Concrete Compressive Strength
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Doddipati Srinath ◽  
Gomasa Ramesh ◽  

Concrete is a commonly used construction material all over the globe. Environmentally conscious construction is essential in today’s society. By using the proper materials, we may achieve long-term construction. RHA is often used as a cementitious product replacement, and in such cases, we may mix RHA with hydrated lime. Many research has been conducted on RHA, and they all indicate that it outperforms other kinds of concrete. The importance of rice husk ash in construction and its applications are the subject of this essay. Many studies have been undertaken to identify appropriate replacements for cement in concrete mixes to reduce our over-reliance on cement as a component in concrete production owing to its contribution to CO2 emissions. This article examined the research on the usage of fly ash and rice husk ash as partial concrete replacements and the chemical composition of these materials, and their impact on concrete compressive strength. The mix was created using a logical approach in which solid components were set, and water and superplasticizer content were modified to get the best viscosity and flowability. Rice husk ash (RHA) is a rice milling byproduct. Its usage as a soil stabilizer provides an environmentally friendly alternative to ultimate disposal. Because RHA is not self-cementitious, a hydraulic binder, such as lime, must be added to create cement types to strengthen the soil. In sandy soils, studies on stabilization using RHA and lime mixtures were carried out. RHA of rice husk incineration in ordinary ovens with no temperature control and laboratory burning at regulated temperatures were utilized. In soil mixes with varying RHA and lime concentrations, cementitious compounds were found to develop. Soils treated with RHA and lime underwent unconfined compression strength testing. All RHA and lime concentrations and periods tested showed strength gains, and all materials created were changed rather than stabilized. The use of RHA to improve sandy soils offers environmental, social, and economic advantages as an alternative to ultimate disposal.

2022 ◽  
Vol 69 (1) ◽  
Lamiaa M. Omer ◽  
Mohamed S. Gomaa ◽  
Waleed H. Sufe ◽  
Alaa A. Elsayed ◽  
Hany A. Elghazaly

AbstractThe durability of reinforced concrete (RC) pipes depends upon the corrosion resistance of the reinforcing steel and the resistance of concrete mixes against an aggressive environment. This research paper aims to compare the performance of R.C. pipes made of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) concrete mixtures with others made of two different geopolymer concrete mixes based on different ratios of granulated blast furnace slag (GBFS), fly ash (FA), and pulverized red brick (RB) subjected to three different environments, ambient, tap water (TW), and an aggressive environment, and a solution of 10% magnesium sulfates + 5% chloride (MS-CL). An accelerated corrosion setup has been applied to accelerate the corrosion process in the tested samples. The evaluation of change of compressive strength of concrete and microstructure of different mixes was investigated too. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been studied on all pipes. Geopolymer concrete mixes based on 90% GBFS and 10% RB show better results in all cases. Geopolymer concrete mixes based on 63% GBFS, 27% FA, and 10% RB increase the concrete compressive strength in the magnesium sulfate and chloride environment by 5% compared to tap water. It can be concluded that the geopolymer concrete mixes produced of 90% GBFS and 10% RB perform well under all environments, and its microstructure shows stable behavior in an aggressive environment.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 441
Teghreed H. Ibrahim ◽  
Abbas A. Allawi ◽  
Ayman El-Zohairy

The present study experimentally and numerically investigated the impact behavior of composite reinforced concrete (RC) beams with the pultruded I-GFRP and I-steel beams. Eight specimens of two groups were cast in different configurations. The first group consisted of four specimens and was tested under static load to provide reference results for the second group. The four specimens in the second group were tested first under impact loading and then static loading to determine the residual static strengths of the impacted specimens. The test variables considered the type of encased I-section (steel and GFRP), presence of shear connectors, and drop height during impact tests. A mass of 42.5 kg was dropped on the top surface at the mid-span of the tested beams from five different heights: 250, 500, 1000, 1500, and 1900 mm. Moreover, nonlinear Finite Element (FE) models were developed and validated using the experimental data. Static loading was defined as a displacement-controlled loading and the impact loading was modeled as dynamic explicit analysis with different drop velocities. The validated models were used to conduct a parametric study to investigate the effect of the concrete compressive strength on the performance of the composite beams under static and impact loadings. For the composite specimen with steel I-sction, the maximum impact force was 190% greater than the reference specimen NR-I at a drop height of 1900 mm, whereas the maximum impact forces for the specimens composite specimens with GFRP I-sction without and with shear connectors were 19% and 77%, respectively, more significant than the reference beam at the same drop height. The high stiffness for the steel I-beams relative to the GFRP I-beam was the reason for this difference in behavior. The concrete compressive strength was more effective in improving the impact behavior of the composite specimens relative to those without GFRP I-beams.

