vaccine responses
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Science ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 375 (6577) ◽  
pp. 183-192
Author(s):  
Catherine J. Reynolds ◽  
Joseph M. Gibbons ◽  
Corinna Pade ◽  
Kai-Min Lin ◽  
Diana Muñoz Sandoval ◽  
...  

Immune imprinting For severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), immune responses to heterologous variants are influenced by a person’s infection history. Healthcare workers (HCWs) may be exposed to several doses and types of antigens, either by natural infection or by vaccination. Reynolds et al . studied a cohort of UK HCWs followed since March 2020. The immunological profiles of these people depended on how often the subject had encountered antigen and which variant was involved. Vaccine responses after infection were found to be less effective if the infection involved heterologous spike from a variant virus. Unfortunately, the N501Y spike mutation, found in many variants, seems to induce the regulatory T cell transcription factor FOXP3, indicating that the virus could subvert effective T cell function. Changes to antibody binding between variants also means that serology data using the Wuhan Hu-1 S1 receptor-binding domain sequence may not be a reliable measure of protection. —CA


Author(s):  
Benjamin L. Sievers ◽  
Saborni Chakraborty ◽  
Yong Xue ◽  
Terri Gelbart ◽  
Joseph C. Gonzalez ◽  
...  

Multiple severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that possess mutations associated with increased transmission and antibody escape have arisen over the course of the current pandemic. Although the current vaccines have largely been effective against past variants, the number of mutations found on the Omicron (B.1.1.529) spike protein appear to diminish the protection conferred by pre-existing immunity. Using vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) pseudoparticles expressing the spike protein of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, we evaluated the magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response over time in individuals after infection and in mRNA-vaccinated individuals. We observed that boosting increases the magnitude of the antibody response to wildtype (D614), Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants; however, the Omicron variant was the most resistant to neutralization. We further observed that vaccinated healthy adults had robust and broad antibody responses whereas responses may have been reduced in vaccinated pregnant women, underscoring the importance of learning how to maximize mRNA vaccine responses in pregnant populations. Findings from this study show substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude and breadth of responses after infection and mRNA vaccination and may support the addition of more conserved viral antigens to existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ida Wang Henriksen ◽  
Josue Leonardo Castro Mejia ◽  
Caroline Martha Junker Mentzel ◽  
Frederikke Lindenberg ◽  
Axel Kornerup Hansen

AbstractSeveral mammalian species are vaccinated in early life, but little is known about the effect of diet on vaccine response. Oligosaccharides are increasingly proposed as dietary supplement for young individuals due to their anti-inflammatory potential elicited through modulation of gut microbiota (GM). Also, diet, e.g. the size of the fat fraction, is known to modulate the GM. We tested if an oligosaccharide diet (Immulix) and/or increased dietary fat content affected antibody titers to a tetanus vaccine in 48 BALB/cJTac mice through GM modulation. Female mice had significantly higher IgG titers with higher variation compared to male mice. The effects of Immulix and/or increased fat content were minor. Immulix negatively affected IgG titers in male mice four weeks after secondary vaccination but upregulated Il1b gene expression in the spleen. Immulix had a downregulating effect on expression of Cd4 and Foxp3 in ileum only if the mice were fed the diet with increased fat. The diet with increased dietary fat increased Il1b but decreased Cd8a gene expression in the spleen. Immulix and diet affected GM composition significantly. Increased dietary fat content upregulated Lactobacillus animalis but downregulated an unclassified Prevotella spp. Immulix decreased Lactobacillales, Streptococcaceae and Prevotellaceae but increased Bacteroides. It is concluded that in spite of some minor influences on immune cell markers, cytokines and IgG titers Immulix feeding or increased dietary fat content did not have any biologically relevant effects on tetanus vaccine responses in this experiment in mice.


Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 124
Author(s):  
Mundeep K. Kainth ◽  
Joanna S. Fishbein ◽  
Teresa Aydillo ◽  
Alba Escalera ◽  
Rachael Odusanya ◽  
...  

