critical value
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Nariyuki Nakagiri ◽  
Kazunori Sato ◽  
Yukio Sakisaka ◽  
Kei-ichi Tainaka

AbstractThe infectious disease (COVID-19) causes serious damages and outbreaks. A large number of infected people have been reported in the world. However, such a number only represents those who have been tested; e.g. PCR test. We focus on the infected individuals who are not checked by inspections. The susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) model is modified: infected people are divided into quarantined (Q) and non-quarantined (N) agents. Since N-agents behave like uninfected people, they can move around in a stochastic simulation. Both theory of well-mixed population and simulation of random-walk reveal that the total population size of Q-agents decrease in spite of increasing the number of tests. Such a paradox appears, when the ratio of Q exceeds a critical value. Random-walk simulations indicate that the infection hardly spreads, if the movement of all people is prohibited ("lockdown"). In this case the infected people are clustered and locally distributed within narrow spots. The similar result can be obtained, even when only non-infected people move around. However, when both N-agents and uninfected people move around, the infection spreads everywhere. Hence, it may be important to promote the inspections even for asymptomatic people, because most of N-agents are mild or asymptomatic.

M. Czagány ◽  
D. Koncz-Horváth ◽  
P. Baumli ◽  
G. Kaptay

AbstractIn this paper, 50 … 680 nm thick AlN-Al2O3 coatings are deposited by magnetron sputtering on the surface of a steel substrate and a piece of copper is melted on top of the ceramic. Upon heating the ceramic layer is cracked, and the phase inversion of the two top phases from steel/ceramic/copper configuration to the steel/copper/ceramic configuration takes place within 30 s of liquid time of copper. This phase inversion process is accompanied by a Gibbs energy change of about − 1.78 J/m2, due to good wettability of solid deoxidized steel by liquid copper in contrary to poor wettability of the ceramic by the copper. When copper is melted on AlN-Al2O3 coating with its thicknesses smaller than a critical value of about 170 ± 60 nm, liquid copper droplets hanging down into the cracks within the ceramic reach the solid steel surface at the bottom of the cracks, thus the flow of Cu down along the cracks is enabled. However, when copper is melted on AlN-Al2O3 with its thickness larger than the critical value of 170 ± 60 nm, Cu first forms a non-wetting droplet on top of the ceramics, and only after a certain incubation time it starts flowing down the cracks. This incubation time was found to depend linearly on the thickness of the ceramic, as cracks are filled from the bottom upwards by liquid copper via the evaporation–condensation mechanism. By the end of the process, the steel/copper/ceramic configuration is further stabilized by gravity. Graphical abstract

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Oanh L. Pham ◽  
Samuel E. Feher ◽  
Quoc T. Nguyen ◽  
Dimitrios V. Papavassiliou

AbstractThe configuration of proteins is critical for their biochemical behavior. Mechanical stresses that act on them can affect their behavior leading to the development of decease. The von Willebrand factor (vWF) protein circulating with the blood loses its efficacy when it undergoes non-physiological hemodynamic stresses. While often overlooked, extensional stresses can affect the structure of vWF at much lower stress levels than shear stresses. The statistical distribution of extensional stress as it applies on models of the vWF molecule within turbulent flow was examined here. The stress on the molecules of the protein was calculated with computations that utilized a Lagrangian approach for the determination of the molecule trajectories in the flow filed. The history of the stresses on the proteins was also calculated. Two different flow fields were considered as models of typical flows in cardiovascular mechanical devises, one was a Poiseuille flow and the other was a Poiseuille–Couette flow field. The data showed that the distribution of stresses is important for the design of blood flow devices because the average stress can be below the critical value for protein damage, but tails of the distribution can be outside the critical stress regime.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 619
Zhouli Liu ◽  
Mengdi Chen ◽  
Maosen Lin ◽  
Qinglin Chen ◽  
Qingxuan Lu ◽  

