defence mechanism
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (3) ◽  
pp. 580-586
Anbu Clemensis Johnson

The spread of Covid-19 has been rampant across the globe, and studies have indicated a connection between the spike in infection and air pollution. The literature review has shown that the link between the SARS-CoV-2 virus causing the disease and air pollutants is still inconclusive. Current evidence from the studies point out two main contributing mechanisms for the spread of the virus: (1) the weakening of the human natural defence mechanism by the air pollutants facilitates virus entry and replication; (2) particulate matter facilitates the airborne transport of vectors. Meteorological parameters also play a significant role in the transmission of the virus. Ultraviolet radiation was negatively correlated with the number of COVID-19 cases, while wind speed was positively correlated. Temperature and humidity increases were associated with a decrease in the number of infections. Some studies have also shown no relationship between humidity and COVID-19 case numbers. Similarly, rainfall predominantly showed no significant correlation. More studies in this area are suggested to further understand the air pollutants effect on the virus, its interaction and the influence of meteorological parameters.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 2985-2992
Sujata Magi ◽  
Veerayya R Hiremath ◽  
Shashikala D K ◽  
Gururaj N

Mukha (oral cavity) is considered as a gateway for the alimentary canal, health of the oral cavity reflects the body health as healthy oral cavity aids in proper digestion of the food consumed. The oral cavity also takes part in bodi- ly functions like respiration and speech. It also contributes to the beauty and confidence of an individual. Mukha is comprised of Osta (lips), Dantamula (Gums), Danta (Tooth), Jinhva (Tongue), Taalu (Palate), Gala (Throat). Since the Oral cavity is constantly exposed to the external environment, there are more chances of trauma and infections. Hence to avoid the chances of oral cavity diseases it is very important to maintain good oral hygiene. Kriyakalpa is the therapeutic procedure applied locally and are considered under bahirparimarjana chikitsa. Ka- vala, Gandusha and Pratisarana are kriyakalpas explained for good oral hygiene. These can be used as a daily regimen to maintain good oral hygiene and in mukharoga as therapeutic procedures. These mukha kriyakalpa- due to their cleaning action and by increasing defence mechanism, promotes oral health and prevents many oral disorders. Various formulations for mukha kriyakalpa are available for a healthy person based on prakriti and for treatment based on vitiated dosha avastha. Keywords: Mukha kriyaklpa, Oral hygiene, kavala, Gandusha, Pratisarana.

2021 ◽  
Beatriz Valenzuela ◽  
Almendra Benavides ◽  
Daniela Gutierrez ◽  
Lotsé Blamey ◽  
María Teresa Monsalves ◽  

2021 ◽  
Joanna Antoniak

The fascination with crime, hastily described by some as a symptom of moral degradation of Western culture, seems to be a defence mechanism used by individuals to deal with social transgressions and anomalies represented by serious crimes. The aim of this article is to analyse the growing popularity of true crime through the lens of Mary Douglas’s theory of purity and pollution, with a particular emphasis on the methods of dealing with anomalies appearing within conceptual schemata of a given culture. For this purpose, the text has been divided into four parts: the first part briefly presents the history of true crime; the second part analyses the idea of murder through the lens of Douglas’s theory; the third part discusses the reasons behind the popularity of true crime narratives; and the fourth part showcases how individuals use true crime stories as tools to deal with anomalies.

Banakar N. Sahana ◽  
M. K. PrasannaKumar ◽  
H. B. Mahesh ◽  
P. Buela Parivallal ◽  
M. E. Puneeth ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (10) ◽  
pp. e0009912
Adriana Temporão ◽  
Margarida Sanches-Vaz ◽  
Rafael Luís ◽  
Helena Nunes-Cabaço ◽  
Terry K. Smith ◽  

Malaria, a disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, remains a major threat to public health globally. It is the most common disease in patients with sleeping sickness, another parasitic illness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei. We have previously shown that a T. brucei infection impairs a secondary P. berghei liver infection and decreases malaria severity in mice. However, whether this effect requires an active trypanosome infection remained unknown. Here, we show that Plasmodium liver infection can also be inhibited by the serum of a mouse previously infected by T. brucei and by total protein lysates of this kinetoplastid. Biochemical characterisation showed that the anti-Plasmodium activity of the total T. brucei lysates depends on its protein fraction, but is independent of the abundant variant surface glycoprotein. Finally, we found that the protein(s) responsible for the inhibition of Plasmodium infection is/are present within a fraction of ~350 proteins that are excreted to the bloodstream of the host. We conclude that the defence mechanism developed by trypanosomes against Plasmodium relies on protein excretion. This study opens the door to the identification of novel antiplasmodial intervention strategies.

Adedoja Wusu

Enormous complications associated with diabetes contribute to the therapeutic challenge confronting most of the world, including developing countries. This study was carried out to investigate diabetes mellitus on esterases and antioxidant enzymes in different tissues compartments of rats. Animals were divided into two groups of 10 animals each. The experimental group was confirmed diabetic by a single dose of streptozotocin injection (STZ, freshly dissolved in citrate buffer, pH 4.5, 50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. In contrast, the control group was injected with citrate buffer only. Blood glucose and weight of the animals were monitored for 7 days. Blood, liver and brain were removed, and biochemical parameters determined spectrophotometrically. Diabetes produced various degrees of alterations in antioxidant defence mechanism and esterases activities that are compartment specific. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was inhibited to various extents. While AChE was inhibited to the tune of 39% in plasma, 33% in the brain and 30% in the liver, activation of the activity was observed in the red blood cell (RBC). The same trend of significant (p < 0.001) inhibition was observed with arylesterase in the plasma, brain and liver, and activation in the RBC. Diabetes induced significant (p<0.001) inhibition in catalase, Glutathione-S-transferase, and Superoxide dismutase in the brain and liver, respectively, compared to control more than the other compartments. However, activation was also observed in the RBC of these enzymes except for catalase and nitric oxide. In conclusion, distinct compartments effects of diabetes observed in this study could suggest a new approach for effective and safer therapeutics.

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