abc transporters
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2022 ◽  
Miguel Silva ◽  
Carla Calçada ◽  
Nuno Osório ◽  
Vitória Baptista ◽  
Vandana Thathy ◽  

Abstract Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporters play an important role in mediating solute or drug transport across cellular membranes. Although this class of transporters has been well characterized in diverse organisms little is known about the physiological roles in Plasmodium falciparum, the deadliest malaria parasite species. We studied the Plasmodium falciparum Multidrug Resistance-associated Protein 1 (PfMRP1; PF3D7_0112200), an ABC transporter localized to the parasite plasma membrane, generating genetic disrupted parasites. We demonstrate that parasites with disrupted pfmrp1 are resistant to folate analogs, methotrexate and aminopterin, with antimalarial activity. This phenotype occurs due to reduction in compound accumulation in the parasite cytoplasm. Phylogenetic analysis supports pfmrp1 being distantly related to ABC transporters in other eukaryotes, suggesting an unusual function. We propose that PfMRP1 can act as a solute importer, a function not previously observed in this organism.

2022 ◽  
Jing Chen ◽  
Xuesong Zhao ◽  
Shanhong Ni ◽  
Yuanyuan Zhang ◽  
Xiuli Wu ◽  

This study investigated if artemisinin-chrysosplenetin combination (ART-CHR) improved ART antimalarial efficacy against resistant Plasmodium berghei K173 via depressing host ABC transporter and potential molecular mechanism. Parasitaemia% and inhibition% were calculated and gene/protein expressions of ABC transporters or PXR/CAR/NF-κB p52 were detected by Western-blot and RT-qPCR. In vitro transcription of PXR/CAR was studied by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Our data indicated that ART-CHR improved ART efficacy against resistant parasites. P-gp inhibitor verapamil and CHR showed a stronger effect in killing resistant parasites while vehicle and Bcrp inhibitor novobiocin did not. ART activated intestinal ABCB1/ABCG2 and CHR inhibited them. ART decreased Bcrp protein whereas CHR increased it. ART ascended ABCC1/ABCC4/ABCC5 mRNA but ART-CHR descended them. CHR as well as rifampin (RIF) or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) increased transcription levels of PXR/CAR while showed a versatile regulation on in vivo hepatic and enternal PXR/CAR in Mdr1a+/+ (WT) or Mdr1a-/- (KO) mice infected with sensitive or resistant parasites. Oppositely, hepatic and enteric N-7κB p52 mRNA was conformably decreased in WT but increased in KO-resistant mice. NF-κB pathway should potentially involved in the mechanism of CHR on inhibiting ABC transporters and ART resistance while PXR/CAR play a more complicated role in this mechanism.

Lilan Sun ◽  
Lang Sun ◽  
Xue Li ◽  
Xinxin Hu ◽  
Xiukun Wang ◽  

The increasing incidence of tigecycline resistance undoubtedly constitutes a serious threat to global public health. The combination therapies had become the indispensable strategy against this threat. Herein, 11 clinical tigecycline-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae which mainly has mutations in ramR, acrR, or macB were collected for tigecycline adjuvant screening. Interestingly, ML-7 hydrochloride (ML-7) dramatically potentiated tigecycline activity. We further picked up five analogs of ML-7 and evaluated their synergistic activities with tigecycline by using checkerboard assay. The results revealed that ML-7 showed certain synergy with tigecycline, while other analogs exerted attenuated synergistic effects among tigecycline-resistant isolates. Thus, ML-7 was selected for further investigation. The results from growth curves showed that ML-7 combined with tigecycline could completely inhibit the growth of bacteria, and the time-kill analysis revealed that the combination exhibited synergistic bactericidal activities for tigecycline-resistant isolates during 24 h. The ethidium bromide (EtBr) efflux assay demonstrated that ML-7 could inhibit the functions of efflux pump. Besides, ML-7 disrupted the proton motive force (PMF) via increasing ΔpH, which in turn lead to the inhibition of the functions of efflux pump, reduction of intracellular ATP levels, as well as accumulation of ROS. All of which promoted the death of bacteria. And further transcriptomic analysis revealed that genes related to the mechanism of ML-7 mainly enriched in ABC transporters. Taken together, these results revealed the potential of ML-7 as a novel tigecycline adjuvant to circumvent tigecycline-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae.

eFood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Hui Teng ◽  
Hongting Deng ◽  
Yuanju He ◽  
Qiyan Lv ◽  
Lei Chen

