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2022 ◽  

Though he has been marginalized in most mainstream accounts of modern architecture, Albert Kahn (b. 1869–d. 1942) is increasingly considered one of the most important and consequential US architects of the 20th century. Kahn is known primarily for the technically innovative and rigorously functional factory buildings that his still-extant firm Albert Kahn Associates, Inc. (founded 1903) designed for automotive manufacturers, including the Ford Motor Company, but his firm was also responsible for hundreds of eclectically styled buildings for other purposes in Detroit, Michigan. Research and writing regarding Albert Kahn often requires considerable effort to disambiguation. Most importantly, Albert Kahn the man is far from a synecdoche for the firm he founded, Albert Kahn Associates, Inc., which employed upward of several hundred people at its height and is still in operation under the simplified Kahn moniker today. Some mid-20th century historians and critics substituted the inaccurate and often derogatory moniker “Albert Kahn Inc.” as name for the firm to suggest its alienated and impersonal nature. Albert Kahn’s siblings are also worthy of attention in their own right. Frequently mentioned in the extant literature are brothers Julius (b. 1874–d. 1942) who was a trained engineer, inventor and co-founder of the highly successful Trussed Concrete Steel Company; Moritz (b. 1880–d. 1939), who was also an executive of the Kahn firm pivotal in its operations in the USSR between 1929 and 1932, and occasionally Louis (b. 1885–d. 1945), who was a manager and executive in the Kahn firm. Views of Albert Kahn have served as a barometer for the intellectual climate in architecture culture since the early 20th century, indexing the relative importance of aesthetics, ethics, and technics. Studies of Kahn and his firm have, until recently, primarily focused on their contributions to industrial architecture and the influence of their early factory buildings on architecture culture at large. These studies often describe the give-and-take between assembly lines and the streamlined, pragmatic design of the buildings that encompassed them. An upsurge of recent attention to Kahn’s work has been oriented away from issues of design toward larger histories. Some scholars have addressed the shift toward large, integrated offices within the profession, for which Albert Kahn Associates was a groundbreaking exemplar. Others have addressed the ways Kahn served the growth of global enterprise, revealing that his marginalization from architectural history has effaced the willful complicity of US architects in compounding capitalist power and solidifying its ideology. These topics remain rich veins for future researchers.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (4) ◽  
pp. 772-784
Yury V. Borovsky

In the early 2020s the worlds transition from carbon-intensive to climate-neutral energy use has already become a discernible and a difficult-to-reverse process. With Joe Bidens election as US president, the United States have returned to the Paris Climate Agreement and have become a key driver of this process (along with the EU and China). As a result, the international community has reached a consensus on the ongoing energy transition. This process will require considerable effort and may take several decades. Nevertheless, the impact of energy transition on traditional approaches to energy security, which emerged largely as a result of the global oil crises of the 1970s and 1980s and are centered around the supply of fossil fuels, is already a relevant research topic. This problem is examined relying on the relevant terminological, theoretical and factual material. The article concludes that energy transition will ultimately undermine the carbon paradigm that has underpinned energy security policies since the 1970s. Rapid development of renewable and other low-carbon energy sources will certainly remove key energy security risks of energy importers and, possibly, allow them to achieve energy independence. However, a post-carbon era may also generate new risks. For countries that rely heavily on oil, gas and coal exports, energy transition will result in the loss of markets and revenues. It may present an energy security threat for them as well as it will require a costly and technologically complex process of the energy sector decarbonization. Some exporters, especially those with high fuel rents and insufficient financial reserves, may face serious economic and social upheavals as a result of energy transition. The EU and the US energy transition policies reflect provisions of all three fundamental international relations theoretical paradigms, including realism. This means that the EU and the US policy, aimed at promoting climate agenda, may be expected to be rather tough and aggressive. China as the third key player in energy transition is still following a liberal course; however, it may change in the future.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (12) ◽  
pp. 4543
Rocco Caliandro ◽  
Astrid A. Streng ◽  
Linda W. M. van Kerkhof ◽  
Gijsbertus T. J. van der Horst ◽  
Inês Chaves

The term social jetlag is used to describe the discrepancy between biological time, determined by our internal body clock, and social times, mainly dictated by social obligations such as school or work. In industrialized countries, two-thirds of the studying/working population experiences social jetlag, often for several years. Described for the first time in 2006, a considerable effort has been put into understanding the effects of social jetlag on human physiopathology, yet our understanding of this phenomenon is still very limited. Due to its high prevalence, social jetlag is becoming a primary concern for public health. This review summarizes current knowledge regarding social jetlag, social jetlag associated behavior (e.g., unhealthy eating patterns) and related risks for human health.