The most effective intervention for influenza prevention is vaccination. However, there are conflicting data on influenza vaccine antibody responses in obese children. Cardio-metabolic parameters such as waist circumference, cholesterol, insulin sensitivity, and blood pressure are used to subdivide individuals with overweight or obese BMI into ‘healthy’ (MHOO) or ‘unhealthy’ (MUOO) metabolic phenotypes. The ever-evolving metabolic phenotypes in children may be elucidated by using vaccine stimulation to characterize cytokine responses. We conducted a prospective cohort study evaluating influenza vaccine responses in children. Participants were identified as either normal-weight children (NWC) or overweight/obese using BMI. Children with obesity were then characterized using metabolic health metrics. These metrics consisted of changes in serum cytokine and chemokine concentrations measured via multiplex assay at baseline and repeated at one month following vaccination. Changes in NWC, MHOO and MUOO were compared using Chi-square/Fisher’s exact test for antibody responses and Kruskal–Wallis test for cytokines. Differences in influenza antibody responses in normal, MHOO and MUOO children were statistically indistinguishable. IL-13 was decreased in MUOO children compared to NWC and MHOO children (p = 0.04). IL-10 approached a statistically significant decrease in MUOO compared to MHOO and NWC (p = 0.07). Influenza vaccination does not provoke different responses in NCW, MHOO, or MUOO children, suggesting that obesity, whether metabolically healthy or unhealthy, does not alter the efficacy of vaccination. IL-13 levels in MUO children were significantly different from levels in normal and MHOO children, indicating that the metabolically unhealthy phenotypes may be associated with an altered inflammatory response. A larger sample size with greater numbers of metabolically unhealthy children may lend more insight into the relationship of chronic inflammation secondary to obesity with vaccine immunity.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Dinesh Mohanraj ◽  
Samuel Baldwin ◽  
Satbeer Singh ◽  
Alun Gordon ◽  
Alison Whitelegg

Abstract Objective: SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations have demonstrated vaccine-immunogenicity in healthy volunteers, however, efficacy in immunosuppressed patients is less well characterised. There is an urgent need to address the impact of immunosuppression on vaccine immunogenicity. Methods: Serological, T-cell ELISpot, cytokines and immunophenotyping assays were used to assess vaccine responses (either BNT162b2 mRNA or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) in double-vaccinated patients receiving immunosuppression for renal transplants or haematological malignancies (n=13). Immunological responses in immunosuppressed patients (VACC-IS) were compared to immunocompetent vaccinated (VACC-IC, n=12), unvaccinated (UNVACC, n=11) and infection-naïve unvaccinated (HC, n=3) cohorts. All participants, except HC, had prior COVID-19 infection. Results: T-cell responses were identical between VACC-IS and VACC-IC (92%) to spike-peptide (S) stimulation. UNVACC had the highest T-cell non-responders (n=3), whereas VACC-IC and VACC-IS both had one T-cell non-responder. No significant differences in humoral responses were observed between VACC-IC and VACC-IS, with 92% (12/13) of VACC-IS patients demonstrating seropositivity. One VACC-IS failed to seroconvert, however had detectable T-cell responses. All VACC-IC participants were seropositive for anti-spike antibodies. VACC-IS and VACC-IC participants elicited strong Th1 cytokine response with immunodominance towards S-peptide. Differences in T-cell immunophenotyping were seen between VACC-IS and VACC-IC, with lower CD8+ activation and T-effector memory phenotype observed in VACC-IS. Conclusion: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are immunogenic in patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy, with responses comparable to vaccinated immunocompetent participants. Lower humoral responses were seen in patients treated with B-cell depleting therapeutics, but with preserved T-cell responses. We suggest further work to correlate both protective immunity and longevity of these responses in both healthy and immunosuppressed patients.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Adrian M Shields ◽  
Sian E. Faustini ◽  
Harriet J. Hill ◽  
Saly Al-Taei ◽  
Chloe Tanner ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Vaccination prevents severe morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 in the general population. The immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with antibody deficiency is poorly understood. Objectives COVID in patients with antibody deficiency (COV-AD) is a multi-site United Kingdom study that aims to determine the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination in patients with primary or secondary antibody deficiency, a population that suffers from severe and recurrent infection and does not respond well to vaccination. Methods Individuals on immunoglobulin replacement therapy or with an IgG less than 4g/L receiving antibiotic prophylaxis were recruited from April 2021. Serological and cellular responses were determined using ELISA, live-virus neutralisation and interferon gamma release assays. SARS-CoV-2 infection and clearance were determined by PCR from serial nasopharyngeal swabs. Results 5.6% (n=320) of the cohort reported prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, but only 0.3% remained PCR positive on study entry. Seropositivity, following two doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, was 54.8% (n=168) compared with 100% of healthy controls (n=205). The magnitude of the antibody response and its neutralising capacity were both significantly reduced compared to controls. Participants vaccinated with the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine were more likely to be seropositive (65.7% vs 48.0%, p=0.03) and have higher antibody levels compared with the AstraZeneca vaccine (IgGAM ratio 3.73 vs 2.39, p=0.0003). T cell responses post vaccination were demonstrable in 46.2% of participants, were associated with better antibody responses but there was no difference between the two vaccines. Eleven vaccine-breakthrough infections have occurred to date, 10 of them in recipients of the AstraZeneca vaccine. Conclusion SARS-CoV-2 vaccines demonstrate reduced immunogenicity in patients with antibody deficiency with evidence of vaccine breakthrough infection.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Benjamin L. Sievers ◽  
Saborni Chakraborty ◽  
Yong Xue ◽  
Terri Gelbart ◽  
Joseph C. Gonzalez ◽  
...  

Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants that possess mutations associated with increased transmission and antibody escape have arisen over the course of the current pandemic. While the current vaccines have largely been effective against past variants, the number of mutations found on the Omicron (B.1.529) spike appear to diminish the efficacy of pre-existing immunity. Using pseudoparticles expressing the spike of several SARS-CoV-2 variants, we evaluated the magnitude and breadth of the neutralizing antibody response over time in naturally infected and in mRNA-vaccinated individuals. We observed that while boosting increases the magnitude of the antibody response to wildtype (D614), Beta, Delta and Omicron variants, the Omicron variant was the most resistant to neutralization. We further observed that vaccinated healthy adults had robust and broad antibody responses while responses were relatively reduced in vaccinated pregnant women, underscoring the importance of learning how to maximize mRNA vaccine responses in pregnant populations. Findings from this study show substantial heterogeneity in the magnitude and breadth of responses after infection and mRNA vaccination and may support the addition of more conserved viral antigens to existing SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


RMD Open ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. e001898
Author(s):  
Cristiana Sieiro Santos ◽  
Sara Calleja Antolin ◽  
Clara Moriano Morales ◽  
Juan Garcia Herrero ◽  
Elvira Diez Alvarez ◽  
...  

BackgroundPatients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases (IMRDs) are commonly treated with immunosuppressors and prone to infections. Recently introduced mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have demonstrated extraordinary efficacy across all ages. Immunosuppressed patients were excluded from phase III trials with SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines.AimsTo fully characterise B-cell and T-cell immune responses elicited by mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in patients with rheumatic diseases under immunotherapies, and to identify which drugs reduce vaccine’s immunogenicity.MethodsHumoral, CD4 and CD8 immune responses were investigated in 100 naïve patients with SARS-CoV-2 with selected rheumatic diseases under immunosuppression after a two-dose regimen of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. Responses were compared with age, gender and disease-matched patients with IMRD not receiving immunosuppressors and with healthy controls.ResultsPatients with IMRD showed decreased seroconversion rates (80% vs 100%, p=0.03) and cellular immune responses (75% vs 100%, p=0.02). Patients on methotrexate achieved seroconversion in 62% of cases and cellular responses in 80% of cases. Abatacept decreased humoral and cellular responses. Rituximab (31% responders) and belimumab (50% responders) showed impaired humoral responses, but cellular responses were often preserved. Antibody titres were reduced with mycophenolate and azathioprine but preserved with leflunomide and anticytokines.ConclusionsPatients with IMRD exhibit impaired SARS-CoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity, variably reduced with immunosuppressors. Among commonly used therapies, abatacept and B-cell depleting therapies show deleterious effects, while anticytokines preserved immunogenicity. The effects of cumulative methotrexate and glucocorticoid doses on immunogenicity should be considered. Humoral and cellular responses are weakly correlated, but CD4 and CD8 tightly correlate. Seroconversion alone might not reflect the vaccine’s immunogenicity.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Krishna Mohan Vadrevu ◽  