Flavonoids are widely existing compounds with enormous pharmacological effects from food and medicine. However, the low bioavailability in intestinal absorption and metabolism limits their clinical application. Intestinal efflux ABC (ATP binding cassette) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), act as "pumping doors" to regulate the efflux of flavonoids from intestinal epithelial cells into the intestinal cavity or the systemic circulation. The present review describes the critical effect of ABC transporters involved in the efflux of flavonoids which depend on its efflux direction. And the role of flavonoids for modulation of intestinal ABC transporters was emphasized and several examples were given. We summarized that the resistance effect of flavonoid-mediated multidrug on ABC transporters may influence the bioavailability of drugs, bioactive ingredients and/or toxic compounds upon dietary uptake. Meanwhile, flavonoids functionalized as reversing agents of the ABC transporter may be an important mechanism for unexpected food-drug, food-toxin or food-food interactions. The overview also indicates that elucidation of the action and mechanism of the intestinal metabolic enzymes-efflux transporters coupling will lay a foundation for improving the bioavailability of flavonoids <i>in vivo</i> and increasing their clinical efficacy.

IUCrJ ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
Dongqing Pan ◽  
Ryo Oyama ◽  
Tomomi Sato ◽  
Takanori Nakane ◽  
Ryo Mizunuma ◽  

CmABCB1 is a Cyanidioschyzon merolae homolog of human ABCB1, a well known ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter responsible for multi-drug resistance in various cancers. Three-dimensional structures of ABCB1 homologs have revealed the snapshots of inward- and outward-facing states of the transporters in action. However, sufficient information to establish the sequential movements of the open–close cycles of the alternating-access model is still lacking. Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) using X-ray free-electron lasers has proven its worth in determining novel structures and recording sequential conformational changes of proteins at room temperature, especially for medically important membrane proteins, but it has never been applied to ABC transporters. In this study, 7.7 monoacylglycerol with cholesterol as the host lipid was used and obtained well diffracting microcrystals of the 130 kDa CmABCB1 dimer. Successful SFX experiments were performed by adjusting the viscosity of the crystal suspension of the sponge phase with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and using the high-viscosity sample injector for data collection at the SACLA beamline. An outward-facing structure of CmABCB1 at a maximum resolution of 2.22 Å is reported, determined by SFX experiments with crystals formed in the lipidic cubic phase (LCP-SFX), which has never been applied to ABC transporters. In the type I crystal, CmABCB1 dimers interact with adjacent molecules via not only the nucleotide-binding domains but also the transmembrane domains (TMDs); such an interaction was not observed in the previous type II crystal. Although most parts of the structure are similar to those in the previous type II structure, the substrate-exit region of the TMD adopts a different configuration in the type I structure. This difference between the two types of structures reflects the flexibility of the substrate-exit region of CmABCB1, which might be essential for the smooth release of various substrates from the transporter.

Michael Dean ◽  
Karobi Moitra ◽  
Rando Allikmets

The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily comprises membrane proteins that efflux various substrates across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. Mutations in ABC genes cause 21 human disorders or phenotypes with Mendelian inheritance, including cystic fibrosis, adrenoleukodystrophy, retinal degeneration, cholesterol, and bile transport defects. Common polymorphisms and rare variants in ABC genes are associated with several complex phenotypes such as gout, gallstones, and cholesterol levels. Overexpression or amplification of specific drug efflux genes contributes to chemotherapy multidrug resistance. Conservation of the ATP-binding domains of ABC transporters defines the superfamily members, and phylogenetic analysis groups the 48 human ABC transporters into seven distinct subfamilies. While the conservation of ABC genes across most vertebrate species is high, there is also considerable gene duplication, deletion, and evolutionary diversification.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13565
Kristin Oepen ◽  
Hüseyin Özbek ◽  
Anja Schüffler ◽  
Johannes C. Liermann ◽  
Eckhard Thines ◽  

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are conserved in all kingdoms of life, where they transport substrates against a concentration gradient across membranes. Some ABC transporters are known to cause multidrug resistances in humans and are able to transport chemotherapeutics across cellular membranes. Similarly, BmrA, the ABC transporter of Bacillus subtilis, is involved in excretion of certain antibiotics out of bacterial cells. Screening of extract libraries isolated from fungi revealed that the C14 fatty acid myristic acid has an inhibitory effect on the BmrA ATPase as well as the transport activity. Thus, a natural membrane constituent inhibits the BmrA activity, a finding with physiological consequences as to the activity and regulation of ABC transporter activities in biological membranes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Xiaoying Pan ◽  
Junbiao Chen ◽  
Aiguo Yang ◽  
Qinghua Yuan ◽  
Weicai Zhao ◽  

