adsorption capacities
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Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 609
Marco Vocciante ◽  
Alessandra De Folly D’Auris ◽  
Andrea Pietro Reverberi

The performance of an innovative material based on expanded graphite, Grafysorber® G+ (Directa Plus), has been tested through laboratory, tank, and confinement tests for oil removal in case of an oil spill and water treatment. In addition to the ability to retain oil, the possibility of reusing this material after regeneration via squeezing was also evaluated. As a comparison, the same experimental tests were conducted using polypropylene flakes (PP), the material currently most used to deal with spill accidents. Oils with different chemical and physical properties were used, namely kerosene, diesel, and crude oil. From the laboratory tests, the capacity of Grafysorber® G+ to retain oil was found to be directly proportional to the viscosity of the latter, with adsorption values ranging from 76.8 g/g for diesel to 50.8 g/g for kerosene, confirming the potential of the innovative material compared to the PP. Cyclical use tests have confirmed certain reusability of the material, even if its adsorbent capacity decreases significantly after the first cycle and continues to decrease in subsequent cycles, but a less marked manner. Finally, some considerations based on the adsorption capacities were found to suggest that the adoption of the new material is also economically preferable, resulting in savings of 20 to 40% per kg of hydrocarbon treated.

2022 ◽  
Changjin Jiang ◽  
Ting Zhang ◽  
Shuhui Li ◽  
Zhaoguang Yang

Abstract Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB composites were prepared using an ionotropic gelation method. Various techniques were used to analyze the morphology, structure, and property of the adsorbents, including SEM, EDS, FT-IR, XPS, and zeta potential. Compared with Fe(III)-chitosan, Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB was more effective for As(V) adsorption at a wide range of pH (3–8). The adsorption of As(V) onto Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB could reach equilibrium in 20 min, and their maximum adsorption capacities were 33.85 and 31.69 mg g‒1, respectively. The adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model (R2=0.998 and 0.992), whereas the adsorption isotherms was fitted well by the Freundlich model (R2=0.963 and 0.987). The presence of H2PO4− significantly inhibited the adsorption of As(V) onto Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB, and humic acid also led to a slight decrease in As(V) adsorption by Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB. Over 94% of As(V) at the initial concentration of no more than 5 mg L−1 was removed from real water by the two adsorbents. 1% (w/v) NaOH solution was determined to be the most suitable desorption agent. Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB still maintained their initial adsorption capacities after five adsorption-desorption cycles. Based on different characterization results, both electrostatic attraction and surface complexation mechanisms played important roles in As(V) adsorption on Fe(III)-chitosan and Fe(III)-chitosan-CTAB.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xiaoxin Han ◽  
Shiyu Wang ◽  
Xue Yu ◽  
Rolf D. Vogt ◽  
Jianfeng Feng ◽  

Due to its small size, large specific surface area and hydrophobicity, microplastics, and the adsorbed contaminants may together cause potential negative effects on ecosystems and human beings. In this study, kinetics and size effects on adsorption of Cu(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) onto PE, PP and PET microplastic particles were explored. Results indicated that the PE and PET microplastics have the higher adsorption capacity for Cu(II), Cr(III), and Pb(II) than that for PP microplastic. The adsorption capacity was affected by microplastic types and metal species. Among the three metals, Pb(II) had the largest adsorption amount on microplastic particles, especially on PET particles. Moreover, the adsorption capacities of microplastics increase with the decrease of particle size. The metal adsorption capacity of <0.9 mm microplastics is greater than that of 0.9–2 mm and 2–5 mm microplastics. The size effect on metal adsorption was largest for PE microplastic. More attention should be paid in case of the coexistence of heavy metals and tiny PE and PET microplastics in the environment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Yongmei Wang ◽  
Tiantian Chen ◽  
Xiaolin Zhang ◽  
Teza Mwamulima

