chemical exchange saturation transfer
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Mina Kim ◽  
Afroditi Eleftheriou ◽  
Luca Ravotto ◽  
Bruno Weber ◽  
Michal Rivlin ◽  

AbstractCancer is one of the most devastating diseases that the world is currently facing, accounting for 10 million deaths in 2020 (WHO). In the last two decades, advanced medical imaging has played an ever more important role in the early detection of the disease, as it increases the chances of survival and the potential for full recovery. To date, dynamic glucose-enhanced (DGE) MRI using glucose-based chemical exchange saturation transfer (glucoCEST) has demonstrated the sensitivity to detect both d-glucose and glucose analogs, such as 3-oxy-methyl-d-glucose (3OMG) uptake in tumors. As one of the recent international efforts aiming at pushing the boundaries of translation of the DGE MRI technique into clinical practice, a multidisciplinary team of eight partners came together to form the “glucoCEST Imaging of Neoplastic Tumors (GLINT)” consortium, funded by the Horizon 2020 European Commission. This paper summarizes the progress made to date both by these groups and others in increasing our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms related to this technique as well as translating it into clinical practice.

Laura Mancini ◽  
Stefano Casagranda ◽  
Guillaume Gautier ◽  
Philippe Peter ◽  
Bruno Lopez ◽  

Abstract Purpose Accurate glioma classification affects patient management and is challenging on non- or low-enhancing gliomas. This study investigated the clinical value of different chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) metrics for glioma classification and assessed the diagnostic effect of the presence of abundant fluid in glioma subpopulations. Methods Forty-five treatment-naïve glioma patients with known isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation and 1p/19q codeletion status received CEST MRI (B1rms = 2μT, Tsat = 3.5 s) at 3 T. Magnetization transfer ratio asymmetry and CEST metrics (amides: offset range 3–4 ppm, amines: 1.5–2.5 ppm, amide/amine ratio) were calculated with two models: ‘asymmetry-based’ (AB) and ‘fluid-suppressed’ (FS). The presence of T2/FLAIR mismatch was noted. Results IDH-wild type had higher amide/amine ratio than IDH-mutant_1p/19qcodel (p < 0.022). Amide/amine ratio and amine levels differentiated IDH-wild type from IDH-mutant (p < 0.0045) and from IDH-mutant_1p/19qret (p < 0.021). IDH-mutant_1p/19qret had higher amides and amines than IDH-mutant_1p/19qcodel (p < 0.035). IDH-mutant_1p/19qret with AB/FS mismatch had higher amines than IDH-mutant_1p/19qret without AB/FS mismatch ( < 0.016). In IDH-mutant_1p/19qret, the presence of AB/FS mismatch was closely related to the presence of T2/FLAIR mismatch (p = 0.014). Conclusions CEST-derived biomarkers for amides, amines, and their ratio can help with histomolecular staging in gliomas without intense contrast enhancement. T2/FLAIR mismatch is reflected in the presence of AB/FS CEST mismatch. The AB/FS CEST mismatch identifies glioma subgroups that may have prognostic and clinical relevance.

Yulun Wu ◽  
Tobias Charles Wood ◽  
Fatemeh Arzanforoosh ◽  
Juan Antonio Hernandez-Tamames ◽  
Gareth John Barker ◽  

