. Notwithstanding, based on our findings, the radioactive component of the hybrid tracer cannot be obviated.

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