state and society
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2022 ◽  
Vol 124 ◽  
pp. 181-206
Author(s):  
Lukáš Fasora

This text summarises the results of extensive research into the relationship between the state and universities in 1849–1939, i.e. between the so-called ‘Thun reform’ and the closure of Czech universities by the Nazis. The focus is on the state’s respect for the privileged position of universities and the monitoring of tensions arising from the clash between legislation and the universities’ day-to-day operations, resulting mainly from satisfying the economic needs of universities on the one hand, and the interpretation of the responsibility and discipline of their academic staff towards the state and society on the other. The research shows the advancing erosion of the so-called Prussian (Humboldt’s) concept of an autonomous national-oriented university and the difficult search for a democratic alternative in interwar Central Europe’s unstable political and economic conditions.


Author(s):  
Ruslan Pliushch ◽  
◽  
Viktoriia Filippova ◽  
Oksana Pronina ◽  
◽  
...  

Globalization has become one of the factors that led to the formation of a new concept of national security, according to which it is an integral part of the system of the highest level (regional, international, global security), which is a consequence of the integration of the world community in an effort to overcome common threats and challenges. Provision of national security is the main task of the foreign policy of the state, the aim of the national security policy is protection of the state and society from external threats. It is established that national security is a process that includes various measures that guarantee the long and free existence and national (state) development, including the protection and defense of the state as a political institution, and the protection of people and the entire society, their benefits and the natural environment from threats that significantly limit its functioning or harm the benefits subject to special protection. The analysis of the process of formation and development of ideas and views on the problem of defining the essence and content of national security showed that national security acts as an extremely complex, contradictory and long-term, but very important and necessary process to ensure sustainable development of society and state, the preconditions of which were established in different historical eras. It has been proved that national security policy and strategy should define the roles and boundaries of different actors of the country's security, appropriate mechanisms of coordination of their activities and rules of interagency support. In the context of globalization, national security strategies should include a realistic assessment of the costs and sustainability of security institutions and plan their development, in addition, national security strategies and policies are not static and require periodic updating.


Author(s):  
Maria Reshnyak ◽  
Viktor Gladkikh

The purpose of this study is to apperceive the current challenges of criminal liability for corruption offences differentiation and, on this basis, to develop scientifically based proposals to address these problems and improve the effectiveness of criminal law anti-corruption measures. The object of the study is public relations associated with the formation and application of differentiated criminal legal anti-corruption measures. The subject of the study is the current legislation challenges, theory and practice in terms of a differentiated approach to the establishment and implementation of criminal liability for corruption offences. The methodological basis of the study comprises general, general scientific and special scientific methods of cognition, including the method of legal modelling. This scientific article reflects the results of a study of the current criminal legislation on liability for corruption offences, an analysis of judicial statistics and theoretical works referring to the issues under consideration, and contains specific proposals for further liability differentiation. The outcome of the study is a scientifically substantiated conclusion that the available differentiation of criminal liability for corruption offences is not fully aligned with the interests of the state and society in anti-corruption efforts. Furthermore, it does not comply with the equitable principle of criminal liability, indicating the advisability of elaboration of a set of measures to improve criminal legislation in this field.


Communicology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (4) ◽  
pp. 114-123
Author(s):  
S. S. Kamyshanskaya

The article represents the results of an actual analysis of the discussions on the site of the Valdai International Club over the past ten years in the context of the broadcast of the Russian message to the world as one of the instruments of Russian soft power. The author shows how the articulation of cultural, spiritual and political traditions of Russia occurs at the Valdai Forum as a platform for political communication and based on the appeal of the head of state to the problems of preserving cultural and national identity, forming a positive image of the state in the international arena, preserving national values and patriotic consciousness. A brief analysis is made of a number of fundamentally important thematic contours of the discussion by the Valdai Club members, which in recent years have become significant components of the formation of the Russian message to the world. Besides, the author substantiates the actualization of the concept of cultural imperative in the political science understanding of the cultural and value matrix of the Russian state and society in the Valdai discourse, and highlights an internal axiological aspect focused on civil-patriotic values, a sense of national identity, and the ideology of social justice.