Siddharth Reddy ◽  
Harsh Jogdand ◽  
Brunda Ganneru ◽  
Nizam Mirza ◽  
...  

Background: We assessed the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of BBV152 in an open-label age de–escalation study in three age cohorts of children from 18 years of age down to 2 years of age. Methods: This was a phase 2/3 open–label, multi–centre study done across six hospitals in India. All children received two 0.5mL doses of BBV152 (Covaxin®, Bharat Biotech International Ltd., Hyderabad, India), which is the same formulation indicated in adults. Participants were monitored for adverse events, and post-vaccination blood draws were collected to assess neutralising antibodies. A total of 526 children were enrolled into Group 1 (ages 12 through 18 years, n=176), Group 2 (ages 6 through 12 years, n=175), Group 3 (ages 2 through 6 years, n=175). Findings: There were no serious adverse events, deaths, or withdrawals due to an adverse event during the study. Vaccination with BBV152 was generally well tolerated, with no substantial difference in reactogenicity profiles between the different age groups. Similar immune responses were measured as microneutralisation (MNT) antibody titers in all three age groups. Vaccine-induced MNT responses in all groups were comparable to BEI reference sera run in the same assay. Seroconversion (measured by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT)) achieved high levels (95–98%) in all three groups four weeks after the second vaccination. The PRNT GMT ratio was 1.76 (95%CI: 1.32–2.33) (GMT all children subgroup / GMT in adults) had a lower limit ≥ 1, indicating superior antibodies in children when compared to adults. Vaccine responses were skewed towards a Th1 response with IgG1/IgG4 ratios above 1. Interpretation: BBV152 is well tolerated and immunogenic in children from 18 years down to 2 years of age. Immunogenicity analysis (by PRNT) shows superior antibody responses were observed in children compared to adults, suggesting that BBV152 will also be efficacious in this age group.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nitin Hingankar ◽  
Suprit Deshpande ◽  
Payel Das ◽  
Zaigham Abbas Rizvi ◽  
Alison Burns ◽  
...  

Although efficacious vaccines have significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19, there remains an unmet medical need for treatment options, which monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) can potentially fill. This unmet need is exacerbated by the emergence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that have shown some resistance to vaccine responses. Here we report the isolation of two highly potently neutralizing mAbs (THSC20.HVTR04 and THSC20.HVTR26) from an Indian convalescent donor, that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 VOCs at picomolar concentrations including the delta variant (B.1.617.2). These two mAbs target non-overlapping epitopes on the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein thereby preventing the virus attachment to its host receptor, human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (hACE2). Furthermore, the mAb cocktail demonstrated protection against the Delta variant at low antibody doses when passively administered in the K18 hACE2 transgenic mice model, highlighting their potential as cocktail for prophylactic and therapeutic applications. Developing the capacity to rapidly discover and develop mAbs effective against highly transmissible pathogens like coronaviruses at a local level, especially in a low- and middle-income country (LMIC) such as India, will enable prompt responses to future pandemics as an important component of global pandemic preparedness.


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