The application of flowering plants is the basis of urban forest construction. A newly-found flowering hyperaccumulator is crucial for remediating urban contaminated soil sustainably by cadmium (Cd). This study evaluated growth responses, Cd uptake and bioaccumulation characteristics of seven urban flowering plants. Based on growth responses of these plants, Calendula officinalis L. showed high tolerance to at least 100 mg kg−1 Cd, in terms of significant increase in biomass and with no obvious changes in height. After 60 d exposure to 100 mg kg−1 Cd, the accumulated Cd in shoots of the plant reached 279.51 ± 13.67 μg g−1 DW, which is above the critical value defined for a hyperaccumulator (100 μg g−1 DW for Cd). Meanwhile, the plant could accumulate Cd to as much as 926.68 ± 29.11 μg g−1 DW in root and 1206.19 ± 23.06 μg g−1 DW in plant, and had higher Cd uptake and bioaccumulation values. According to these traits, it is shown that Calendula officinalis L. can become a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator for phytoremediation. By contrast, Dianthus caryophyllus L. is very sensitive to Cd stress in terms of significantly decreased biomass, height and Cd uptake, indicating the plant is considered as a Cd-bioindicator.

2022 ◽  
Vol 92 (3) ◽  
pp. 414
М.А. Зеликман

The analysis of possible current distributions when passing current through a periodically modulated long Josephson contact located in an external magnetic field is carried out. An approach based on the analysis of continuous configuration modification proceeding in the direction of Gibbs potential reduction is used for the calculation. The case when the pinning parameter is less than the critical value is considered. It is shown that at any value of the external magnetic field, there is a critical value of the transport current, when exceeded, the situation ceases to be stationary, as a result of which energy passes into radiation and heat, i.e. currents cease to be persistent. The value of the critical current is determined by the value of the magnetic field at which the vortices begin to fill the entire length of the contact. With an increase in the external magnetic field, the critical value of the current decreases.

2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
pp. 1-8
Makkia Dammak ◽  
Majdi El Ghord ◽  
Saber Ali Kharrati

Abstract: In this note, we deal with the Helmholtz equation −∆u+cu = λf(u) with Dirichlet boundary condition in a smooth bounded domain Ω of R n , n > 1. The nonlinearity is superlinear that is limt−→∞ f(t) t = ∞ and f is a positive, convexe and C 2 function defined on [0,∞). We establish existence of regular solutions for λ small enough and the bifurcation phenomena. We prove the existence of critical value λ ∗ such that the problem does not have solution for λ > λ∗ even in the weak sense. We also prove the existence of a type of stable solutions u ∗ called extremal solutions. We prove that for f(t) = e t , Ω = B1 and n ≤ 9, u ∗ is regular.

2022 ◽  
pp. 30-49
Mansi Jadeja ◽  
Jamila Firdaus

The need to understand the quality of life of people with intellectual disability is crucial as this mental disability is considered to be a major setback for any individual and his/her family. Current researches focus on creating an equal platform to understand intellectual disability in order to gain more acceptances from the masses, especially for the families who have a member suffering from intellectual disability. The age of the family member and available care taking measures are also of critical value. Models of therapy/interventions drawn from previous evidence-based practices give a bright picture.

2022 ◽  
pp. 54-77

This chapter reviews the need for critical thinking and analysis and the art of reasoning and looks at quantitative and qualitative research methodologies and the situations where they are appropriate. The chapter reviews the question of why the analysis required for business development is so critical. Why is gathering the information needed for business development more difficult than gathering information for information systems development? To understand these questions, it is necessary to review the range and complexity of the information required for business research and analysis. The internal performance data must be evaluated and the actual economic position of the organisation established. The critical value elements of the organisation's resources need to be identified and the competencies established. The competitive environment must be researched together with the external factors that impact the organization, and all the interactions that result must be evaluated.

2022 ◽  
pp. 746-776
Jeya Mala Dharmalingam

Software quality is imperative for industrial strength software. This quality will be often determined by a few components present in the software which decides the entire functionality. If any of these components are not rigorously tested, the quality will be highly affected. Without knowing which of these components are really critical, it will not be possible to perform high level testing. Hence, to predict such fault-prone or critical components from the software prior to testing and prioritizing them during the testing process, an agent-based approach is proposed in this chapter. The framework developed as part of this work will certainly reduce the field failures and thus will improve the software quality. Further, this approach has also utilized important metrics to predict such components and also prioritized the components based on their critical value. Also, the work proposed in this research has also been compared with some of the existing approaches and the results reveal that, this work is a novel one and can both predict and test the components from the software.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document