Bacterial wilt (BW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (R. solanacearum), is a vascular disease affecting diverse solanaceous crops and causing tremendous damage to crop production. However, our knowledge of the mechanism underlying its resistance or susceptibility is very limited. In this study, we characterized the physiological differences and compared the defense-related transcriptomes of two tobacco varieties, 4411-3 (highly resistant, HR) and K326 (moderately resistant, MR), after R. solanacearum infection at 0, 10, and 17 days after inoculation (dpi). A total of 3967 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between the HR and MR genotypes under mock condition at three time points, including1395 up-regulated genes in the HR genotype and 2640 up-regulated genes in the MR genotype. Also, 6,233 and 21,541 DEGs were induced in the HR and MR genotypes after R. solanacearum infection, respectively. Furthermore, GO and KEGG analyses revealed that DEGs in the HR genotype were related to the cell wall, starch and sucrose metabolism, glutathione metabolism, ABC transporters, endocytosis, glycerolipid metabolism, and glycerophospholipid metabolism. The defense-related genes generally showed genotype-specific regulation and expression differences after R. solanacearum infection. In addition, genes related to auxin and ABA were dramatically up-regulated in the HR genotype. The contents of auxin and ABA in the MR genotype were significantly higher than those in the HR genotype after R. solanacearum infection, providing insight into the defense mechanisms of tobacco. Altogether, these results clarify the physiological and transcriptional regulation of R. solanacearum resistance infection in tobacco, and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the plant-pathogen interaction.

2021 ◽  
Chengcheng Fan ◽  
Douglas C Rees

The ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter of mitochondria (Atm) from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtAtm3) has been implicated in the maturation of cytosolic iron-sulfur proteins and heavy metal detoxification, plausibly by exporting glutathione derivatives. Using single-particle cryo-electron microscopy, we have determined structures of AtAtm3 in multiple conformational states. These structures not only provide a structural framework for defining the alternating access transport cycle, but also highlight an unappreciated feature of the glutathione binding site, namely the paucity of cysteine residues that could potentially form inhibitory mixed disulfides with glutathione. Despite extensive efforts, we were unable to prepare the ternary complex of AtAtm3 with bound GSSG and MgATP. A survey of structurally characterized type IV ABC transporters that includes AtAtm3 establishes that while nucleotides are found associated with all conformational states, they are effectively required to stabilize occluded and outward-facing conformations. In contrast, transport substrates have only been observed associated with inward-facing conformations. The absence of structures containing both nucleotide and transport substrate suggests that this ternary complex exists only transiently during the transport cycle.

Benjamin A. Ford ◽  
Geraldine J. Sullivan ◽  
Lisa Moore ◽  
Deepa Varkey ◽  
Hannah Zhu ◽  

Marine cyanobacteria are key primary producers, contributing significantly to the microbial food web and biogeochemical cycles by releasing and importing many essential nutrients cycled through the environment. A subgroup of these, the picocyanobacteria (Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus), have colonised almost all marine ecosystems, covering a range of distinct light and temperature conditions, and nutrient profiles. The intra-clade diversities displayed by this monophyletic branch of cyanobacteria is indicative of their success across a broad range of environments. Part of this diversity is due to nutrient acquisition mechanisms, such as the use of high-affinity ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters to competitively acquire nutrients, particularly in oligotrophic (nutrient scarce) marine environments. The specificity of nutrient uptake in ABC transporters is primarily determined by the peripheral substrate-binding protein (SBP), a receptor protein that mediates ligand recognition and initiates translocation into the cell. The recent availability of large numbers of sequenced picocyanobacterial genomes indicates both Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus apportion &gt;50% of their transport capacity to ABC transport systems. However, the low degree of sequence homology among the SBP family limits the reliability of functional assignments using sequence annotation and prediction tools. This review highlights the use of known SBP structural representatives for the uptake of key nutrient classes by cyanobacteria to compare with predicted SBP functionalities within sequenced marine picocyanobacteria genomes. This review shows the broad range of conserved biochemical functions of picocyanobacteria and the range of novel and hypothetical ABC transport systems that require further functional characterisation.

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