2022 ◽  
Vol 955 (1) ◽  
pp. 012012
D B Cahyono ◽  
H P Adi ◽  
S I Wahyudi ◽  

Abstract Floating houses can be utilized in coastal areas as they are equipped with platforms made from expanded polystyrene system (styrofoam) and lightweight concrete covers. A lightweight concrete cover on a floating house platform made from styrofoam can improve the feasibility of housing in terms of strength, comfort and cleanliness. This research aims to obtain mixture that meet the weight and compressive strength requirements of lightweight concrete and produce them as covers on floating houses platform. The compositions of lightweight concrete materials in this research use volume ratios of 1 Pc: 2 Sand: 3 Styrofoam, 1 Pc: 1.5 Sand: 2.5 Styrofoam and 1 Pc: 1.25 Sand: 2.75 Styrofoam. The research results show that the concrete made with styrofoam qualifies as lightweight concrete with average volume weight of concrete produced between 1000-1300 kg/m3. The lightest concrete weight (1097.88 kg/m3) could be obtained from variations of mixture of 1 Pc: 1.25 Sand: 2.75 Styrofoam, The highest concrete compressive strength results were obtained from the mixture of 1 Pc: 2 Sand: 3 Styrofoam (119.26 kg/cm2). The variations of concrete mixture of 1 Pc: 2 Sand: 3 Styrofoam can be considered as lightweight concrete (≤ 1900 kg/m3).

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012069
Mustafa Kareem Hamzah ◽  
Raizal Saifulnaz M. Rashid ◽  
Farzad Hejazi

Abstract The recent ground motion results indicated that the RC buildings are required to be retrofitted by different strengthening techniques. Nowadays, the external strengthening gain interest since its easy, cost effective and not required redesign of buildings. The CFRP sheets are suitable solution and utilized by a number of researchers. However, the numerical cyclic performance of connection strengthened with different thicknesses of CFRP need to be well investigated. This study assessed the performance of RC exterior beam column connection strengthened with CFRP sheets First, two grades of concrete are utilized to be control specimens, normal concrete compressive strength (C20) and high concrete compressive strength (C50) then, the specimens are retrofitted with different thicknesses (1.2, 2.4, 3.6mm) of CFRP sheets. The stresses and damage states showed the importance of connection retrofitting. The CFRP shift the plastic hinge zone away from the panel zone. Furthermore, the results demonstrated that by increase of CFRP thickness the connection resistance will be improved. The comparison between the hysteresis curves demonstrated that the yield and ultimate loading were enhanced for strengthened connection for both concrete grades and the incremental in thicknesses also increase them. The outputs also exhibited that the stiffness and ductility has increased for retrofitted specimens indicating that the CFRP comprehensively overcome the applied cyclic loading and the beam column connection is able to resist such type of loading.

2022 ◽  
Vol 961 (1) ◽  
pp. 012034
Ola Mazen Makki ◽  
Hayder M K Al-Mutairee

Abstract Few studies discussed the continuous deep beams CDB behaviour in spite of its great importance in building constructions due to the usual use in bridges and tall buildings as a load distributer. The behaviour of CDB shows a different behaviour when comparing with the simply supported one, so the expected behaviour of SDB does not match with the CDB. So, this paper deals with reviewing the behaviour of CDB in the past researches. It has been concluded that, the CDB resist the applied loads by flexural and shear together, the flexural behaviour appears at the first loading stage then the beam start to resist by shear capacity. The amount of resistance of beam by flexural depends on a/h ratio, main and web steel reinforcement and concrete compressive strength. Flexural behaviour may not appear for very small a/h ratio or over main reinforcement. Also, main steel reinforcement at both top and bottom of beam does not reach to yielding point expected one case, which is, the main steel ratio is less than 0.6%, thereby, tie failure will governs.

Mr. Sunil Donga

Abstract: Red mud is industrial waste and causing threat to environment so to reduce the cost of the construction also to make structure more durable. Aluminium is now consumed during manufacture red mud, which is used and while remaining red mud has been undertaken sothat it can be used for construction fashion of the concrete by blending or by replacing the cement by red mud. Keywords: Red mud, self-compacting concrete, Compressive Strength, Tensile Strength, Flexural Strength

2021 ◽  
pp. 34-40
Maulana Ishaq ◽  
Rita Nasmirayanti ◽  
Asri Yuda Trinanda

Concrete is the main material factor in a construction project field that is often used, because concrete has a high compressive strength value so it is very useful for structural buildings to withstand axial forces or compressive forces on the building itself where the structure can be used. for the long term. However, along with the increase in construction development in Indonesia, it has a negative impact on the environment around the construction site because with the rampant construction of this building it will trigger environmental pollution due to the remaining concrete waste from the construction project. On this basis, it encourages the author to conduct research by utilizing waste concrete as a substitute for coarse aggregate for the compressive strength of concrete, by reusing the concrete waste will increase the life of the material from the waste itself. In this study, the materials used were tested first, such as; cement density, silt content, water content, specific gravity absorption, wear testing and sieve analysis on aggregates. Then for the concrete mixture using concrete waste with variations of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the total weight of coarse aggregate. In this study, the compressive strength at the age of 21 days with a mixture of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% concrete had a compressive strength of 200.92 kg/cm2, 188.83 kg/cm2, 206, respectively. 96 kg/cm2, 177.50 kg/cm2, and 179.01 kg/cm2. Then experienced an average shrinkage of 9.53 kg/cm2 at the age of 28 days. The optimum compressive strength is at 50% mixed variation, with a value of 206.96 kg/cm2 because it has an increase of 3% higher than normal concrete compressive strength with a mixing ratio of 1:2.5:3.5 and a slump value of ±13.25 cm and the dry weight of the concrete is 7.69 kg.

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