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (2) ◽  
pp. 71-84
Wanessa Scopel ◽  
Victor Wilson Botteon ◽  
Mayara Ribeiro de Araújo ◽  
Eduardo Luiz Scopel ◽  
Margarida Flores Roza-Gomes ◽  

To meet the growing demand for electricity, considerable effort has been invested in the construction of hydroelectric stations in Brazil. The environmental impacts caused by these projects have been significant, especially on fauna. To evaluate the biodiversity of edaphic invertebrates, a study was performed in an area surrounding a small hydroelectric station of Flor do Sertão, in the Santa Catarina state, Brazil, covering three distances (5, 15 and 30 meters) from the flooded region of the reservoir. From December 2010 to June 2011, surveys of edaphic invertebrates were performed by pitfall traps. The invertebrates collected at each distance were compared and their diversity was calculated through Hill numbers. The dynamics were analyzed through the Shannon index exponential and the inverse Simpson index, and correlated climatic variables to invertebrate diversity. A total of 14,074 specimens were collected from 24 taxonomic groups (Order). The analyses according to size and sample coverage showed few differences in invertebrate diversity between the distances. Values of richness and diversity of common groups are similar for all distances. There is a trend decrease in diversity dynamics for common individuals, with a strong decline in June. The diversity of edaphic invertebrates exhibited high correlation with temperature and no correlation with pluviosity.

Mengjie Li ◽  
Guangyao Zhang ◽  
Andrews Boakye ◽  
Huining Chai ◽  
Lijun Qu ◽  

In the face of complex environments, considerable effort has been made to accomplish sensitive, accurate and highly-effective detection of target analytes. Given the versatility of metal clusters and ligands, high porosity and large specific surface area, metal–organic framework (MOF) provides researchers with prospective solutions for the construction of biosensing platforms. Combined with the benefits of electrochemistry method such as fast response, low cost and simple operation, the untapped applications of MOF for biosensors are worthy to be exploited. Therefore, this review briefly summarizes the preparation methods of electroactive MOF, including synthesize with electroactive ligands/metal ions, functionalization of MOF with biomolecules and modification for MOF composites. Moreover, recent biosensing applications are highlighted in terms of small biomolecules, biomacromolecules, and pathogenic cells. We conclude with a discussion of future challenges and prospects in the field. It aims to offer researchers inspiration to address the issues appropriately in further investigations.

Olga Shumilo ◽  
Tanel Kerikmäe

Disruptive technologies and the domination of digital platforms have challenged the global economy players twice — first, to get a hand on them, then to mitigate the possible risks. It is beyond doubt that reliable artificial intelligence (AI) can bring many benefits at the European level, such as better health care, safer and cleaner transport, more efficient manufacturing, and sustainable energy. But regulating the unknown requires considerable effort on how to attract investors using clear rules while keeping human control over the algorithms as a priority. In April 2021, the EU Commission published a holistic proposal to regulate the use of AI, which promises to put trust first and ensure that facial recognition and big data operators will never abuse fundamental human rights. Although the proposal is likely to be amended during EU-wide discussions, the new approach to AI will clearly give citizens the reassurance to adopt these technologies while encouraging companies to develop them. Hence, this article aims to map the core challenges for the EU policy on the use of AI, as well as the milestones of developing the holistic legislative proposal, and clarify if the afore-mentioned proposal indeed solves all the AI-related risks for future generations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (24) ◽  
pp. 13309
Magdalena Staszczak

