cd stress
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Zhiguo Zhang ◽  
Chengnan Ma ◽  
Youbiao Hu ◽  
Yonghong Zheng ◽  
Fangling Chen ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 619
Zhouli Liu ◽  
Mengdi Chen ◽  
Maosen Lin ◽  
Qinglin Chen ◽  
Qingxuan Lu ◽  

The application of flowering plants is the basis of urban forest construction. A newly-found flowering hyperaccumulator is crucial for remediating urban contaminated soil sustainably by cadmium (Cd). This study evaluated growth responses, Cd uptake and bioaccumulation characteristics of seven urban flowering plants. Based on growth responses of these plants, Calendula officinalis L. showed high tolerance to at least 100 mg kg−1 Cd, in terms of significant increase in biomass and with no obvious changes in height. After 60 d exposure to 100 mg kg−1 Cd, the accumulated Cd in shoots of the plant reached 279.51 ± 13.67 μg g−1 DW, which is above the critical value defined for a hyperaccumulator (100 μg g−1 DW for Cd). Meanwhile, the plant could accumulate Cd to as much as 926.68 ± 29.11 μg g−1 DW in root and 1206.19 ± 23.06 μg g−1 DW in plant, and had higher Cd uptake and bioaccumulation values. According to these traits, it is shown that Calendula officinalis L. can become a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator for phytoremediation. By contrast, Dianthus caryophyllus L. is very sensitive to Cd stress in terms of significantly decreased biomass, height and Cd uptake, indicating the plant is considered as a Cd-bioindicator.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shobhika Parmar ◽  
Vijay K. Sharma ◽  
Tao Li ◽  
Wenting Tang ◽  
Haiyan Li

Phytoremediation is a promising remediation method of heavy metal (HM)–contaminated soils. However, lower HM tolerance of metal accumulator inhibits its practical application and effects. The current study was aimed to illustrate the role of fungal seed endophyte (FZT214) in improving Dysphania ambrosioides Cd tolerance during different developmental stages under various Cd stresses (5, 15, 30 mg kg–1) by pot experiments. The results showed that FZT214 significantly (p < 0.05) improved the host plant’s growth at the flowering and fruiting stage in most of the treatment, while at the growing stage the increase was less (p > 0.05). The seed yield was also improved (p < 0.05) in the FZT214-inoculated plants (E+) and induced early flowering was observed. Moreover, the inoculation also positively affected total chlorophyll content, antioxidant process, and lipid peroxidation in most of the treatments throughout three developmental stages. Not all but in most cases, IAA and GA were more in E+ plants while JA was more in the E− plants (non-inoculated plants) during three developmental stages. The results suggested that the colonization of FZT214 to the D. ambrosioides might trigger multiple and comprehensive protective strategies against Cd stress, which mainly include activation of the dilution effects, induced biochemical changes to overcome damage from Cd toxicity, and alteration of the endogenous phytohormones. FZT214 can find competent application in the future to improve the growth of other crop plants.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 332
Jiajie Meng ◽  
Xinming Gao ◽  
Shengyu Luo ◽  
Chenwen Lin ◽  
Chen Du ◽  

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal toxicant and is widely distributed in aquatic environments. It can cause excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the organism, which in turn leads to a series of oxidative damages. Thioredoxin (Trx), a highly conserved disulfide reductase, plays an important role in maintaining the intracellular redox homeostasis in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phascolosoma esculenta is an edible marine worm, an invertebrate that is extensively found on the mudflats of coastal China. To explore the molecular response of Trx in mudflat organisms under Cd stress, we identified a new Trx isoform (Trx-like protein 1 gene) from P. esculenta for the first time, designated as PeTrxl. Molecular and structural characterization, as well as multiple sequence and phylogenetic tree analysis, demonstrated that PeTrxl belongs to the Trx superfamily. PeTrxl transcripts were found to be ubiquitous in all tissues, and the highest expression level occurred in the coelomic fluid. Exposure to three sublethal concentrations of Cd resulted in the upregulation and then downregulation of PeTrxl expression levels over time in coelomic fluid of P. esculenta. The significant elevation of PeTrxl expression after 12 and 24 h of Cd exposure at 6 and 96 mg/L, respectively, might reflect its important role in the resistance to Cd stress. Recombinant PeTrxl (rPeTrxl) showed prominent dose-dependent insulin-reducing and ABTS free radical-scavenging abilities. After exposure to 96 mg/L Cd for 24 h, the ROS level increased significantly in the coelomic fluid, suggesting that Cd induced oxidative stress in P. esculenta. Furthermore, the injection of rPeTrxl during Cd exposure significantly reduced the ROS in the coelomic fluid. Our data suggest that PeTrxl has significant antioxidant capacity and can protect P. esculenta from Cd-induced oxidative stress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Md Abdul Halim ◽  
Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman ◽  
Debapriya Mondal ◽  
Mallavarapu Megharaj ◽  
Ravi Naidu