Abstract Objective Clinical application of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) can be performed with investigation of amide proton transfer (APT) and nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) effects. Here, we investigated APT- and NOE-weighted imaging based on advanced CEST metrics to map tumor heterogeneity of non-enhancing glioma at 3 T. Materials and methods APT- and NOE-weighted maps based on Lorentzian difference (LD) and inverse magnetization transfer ratio (MTRREX) were acquired with a 3D snapshot CEST acquisition at 3 T. Saturation power was investigated first by varying B1 (0.5–2 µT) in 5 healthy volunteers then by applying B1 of 0.5 and 1.5 µT in 10 patients with non-enhancing glioma. Tissue contrast (TC) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were calculated between glioma and normal appearing white matter (NAWM) and grey matter, in APT- and NOE-weighted images. Volume percentages of the tumor showing hypo/hyperintensity (VPhypo/hyper,CEST) in APT/NOE-weighted images were calculated for each patient. Results LD APT resulting from using a B1 of 1.5 µT was found to provide significant positive TCtumor,NAWM and MTRREX NOE (B1 of 1.5 µT) provided significant negative TCtumor,NAWM in tissue differentiation. MTRREX-based NOE imaging under 1.5 µT provided significantly larger VPhypo,CEST than MTRREX APT under 1.5 µT. Conclusion This work showed that with a rapid CEST acquisition using a B1 saturation power of 1.5 µT and covering the whole tumor, analysis of both LD APT and MTRREX NOE allows for observing tumor heterogeneity, which will be beneficial in future studies using CEST-MRI to improve imaging diagnostics for non-enhancing glioma.

Dongyong Zhu ◽  
Bo He ◽  
Mengdi Zhang ◽  
Yixuan Wan ◽  
Ruibin Liu ◽  

AbstractProlonged exposure to high altitudes above 2500 m above sea level (a.s.l.) can cause cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions. Herein, we sought to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to plateau hypoxia on the hippocampus in a rat model by using voxel-based morphometry, creatine chemical exchange saturation transfer (CrCEST) and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging techniques. 58 healthy 4-week-old male rats were randomized into plateau hypoxia rats (H group) as the experimental group and plain rats (P group) as the control group. H group rats were transported from Chengdu (500 m a.s.l.), a city in a plateau located in southwestern China, to the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (4250 m a.s.l.), Yushu, China, and then fed for 8 months there, while P group rats were fed in Chengdu (500 m a.s.l.), China. After 8 months of exposure to plateau hypoxia, open-field and elevated plus maze tests revealed that the anxiety-like behavior of the H group rats was more serious than that of the P group rats, and the Morris water maze test revealed impaired spatial memory function in the H group rats. Multimodal MR imaging analysis revealed a decreased volume of the regional gray matter, lower CrCEST contrast and higher transport coefficient Ktrans in the hippocampus compared with the P group rats. Further correlation analysis found associations of quantitative MRI parameters of the hippocampus with the behavioral performance of H group rats. In this study, we validated the viability of using noninvasive multimodal MR imaging techniques to evaluate the effects of chronic exposure to a plateau hypoxic environment on the hippocampus.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 53
Anna Orzyłowska ◽  
Wendy Oakden

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is one of the most common causes of dementia and difficult to study as the pool of subjects is highly heterogeneous. Saturation transfer (ST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods are quantitative modalities with potential for non-invasive identification and tracking of various aspects of AD pathology. In this review we cover ST-MRI studies in both humans and animal models of AD over the past 20 years. A number of magnetization transfer (MT) studies have shown promising results in human brain. Increased computing power enables more quantitative MT studies, while access to higher magnetic fields improves the specificity of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) techniques. While much work remains to be done, results so far are very encouraging. MT is sensitive to patterns of AD-related pathological changes, improving differential diagnosis, and CEST is sensitive to particular pathological processes which could greatly assist in the development and monitoring of therapeutic treatments of this currently incurable disease.

2021 ◽  
Eleni Demetriou ◽  
Mohamed Tachrount ◽  
Matthew Ellis ◽  
Jacqueline Linehan ◽  
Sebastian Brandner ◽  