Zero valent iron (ZVI) particles were embedded into porous materials to avoid aggregation and separation problems in the controlled synthesis process. To investigate the adsorption mechanism of crystal violet and methylene blue, activated carbon (AC) and AC-based ZVI extraction by solid-phase and liquid-phase reduced approaches was conducted. Characterization methods of specific surface area, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and x-ray diffractograms (XRD) were used to elucidate the structure of adsorbents, and the adsorption capacities of crystal violet and methylene blue were obtained under experimental conditions of various pH values (2.0–10.0), adsorption times (0–72 h), and temperatures (30–50°C). The adsorption of crystal violet/methylene blue was controlled by both chemisorption and reduction. The adsorption processes were fitted to a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and that of reduction kinetics was suitable to pseudo-first-order kinetic model. The thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption of crystal violet and methylene blue was endothermic and spontaneous, and the adsorption isotherms fitted well to the Langmuir model. Different adsorption capacities of crystal violet and methylene blue on various adsorbents were found, indicating that both the properties of adsorbents (pore size, specific surface area, and chemical functional groups) and the structures of adsorbates had significant effect on the removal of dye molecules.

2021 ◽  
Zhuowen Meng ◽  
Shuang Huang ◽  
Zhongbing Lin

Abstract In this study, original rice straw biochar and two KMnO4-modified biochars (pre- and postmodification) were prepared, which were all pyrolysed at 400℃. Premodified biochar had the largest Cd adsorption capacity, strongest acid and solute buffering capacity, which benefited from the increase of carbonate content, specific surface area and the emergence of Mn(II) and MnOx through modification. Original and premodified biochars were then conducted four types of aging process, namely, aging without soil, co-aging with acid (pH=5.00), neutral (pH=7.00) and alkaline (pH=8.30) soils, using an improved three-layer mesh method. The adsorption capacities of modified biochar were always larger than those of original biochar after aging processes. After four aging processes, Cd(II) adsorption capacities were basically in the order of aged biochar without soil > biochar co-aged with alkaline soil > biochar co-aged with neutral soil > biochar co-aged with acid soil, and KMnO4-modified biochar was always better than original biochar after co-aging with soils. The dominant adsorption mechanism of original and premodified biochars (fresh and aged) for Cd(II) was all the precipitation and adsorption with minerals (accounted for 58.55%~85.55%). In this study, we highlighted that biochar remediation for Cd should be evaluated by co-aging with soil instead of aging without soil participation.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7520
Andżelika Gęsikiewicz-Puchalska ◽  
Michal Zgrzebnicki ◽  
Beata Michalkiewicz ◽  
Agnieszka Kałamaga ◽  
Urszula Narkiewicz ◽  

Zeolite 13X (NaX) was modified through ion-exchange with alkali and alkaline earth metal cations. The degree of ion exchange was thoroughly characterized with ICP, EDS and XRF methods. The new method of EDS data evaluation for zeolites was presented. It delivers the same reliable results as more complicated, expensive, time consuming and hazardous ICP approach. The highest adsorption capacities at 273 K and 0.95 bar were achieved for materials containing the alkali metals in the following order K < Na < Li, respectively, 4.54, 5.55 and 5.94 mmol/g. It was found that it is associated with the porous parameters of the ion-exchanged samples. The Li0.61Na0.39X form of zeolite exhibited the highest specific surface area of 624 m2/g and micropore volume of 0.35 cm3/g compared to sodium form 569 m2/g and 0.30 cm3/g, respectively. The increase of CO2 uptake is not related with deterioration of CO2 selectivity. At room temperature, the CO2 vs. N2 selectivity remains at a very high stable level prior and after ion exchange in co-adsorption process (XCO2 during adsorption 0.15; XCO2 during desorption 0.95) within measurement uncertainty. Additionally, the Li0.61Na0.39X sample was proven to be stable in the aging adsorption-desorption tests (200 sorption-desorption cycles; circa 11 days of continuous process) exhibiting the CO2 uptake decrease of about 6%. The exchange with alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca) led to a significant decrease of SSA and micropore volume which correlated with lower CO2 adsorption capacities. Interestingly, the divalent cations cause formation of mesopores, due to the relaxation of lattice strains.