The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is the major non-lysosomal pathway responsible for regulated degradation of intracellular proteins in eukaryotes. As the principal proteolytic pathway in the cytosol and the nucleus, the UPS serves two main functions: the quality control function (i.e., removal of damaged, misfolded, and functionally incompetent proteins) and a major regulatory function (i.e., targeted degradation of a variety of short-lived regulatory proteins involved in cell cycle control, signal transduction cascades, and regulation of gene expression and metabolic pathways). Aberrations in the UPS are implicated in numerous human pathologies such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, autoimmunity, inflammation, or infectious diseases. Therefore, the UPS has become an attractive target for drug discovery and development. For the past two decades, much research has been focused on identifying and developing compounds that target specific components of the UPS. Considerable effort has been devoted to the development of both second-generation proteasome inhibitors and inhibitors of ubiquitinating/deubiquitinating enzymes. With the feature of unique structure and bioactivity, secondary metabolites (natural products) serve as the lead compounds in the development of new therapeutic drugs. This review, for the first time, summarizes fungal secondary metabolites found to act as inhibitors of the UPS components.

2021 ◽  
Steven Sanche ◽  
Tyler Cassidy ◽  
Pinghan Chu ◽  
Alan S. Perelson ◽  
Ruy M Ribeiro ◽  

Considerable effort was made to better understand why some people suffer from severe COVID-19 while others remain asymptomatic. This has led to important clinical findings; people with severe COVID-19 generally experience persistently high levels of inflammation, slower viral load decay, display a dysregulated type-I interferon response, have less active natural killer cells and increased levels of neutrophil extracellular traps. How these findings are connected to the pathogenesis of COVID-19 remains unclear. We propose a mathematical model that sheds light on this issue. The model focuses on cells that trigger inflammation through molecular patterns: infected cells carrying pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damaged cells producing damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). The former signals the presence of pathogens while the latter signals danger such as hypoxia or the lack of nutrients. Analyses show that SARS-CoV-2 infections can lead to a self-perpetuating feedback loop between DAMP expressing cells and inflammation. It identifies the inability to quickly clear PAMPs and DAMPs as the main contributor to hyperinflammation. The model explains clinical findings and the conditional impact of treatments on disease severity. The simplicity of the model and its high level of consistency with clinical findings motivate its use for the formulation of new treatment strategies.

2021 ◽  
Mengwen Zhang ◽  
Jason M. Berk ◽  
Adrian B. Mehrtash ◽  
Jean Kanyo ◽  
Mark Hochstrasser

AbstractProtein ubiquitylation is an important post-translational modification affecting an wide range of cellular processes. Due to the low abundance of ubiquitylated species in biological samples, considerable effort has been spent on developing methods to purify and detect ubiquitylated proteins. We have developed and characterized a novel tool for ubiquitin detection and purification based on OtUBD, a high-affinity ubiquitin-binding domain derived from an Orientia tsutsugamushi deubiquitylase. We demonstrate that OtUBD can be used to purify both monoubiquitylated and polyubiquitylated substrates from yeast and human tissue culture samples and compare their performance with existing methods. Importantly, we found conditions for either selective purification of covalently ubiquitylated proteins or co-isolation of both ubiquitylated proteins and their interacting proteins. As a proof-of-principle for these newly developed methods, we profiled the ubiquitylome and ubiquitin-associated proteome of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Combining OtUBD affinity purification with quantitative proteomics, we identified potential substrates for E3 ligases Bre1 and Pib1. OtUBD provides a versatile, efficient, and economical tool for ubiquitin researchers with specific advantages over other methods, such as in detecting monoubiquitylation or ubiquitin linkages to noncanonical sites.

npj Vaccines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
Yacob Keleta ◽  
Julian Ramelow ◽  
Liwang Cui ◽  
Jun Li

AbstractDespite considerable effort, malaria remains a major public health burden. Malaria is caused by five Plasmodium species and is transmitted to humans via the female Anopheles mosquito. The development of malaria vaccines against the liver and blood stages has been challenging. Therefore, malaria elimination strategies advocate integrated measures, including transmission-blocking approaches. Designing an effective transmission-blocking strategy relies on a sophisticated understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing the interactions between the mosquito midgut molecules and the malaria parasite. Here we review recent advances in the biology of malaria transmission, focusing on molecular interactions between Plasmodium and Anopheles mosquito midgut proteins. We provide an overview of parasite and mosquito proteins that are either targets for drugs currently in clinical trials or candidates of promising transmission-blocking vaccines.

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