Farmers use wastewater for irrigation in many developing countries, for example Bangladesh, India, China, Sri Lanka and Vietnam because they have limited access to clean water. This study explored cadmium (Cd) bioaccumulation in two spring wheat cultivars (cv. Mustang and Lancer), which were grown in different concentrations of Cd (0,1, 2, 4, and 8 mg kg−1) in agricultural soils. The half maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) values were 4.21 ± 0.29 and 4.02 ± 0.95, respectively, whereas the maximum health risk index (HRI) was 3.85 ± 0.049 and 5.33 ± 0.271, respectively, for Mustang and Lancer. In other words, the malondialdehyde content increased significantly in Mustang (around five-fold) and Lancer (around four-fold) compared with the control treatment. Results revealed that Cd content was well above the acceptable limit (HRI >1) in the two cultivars when exposed to different levels of Cd stress. The tolerant cultivar (Mustang) has potential to chelate Cd in the nonedible parts of plants in variable fractions and can be used efficiently to improve growth and macro- and micro-nutrients content while reducing Cd concentration in plants in Cd-contaminated soil. It can also diminish the HRI, which may help to protect humans from Cd risks. The two cultivars’ nutrient availability and sorption capacity significantly shape their survival and adaptability under Cd stress. Based on what is documented in the current study, we can conclude that Mustang is more tolerant and poses fewer health hazards to people than Lancer because of its capacity to maintain grain macro- and micro-nutrients under Cd stress.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 10
Dyaaaldin Abdalmegeed ◽  
Gan Zhao ◽  
Pengfei Cheng ◽  
Javaid A. Bhat ◽  
Wajid Ali Khattak ◽  

Whether or not hydrogen gas (H2) can reduce cadmium (Cd) toxicity in Ganoderma lucidum has remained largely unknown. Here, we report that Cd-induced growth inhibition in G. lucidum was significantly alleviated by H2 fumigation or hydrogen-rich water (HRW), evaluated by lower oxidative damage and Cd accumulation. Moreover, the amelioration effects of H2 fumigation were better than of HRW in an optimum concentration of H2 under our experimental conditions. Further results showed that H2-alleviated growth inhibition in G. lucidum was accompanied by increased nitric oxide (NO) level and nitrate reductase (NR) activity under Cd stress. On the other hand, the mitigation effects were reversed after removing endogenous NO with its scavenger cPTIO or inhibiting H2-induced NR activity with sodium tungstate. The role of NO in H2-alleviated growth inhibition under Cd stress was proved to be achieved through a restoration of redox balance, an increase in cysteine and proline contents, and a reduction in Cd accumulation. In summary, these results clearly revealed that NR-dependent NO might be involved in the H2-alleviated Cd toxicity in G. lucidum through rebuilding redox homeostasis, increasing cysteine and proline levels, and reducing Cd accumulation. These findings may open a new window for H2 application in Cd-stressed economically important fungi.

2021 ◽  
Marzieh Babashpour-Asl ◽  
Elnaz Farajzadeh Memari Tabrizi ◽  
Afsaneh Yousefpour-Dokhanieh