Author(s):  
Daria Vasylenko ◽  
Lаrysa Butko

The purpose of the article is the analysis of modernization process implementation of the managementsystem of the archival facility on the basis of means and instruments of archival institutions digitization.Methodology. To resolve the tasks of the research were used traditional complex of common scientificprinciples (determinism, imaging, unity of opposites) and methods (analysis and synthesis, systematicand structural, questionnaire, content analysis, observation, statistical). Scientific novelty aims at thedevelopment of theoretical components in the branch of the archival institution management in the context ofdigitalization, which includes the methods of the analysis, synthesis, and systematization for the developmentof the problem of implementing the governing technologies of digitalization in the archival branch. Theprocesses of scientific-technical progress in ХХІth century caused the formation of public strategy for thecommon digitization of the whole state. It is analyzed the elements of archival digitalization in the contextof innovative modernizations of the society and the state. With the implementation of innovative digitalizedtechnologies into the work of archival institutions, the state and society will acquire the opportunity toexpand their informational base access, using modern methods will help to receive the most truthful andauthentic information about the state, society, and scientific management will open the additional resourcesof analysis the informational wealth of archives facilities. Conclusions. The whole way of archival facilitydevelopment shows, that the main contradiction in archival activity is tracing in relation to traditionaland innovational methods of work. The reason is the demand for stable components for the stabilization ofarchival developing processes, which eventually will form compulsory innovations.Keywords: archive, innovation, management, digitization, information, rebranding, technologization, fund


Author(s):  
Olena I. Kravchenko ◽  
Oksana S. Dudchenko ◽  
Iryna S. Kunenko ◽  
Oleksandr Spodynskyi ◽  
Oksana V. Deliia

The aim of this study was a holistic analysis of aspects of expanding the interaction between the state and civil society on the example of the experience of foreign countries, namely Austria, Belgium, France, Italy, and Poland. The research involves such methods as sociological analysis, systemic and case study methods, structural and comparative methods, as well as the dialectical method. The factors of expanding the interaction of the judiciary as a representative of the state, which protects the rights and interests of civil society, were identified in accordance with the results of the study. As a result, conclusions were drawn on the need for the judiciary, as a representative of the state, to use methods to expand the interaction between the state and society, in the person of every citizen. The use of those factors in relation to such interaction will further help increase public confidence in the state, which will ensure effective protection of the rights and interests of society.


Author(s):  
Tat'yana Kandabarova

The article discusses criminal punishment in historical and modern aspects. The term «criminal punishment» is multidimensional both in everyday and scientific understanding, functional properties are diverse. Without punishment there is no crime, and without crime there is no punishment. Hence the familiar phrase «crime-punishment». The role of criminal punishment in countering socially dangerous acts, its effectiveness causes discussion. The issues of sentencing at different times have always been and are receiving a lot of attention, both from legal scholars and from practitioners. The improvement of modern legislation in terms of criminal punishment gives reason to say that there is an understanding and research of the problems of the application of criminal punishment in modern society. Punishment expresses, on behalf of the State and society, a negative legal, social and moral assessment of the criminal act and the offender and consists in the deprivation or restriction of rights and freedoms provided for in criminal legislation. The purpose of this study is to study criminal punishment, its goals and practice of application, consideration of historical prerequisites. To achieve this goal, it is necessary: to investigate the institution of sentencing in the history of development, to study the current state of the institution of punishment, its goals and practice of application in modern Russia. The methodological basis of the work was made up of general scientific methods (historical, logical, system-structural, comparative legal analysis).


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 347-362
Author(s):  
Dmitry Rustemovich Zhantiev

The author examines the religious and political course of the Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II (1876-1909), aimed at strengthening the unity of the Ottoman state and society based on the principles of Islam, and the implementation of this strategy in the Syrian provinces of the Ottoman Empire. The research is based on reports of contemporaries, as well as research works in Russian and English. Particular attention is paid to the strategic role of Ottoman Syria (including Lebanon and Palestine) in the context of strengthening the religious authority of the Sultan as the caliph of all Muslims and recruiting prominent ideologues and supporters of Islamic traditionalism from the Syrian vilayets to serve the Sultan. The author especially examines the role of wo representatives of the Muslim intellectual elite: the Sufi sheikh Abu-l-Huda al-Sayyadi as a close associate of the Sultan who provided patronage to the conservative ulama, as well as Ahmad Izzet Pasha al-Abid, who became the main inspirer of the Hejaz Railway. The article also reveals the features of the state policy towards religious minorities (both Muslim and non-Muslim) and migration processes in the Syrian provinces. With the weakening of the international positions of the Ottoman Empire and the strengthening of foreign interference, Syria set an example of relatively successful modernization based on Islamic tradition. At the same time, confessional identity continued to dominate over ethnicity, and the emerging feelings of Arab and Syrian patriotism did not conflict with the principle of Islamic unity of the subjects of the Sultan-Caliph.


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