crack formation
Recently Published Documents





Joseph N. Ghoussoub ◽  
Yuanbo T. Tang ◽  
William J. B. Dick-Cleland ◽  
André A. N. Németh ◽  
Yilun Gong ◽  

AbstractThe susceptibility of nickel-based superalloys to processing-induced crack formation during laser powder-bed additive manufacturing is studied. Twelve different alloys—some of existing (heritage) type but also other newly-designed ones—are considered. A strong inter-dependence of alloy composition and processability is demonstrated. Stereological procedures are developed to enable the two dominant defect types found—solidification cracks and solid-state ductility dip cracks—to be distinguished and quantified. Differential scanning calorimetry, creep stress relaxation tests at 1000 °C and measurements of tensile ductility at 800 °C are used to interpret the effects of alloy composition. A model for solid-state cracking is proposed, based on an incapacity to relax the thermal stress arising from constrained differential thermal contraction; its development is supported by experimental measurements using a constrained bar cooling test. A modified solidification cracking criterion is proposed based upon solidification range but including also a contribution from the stress relaxation effect. This work provides fundamental insights into the role of composition on the additive manufacturability of these materials.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 622
Fouzia Mashkoor ◽  
Sun Jin Lee ◽  
Hoon Yi ◽  
Seung Man Noh ◽  
Changyoon Jeong

Self-healing materials have been attracting the attention of the scientists over the past few decades because of their effectiveness in detecting damage and their autonomic healing response. Self-healing materials are an evolving and intriguing field of study that could lead to a substantial increase in the lifespan of materials, improve the reliability of materials, increase product safety, and lower product replacement costs. Within the past few years, various autonomic and non-autonomic self-healing systems have been developed using various approaches for a variety of applications. The inclusion of appropriate functionalities into these materials by various chemistries has enhanced their repair mechanisms activated by crack formation. This review article summarizes various self-healing techniques that are currently being explored and the associated chemistries that are involved in the preparation of self-healing composite materials. This paper further surveys the electronic applications of self-healing materials in the fields of energy harvesting devices, energy storage devices, and sensors. We expect this article to provide the reader with a far deeper understanding of self-healing materials and their healing mechanisms in various electronics applications.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 423
Ko Tomita ◽  
Michael Yit Lin Chew

This paper provides a comprehensive review on the use of infrared thermography to detect delamination on infrastructures and buildings. Approximately 200 pieces of relevant literature were evaluated, and their findings were summarized. The factors affecting the accuracy and detectability of infrared thermography were consolidated and discussed. Necessary measures to effectively capture latent defects at the early stage of delamination before crack formation were investigated. The results of this study could be used as the benchmarks for setting standardized testing criteria as well as for comparison of results for future works on the use of infrared thermography for detection of delamination on infrastructures and buildings.

2022 ◽  
Vol 88 (1) ◽  
pp. 108-116
Hirofumi KAWAMURA ◽  
Hirofumi HIDAI ◽  
Akira CHIBA ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 102619
Hossein Ghasemi-Tabasi ◽  
Charlotte de Formanoir ◽  
Steven Van Petegem ◽  
Jamasp Jhabvala ◽  
Samy Hocine ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1 (114)) ◽  
pp. 81-86
Hassan Abdurssoul Abdulhadi

Die casting is forcing molten metal into a mould with high pressure. Die casting has two dies namely moving die and fixed die where the moving one will move over the fixed die. Die casting is majorly used for high-volume production. This paper focused on the physical phenomenon of die casting for two dies (moving die and fixed die) using two different alloy materials with variable material chemical compositions. The numerical analysis is carried out for the die casting process to determine the crack formation zone by temperature distribution and structural analysis by stress-strain relationship. The numerical analysis is carried out for both the dies. The fixed die is analyzed with an H13 tool steel material with two moving die materials as aluminum alloy (A356) and magnesium alloy (AZ91D). Both the dies (fixed and moving) were designed by using design software and meshing is carried out followed by analysis using the analysis software. The physical parameter for the dies is applied that is temperature distribution is carried out by applying a temperature of 850 °C and 650 °C over the fixed die for aluminum and magnesium alloy, respectively. Structural analysis is carried out for the moving die with a load of 1,000 N for both aluminum and magnesium alloys with 1000  number of iterations. The results from the numerical analysis are derived and analyzed for both temperature distribution and structural analysis. The crack formation zone is found out by means of temperature gradient and the stress-strain relationship is found out by means of structural analysis. From the results, it was concluded that the crack zone is obtained at 1.22E-10 °C/mm and 6.856E-14 °C/mm of thermal gradient and structural analysis in terms of maximum stress of 446.94 MPa and 448.52 MPa for aluminum and magnesium alloys, respectively.