María Soledad Ruiz-Mora ◽  
Ruth Alfaro-Cuevas-Villanueva ◽  
Verónica Martínez-Miranda ◽  
Orlando Hernández-Cristóbal ◽  
Raúl Cortés-Martínez

Abstract This work investigated As(V) removal from aqueous solutions using calcium alginate microspheres with encapsulated iron nanoparticles (FeNPs) in batch systems. The kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were evaluated. Adsorbents were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Zeta Potential techniques. The FeNPs were obtained by a simple and low-cost method and they were successfully encapsulated and uniformly dispersed over the microspheres' surface. Significantly fast adsorption kinetic rates were observed due to microspheres' particle size and FeNPs encapsulation. The chemisorption mechanism was recognized in both adsorbate-adsorbent systems. The As(V) isotherms data suggested that the process is associated with heterogeneous adsorption. Available sorption sites with different adsorption energies were related to the functional groups involved in removing As(V), such as hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Significantly high adsorption capacities were obtained for both materials, suggesting they can be competitive compared to conventional adsorbents, even at low FeNPs concentrations. Besides FeNPs encapsulation enhancing arsenate removal, higher adsorption was obtained at slightly acidic pH values and, together with their small particle size, suggests that the microspheres have a great potential to be used as arsenate adsorbents in the water treatment for human consumption.

2021 ◽  
Liu Yonggang

Abstract Cigarette smoke contains thousands of chemicals including many known toxicants and annually leads to millions of deaths worldwide. To reduce the harms of cigarette, plant extracts were applied to adsorb smoke toxicants of cigarette. Results showed that platycladus orientalis leaf extract and mulberry fruit extract particles filled into cigarette cellulose acetate filter can significantly reduce 15 major cigarette smoke toxicants emission including hydrogen cyanide (HCN), benzo[α] pyrene (B[a]P), formaldehyde, crotonaldehyde, 2-butanone, P-hydroquinone, M-dihydroxybenzene, catechol, phenol, M-P-cresol, O-cresol, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-methylnitrosamino-l-3-pyridyl- butanone (NNK), (R,S)-N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT) and (R,S)-N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB) by 11.90% to 60.42% (P<0.01). Platycladus orientalis leaf extract particles added in the outer cigarette filter also can adsorb other 125 kinds of chemicals most of which are harmful. Our results also indicated that plant extract has extensive gas adsorption characteristics and different plant extracts displayed different adsorption capacity to different toxicants. The adsorption capacities of five randomly selected plant extracts are all significantly higher than that of activated carbon(P<0.01). These findings suggest that plant extracts are excellent cigarette smoke adsorbents.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (23) ◽  
pp. 7315
Qinghua Xu ◽  
Xiaodi Huang ◽  
Lukuan Guo ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Liqiang Jin

In this work, the amino-functionalized cellulose nanocrystal (ACNC) was prepared using a green route and applied as a biosorbent for adsorption of Cr(VI), Pb2+, and Cu2+ from aqueous solutions. CNC was firstly oxidized by sodium periodate to yield the dialdehyde nanocellulose (DACNC). Then, DACNC reacted with diethylenetriamine (DETA) to obtain amino-functionalized nanocellulose (ACNC) through a Schiff base reaction. The properties of DACNC and ACNC were characterized by using elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Kaiser test, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and zeta potential measurement. The presence of free amino groups was evidenced by the FT-IR results and Kaiser test. ACNCs exhibited an amphoteric nature with isoelectric points between pH 8 and 9. After the chemical modification, the cellulose I polymorph of nanocellulose remained, while the crystallinity decreased. The adsorption behavior of ACNC was investigated for the removal of Cr(VI), Pb2+, and Cu2+ in aqueous solutions. The maximum adsorption capacities were obtained at pH 2 for Cr(VI) and pH 6 for Cu2+ and Pb2+, respectively. The adsorption all followed pseudo second-order kinetics and Sips adsorption isotherms. The estimated adsorption capacities for Cr(VI), Pb2+, and Cu2+ were 70.503, 54.115, and 49.600 mg/g, respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 947 (1) ◽  
pp. 012026
Trung Dang-Bao ◽  
Hoa-Hung Lam ◽  
Thi-Hoai-Linh Dang

Abstract In the present work, Ce-Ti and Ce-Ti/Fe3O4 hybrid oxides were prepared by co-precipitation method and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The nano-adsorbents were applied to remove fluoride (with the concentration range of 10–30 mg L−1) from aqueous solution, reaching the adsorption equilibrium within 30–60 minutes. Practically, the fluoride removal onto both nanomaterials was efficient at the neutral pH (pH 5–7) and obeyed the Langmuir adsorption isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacities of 22.78 mg g–1 (Ce-Ti) and 20.28 mg g–1 (Ce-Ti/Fe3O4) at room temperature.

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