Abstract Since large areas of agricultural soils around the world are contaminated by Cd, a cost-effective and practical method is needed for the safe production of edible plants. The effective role of many nanomaterials to improve plant yield and alleviate environmental pollutions is addressed; however, selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) potential has not been well-known yet. The aim of this work was to investigate foliar application of Se-NPs on yield, water content, proline concentration, phenolic content, lipid peroxidation, and essential oil (EO) attributes of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) under Cd stress. This study consisted of Cd contamination (0, 4, and 8 mg L-1) and foliar application of Se-NPs (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg L-1) in a hydroponic system. The results showed enhanced Cd concentration of root and shoot of coriander under Cd stress; however, Se-NPs alleviate the uptake of Cd. There were observed the decreased shoot and root weight, chlorophyll (Chl) content and relative water content (RWC) by progressing Cd toxicity, but Se-NPs improved these attributes. Moderate Cd stress and 40 or 60 mg L-1 Se-NPs increased phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as EO yield. Proline concentration and malondialdehid (MDA) increased by enhancing Cd stress, but Se-NPs decreased MDA. The GC/MS analysis showed that the main EO constitutes were n-decanal (18.80-29.70%), 2E-dodecanal (14.23-19.87%), 2E-decanal (12.60-19.40%), and n-nonane (7.23-12.87%), representing different amounts under Cd pollution and Se-NPs. To sum up, 40-60 mg L-1 Se-NPs are effective in alleviating Cd stress.

Antioxidants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1973
Shengjun Feng ◽  
Yanghui Shen ◽  
Huinan Xu ◽  
Junyang Dong ◽  
Kexin Chen ◽  

Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and has become a major force for cucumber production in China. In highly intensive GVP systems, excessive fertilization results in soil acidification, increasing Cd accumulation and oxidative stress damage in vegetables as well as increasing health risk of vegetable consumers. Therefore, enhancing antioxidant capacity and activating the expression level of Cd transporter genes seem to be feasible solutions to promote plant resistance to Cd stress and to reduce accumulated Cd concentration. Here, we used transcriptomics to identify five cucumber transporter genes (CsNRAMP1, CsNRAMP4, CsHMA1, CsZIP1, and CsZIP8) in response to cadmium stress, which were involved in Cd transport activity in yeast. Ionomics, gene expression, and REDOX reaction level association analyses have shown that the transcript of CsNRAMP4 was positively correlated with Cd accumulation and antioxidant capacity of cucumber roots. The expression level of CsHMA1 was negatively correlated with Cd-induced antioxidant capacity. The overexpression of CsHMA1 significantly relieved Cd stress-induced antioxidant activities. In addition, shoots with high CsHMA2 expression remarkably presented Cd bioaccumulation. Grafting experiments confirmed that CsHMA1 contributed to the high antioxidant capacity of cucumber, while CsHMA2 was responsible for the transport of Cd from the roots to the shoots. Our study elucidated a novel regulatory mechanism for Cd transport and oxidative damage removal in horticultural melons and provided a perspective to regulate Cd transport artificially by modulating Cd accumulation and resistance in plants.

2021 ◽  
Tingting An ◽  
Yamin Gao ◽  
Qiqiang Kuang ◽  
Yujie Wu ◽  
Qamar uz Zaman ◽  

Abstract Background and aims Cadmium (Cd) contamination is a serious threat to plants and humans. Silicon (Si) was reported to have some alleviative effects on plant tolerance to Cd stress. However, whether Si alleviates Cd toxicity in maize genotypes with contrasting root system size are unknown. Methods Effects of Si applications (0 and 200 mg kg-1 soil) on shoot and root growth, Cd uptake and transportation under Cd treatments (0 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were assessed at the silking and maturity of maize genotypes Zhongke11 (large-rooted) and Shengrui999 (small-rooted) in a pot experiment. Results Root dry weight, plant height and root length were significantly affected by Si addition. Root volume and average root diameter were significantly positively correlated with root Cd concentration, bioaccumulation and translocation factor, respectively, of two maize genotypes at the silking stage. Addition of Si significantly increased Cd concentration, content, bioconcentration and translocation factor in roots of Zhongke11, but reduced the values of these parameters in Shengrui9999 at both growth stages. Under Cd stress, grain Cd concentration in the Si treatment was decreased by 14.4% (Zhongke11) and 21.4% (Shengrui999) than that in non-Si treatment. Grain yield was significantly negatively correlated with root Cd accumulation. Moreover, addition of Si significantly reduced Cd daily intake and health risk index in maize.Conclusions This study demonstrated that addition of Si reduced health risk by eliminating Cd accumulation in maize shoot and grain, and alleviated Cd stress with more profound effects in the small-rooted genotype Shengrui999.

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