V. N. Lukashevich ◽  
O. D. Lukashevich ◽  
R. I. Mokshin

Purpose: To study the intensity of binder aging in organo-mineral mixtures using electron paramagnetic resonance. The aging intensity of the organic binder is provided by its concentration in paramagnetic centers, since asphaltenes are almost one hundred percent of paramagnet concentration and indicate to the aging intensity of the petroleum dispersion system.Approach: Dispersed reinforcement of substructures with chemical fibers made of spent sorbents containing a controlled amount of absorbed oil products allows to partially solve the problem of crack formation and fracture of road pavements designed in accordance with the regulatory documents.Research implications: The service life of substructure made of dispersely reinforced organo-mineral mixtures reduces owing to organic binder aging, which begins at the stage of preparation of organo-mineral mixtures and continues during the substructure operation. Organic binder ageing results in the formation of solvation layers on the surface of mineral materials that become more viscous and brittle.Findings: The substructure dispersed reinforcement with chemical fibers made of spent sorbents containing a controlled amount of absorbed oil products decreases the concentration of paramagnetic centers. This indicates to a decrease in the asphaltene concentration, thereby reducing the aging intensity of the oil dispersion system.

10.5006/3908 ◽  
2021 ◽  
Carly Cocke ◽  
Rebecca Marshall ◽  
Charles Sprinkle ◽  
Adam Goff ◽  
Robert Kelly ◽  

Aluminum components used in aerospace structures are commonly coupled with stainless-steel fasteners. These through-hole geometries on the aluminum substrate cause a concentrated stress field. The high-stresses at the fastener sites can preferentially initiate coating damage allowing for moisture ingress which can lead to the formation of a galvanic couple between the aluminum alloy and the stainless-steel fastener. Corrosion damage is known to favorably initiate fatigue cracks thus severely reducing the total life of the component. This work aims to understand the relative impact and interaction of fastener hole geometry induced stress concentrations and corrosion damage on the fatigue crack initiation behavior. Specifically, by imparting various levels of corrosion severities at different locations within the macro-scale stress field, the relative impact of each on the initiation process can be determined. This work demonstrated a dominant role of the macro-scale stress field on the crack formation location. Specifically, crack formation was found to preferentially occur at high stress regions in lieu of forming at lower stress regions, regardless of corrosion severity. Critically, the findings of this work will inform the means by which coatings are evaluated and will serve as a controlled validation of experiments for fracture mechanics modeling.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (59) ◽  
pp. 265-310
Siwen Cao ◽  
Andras A. Sipos

Crack formation in hemispherical domes is a distinguished problem in structural mechanics. The safety of cracked domes has a long track record; the evolution of the cracking pattern received less attention. Here, we report displacement-controlled loading tests of brittle hemispherical dome specimens, including the evolution of the meridional cracking pattern. The 27 investigated specimens, 20 cm in diameter, were prepared in 3D printed molds, and their material is one of the three mixtures of gypsum and cement. We find that neither the (limited) tensile strength nor the exact value of the thickness significantly affects the statistical description of the cracking pattern, i.e., the cracking phenomenon is robust. The maximal number of the meridional cracks never exceeds seven before the fragments’ disintegration (collapse). We find that the size distribution of the fragments exhibits a lognormal distribution. The evolution is reflected in the load-displacement diagrams recorded in the test, too, as significant drops in the force are accompanied by an emergence of one or more new cracks, reflecting the brittle nature of the phenomenon. A simple, stochastic fragmentation model, in which a segment is fragmented at either in the middle or at the fourth point, fairly recovers the observed size distribution.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document