Human prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that may have prolonged asymptomatic incubation periods. However, the underlying mechanism by which prions cause brain damage remains unclear. In turn, characterization of early pathological aspects would be of benefit for the diagnosis and potential treatment of these progressive neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI based on its exquisite sensitivity to cytosol protein content as a surrogate for prion disease pathology. Three groups of prion-infected mice at different stages of the disease underwent conventional magnetic resonance imaging and CEST MRI at 9.4T. For each mouse, chemical exchange contrasts were measured by applying five RF powers at various frequency offsets using magnetization transfer asymmetries. Relayed Nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE*) and amide proton transfer (APT*) were also assessed. For comparison, CEST MRI measurements were also made in healthy control mice brains. Here we show that alterations in CEST signal were detected before structural modifications or any clinical signs of prion disease. The detected CEST signal displayed different patterns at different stages of the disease indicating its potential for use as a longitudinal marker of disease progression. Highly significant correlations were found between CEST metrics and histopathological findings. A decline in NOE signal was positively correlated with abnormal prion protein deposition (R2 = 0.91) in the thalami of prion infected mice. Moreover, the NOE signal was negatively correlated with astrogliosis (R2 = 0.71) in the thalamus. No significant correlations were detected between NOE signals and spongiosis. MTR asymmetry at 3.5 ppm was also correlated with astrogliosis (R2 = 0.59), and prion protein deposition (R2 = 0.63) in thalamus. No significant changes were detected in APT* between prion-infected and control mice at all stages of the disease. Finally, MTR asymmetry between 2.8 and 3.2 ppm was correlated with prion protein deposition (R2 = 0.47) in the thalamus of prion -infected mice. To conclude, CEST MRI has potential utility as a biomarker of neurodegenerative processes in prion disease

2021 ◽  
Gogulan Karunanithy ◽  
Tairan Yuwen ◽  
Lewis E Kay ◽  
D Flemming Hansen

Macromolecules often exchange between functional states on timescales that can be accessed with NMR spectroscopy and many NMR tools have been developed to characterise the kinetics and thermodynamics of the exchange processes, as well as the structure of the conformers that are involved. However, analysis of the NMR data that report on exchanging macromolecules often hinges on complex least-squares fitting procedures as well as human experience and intuition, which, in some cases, limits the widespread use of the methods. The applications of deep neural networks (DNNs) and artificial intelligence have increased significantly in the sciences, and recently, specifically, within the field of biomolecular NMR, where DNNs are now available for tasks such as the reconstruction of sparsely sampled spectra, peak picking, and virtual decoupling. Here we present a DNN for the analysis of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) data reporting on two- or three-site chemical exchange involving sparse state lifetimes of between approximately 3 - 60 ms, the range most frequently observed via experiment. The work presented here focuses on the 1H CEST class of methods that are further complicated, in relation to applications to other nuclei, by anti-phase features. The developed DNNs accurately predict the chemical shifts of nuclei in the exchanging species directly from anti-phase 1HN CEST profiles, along with an uncertainty associated with the predictions. The performance of the DNN was quantitatively assessed using both synthetic and experimental anti-phase CEST profiles. The assessments show that the DNN accurately determines chemical shifts and their associated uncertainties. The DNNs developed here do not contain any parameters for the end-user to adjust and the method therefore allows for autonomous analysis of complex NMR data that report on conformational exchange.

Benjamin Bender ◽  
Kai Herz ◽  
Anagha Deshmane ◽  
Vivien Richter ◽  
Ghazaleh Tabatabai ◽  

Abstract Objective Clinical relevance of dynamic glucose enhanced (DGE) chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging has mostly been demonstrated at ultra-high field (UHF) due to low effect size. Results of a cohort study at clinical field strength are shown herein. Materials and methods Motion and field inhomogeneity corrected T1ρ‐based DGE (DGE⍴) images were acquired before, during and after a d-glucose injection with 6.3 s temporal resolution to detect accumulation in the brain. Six glioma patients with clear blood–brain barrier (BBB) leakage, two glioma patients with suspected BBB leakage, and three glioma patients without BBB leakage were scanned at 3 T. Results In high-grade gliomas with BBB leakage, d-glucose uptake could be detected in the gadolinium (Gd) enhancing region as well as in the tumor necrosis with a maximum increase of ∆DGE⍴ around 0.25%, whereas unaffected white matter did not show any significant DGE⍴ increase. Glioma patients without Gd enhancement showed no detectable DGE⍴ effect within the tumor. Conclusion First application of DGE⍴ in a patient cohort shows an association between BBB leakage and DGE signal irrespective of the tumor grade. This indicates that glucoCEST corresponds more to the disruptions of BBB with Gd uptake than to the molecular tumor profile or tumor grading.

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