Intrinsic Properties
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2021 ◽  
Laura Fontanesi ◽  
Amitai Shenhav ◽  
Sebastian Gluth

Recent years have witnessed a surge of interest in understanding the neural and cognitive dynamics that drive sequential decision making in general and foraging behavior in particular. Due to the intrinsic properties of most sequential decision-making paradigms, however, previous research in this area has suffered from the difficulty to disentangle properties of the decision related to (a) the value of switching to a new patch versus (b) the conflict experienced between choosing to stay or leave. Here, we show how the same problems arise in studies of sequential decision-making under risk, and how they can be overcome, taking as a specific example recent research on the `pig' dice game. In each round of the `pig' dice game, people roll a die and accumulate rewards until they either decide to proceed to the next round or lose all rewards. By combining simulation-based dissections of the task structure with two experiments, we show how an extension of the standard paradigm, together with cognitive modeling of decision-making processes, disentangles value- from conflict-related choice properties. Our study elucidates the cognitive mechanisms of sequential decision making and underscores the importance of avoiding potential pitfalls of paradigms that are commonly used in this research area.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Kaifeng Yang ◽  
Katsumi Nagase ◽  
Yoshiro Hirayama ◽  
Tetsuya D. Mishima ◽  
Michael B. Santos ◽  

AbstractDetection and characterization of a different type of topological excitations, namely the domain wall (DW) skyrmion, has received increasing attention because the DW is ubiquitous from condensed matter to particle physics and cosmology. Here we present experimental evidence for the DW skyrmion as the ground state stabilized by long-range Coulomb interactions in a quantum Hall ferromagnet. We develop an alternative approach using nonlocal resistance measurements together with a local NMR probe to measure the effect of low current-induced dynamic nuclear polarization and thus to characterize the DW under equilibrium conditions. The dependence of nuclear spin relaxation in the DW on temperature, filling factor, quasiparticle localization, and effective magnetic fields allows us to interpret this ground state and its possible phase transitions in terms of Wigner solids of the DW skyrmion. These results demonstrate the importance of studying the intrinsic properties of quantum states that has been largely overlooked.

Open Biology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
Owen Michael Morris ◽  
James Hilary Torpey ◽  
Rivka Leah Isaacson

Our notions of protein function have long been determined by the protein structure–function paradigm. However, the idea that protein function is dictated by a prerequisite complementarity of shapes at the binding interface is becoming increasingly challenged. Interactions involving intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) have indicated a significant degree of disorder present in the bound state, ranging from static disorder to complete disorder, termed ‘random fuzziness’. This review assesses the anatomy of an IDP and relates how its intrinsic properties permit promiscuity and allow for the various modes of interaction. Furthermore, a mechanistic overview of the types of disordered domains is detailed, while also relating to a recent example and the kinetic and thermodynamic principles governing its formation.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (10) ◽  
pp. 2506
Liren Zheng ◽  
Mu Liu ◽  
Haipeng Zhang ◽  
Zhaoke Zheng ◽  
Zeyan Wang ◽  

ZnO, as an important semiconductor material, has attracted much attention due to its excellent physical properties, which can be widely used in many fields. Notably, the defects concentration and type greatly affect the intrinsic properties of ZnO. Thus, controllable adjustment of ZnO defects is particularly important for studying its photoelectric properties. In this work, we fabricated ZnO ceramics (ZnO(C)) with different defects through spark plasma sintering (SPS) process by varying sintering temperature and using reduction environment. The experimental results indicate that the changes of color and light absorption in as-prepared ZnO originate from the different kinds of defects, i.e., oxygen vacancies (VO), interstitial zinc (Zni), and Zinc vacancies (VZn). Moreover, with the increase in calcination temperature, the concentration of oxygen defects and interstitial zinc defects in the ceramics increases gradually, and the conductivity of the ceramics is also improved. However, too many defects are harmful to the photoelectrochemical properties of the ceramics, and the appropriate oxygen defects can improve the utilization of visible light.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (9) ◽  
pp. e0257477
Katarzyna Bazydlo-Guzenda ◽  
Pawel Buda ◽  
Mateusz Mach ◽  
Jerzy Pieczykolan ◽  
Izabela Kozlowska ◽  

GPR40 (FFAR1) is a promising target for the managing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The most advanced GPR40 agonist TAK-875 exhibited satisfactory glucose-lowering effects in phase II and III studies. However, the phase III studies of TAK-875 revealed drug-induced liver injury (DILI). It is unknown whether DILI is a consequence of a specific GPR40 agonist or is an inherent feature of all GPR40 agonists. CPL207280 is a novel GPR40 agonist that improves diabetes in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats, Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats and db/db mice. In this report, the DILI-related toxicity of CPL207280 was compared directly with that of TAK-875. In vitro studies evaluating hepatic biliary transporter inhibition, mitochondrial function, and metabolic profiling were performed in hepatocytes from different species. The long term toxicity of CPL207280 was studied in vivo in rats and monkeys. Activity of CPL207280 was one order of magnitude lesser than that of TAK-875 for the inhibition of bile acid transporters. CPL207280 had a negligible effect on the hepatic mitochondria. In contrast to TAK-875, which was metabolized through toxic glucuronidation, CPL207280 was metabolized mainly through oxidation. No deleterious hepatic effects were observed in chronically treated healthy and diabetic animals. The study presents promising data on the feasibility of creating a liver-safe GPR40 agonist. Additionally, it can be concluded that DILI is not a hallmark of GPR40 agonists; it is linked to the intrinsic properties of an individual agonist.

2021 ◽  
xiangyu wang ◽  
encai xiao ◽  
Lingcui Zhang ◽  
Yue Xu ◽  
tong liu ◽  

Abstract LiMnPO4 (LMP) microwave dielectric ceramics were manufactured at different temperatures via a standard solid-state reaction method, and the LMP ceramic sintered at 750 °C displayed dielectric properties of εr = 7.82, Q × f = 29,189 (f = 12.7 GHz). The lattice vibrational characteristics of LMP ceramics were studied utilizing both infrared reflection and Raman scattering spectroscopy to clarify the basic principle of the dielectric response. The intrinsic properties that were fitted and simulated based on the infrared spectra agreed with the measured property values. The low-frequency vibrational modes contributed more to the dielectric properties than the high-frequency modes. Upon increasing the temperature, the permittivity was positively correlated with the bond length but showed the opposite trend of the Raman shift of mode 9 Ag(υ1). The Q × f value was positively correlated with the packing fraction but negatively correlated with the FWHM of mode 10 Ag(υ3). Thus, the structure-property relationships of LMP ceramics were established as a function of sintering temperature.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 2430
Simone Morais

Carbon-based nanomaterials have been increasingly used in the design of sensors and biosensors due to their advantageous intrinsic properties, which include, but are not limited to, high electrical and thermal conductivity, chemical stability, optical properties, large specific surface, biocompatibility, and easy functionalization [...]

Entropy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (9) ◽  
pp. 1226
Garrett Mindt

The hard problem of consciousness has been a perennially vexing issue for the study of consciousness, particularly in giving a scientific and naturalized account of phenomenal experience. At the heart of the hard problem is an often-overlooked argument, which is at the core of the hard problem, and that is the structure and dynamics (S&D) argument. In this essay, I will argue that we have good reason to suspect that the S&D argument given by David Chalmers rests on a limited conception of S&D properties, what in this essay I’m calling extrinsic structure and dynamics. I argue that if we take recent insights from the complexity sciences and from recent developments in Integrated Information Theory (IIT) of Consciousness, that we get a more nuanced picture of S&D, specifically, a class of properties I’m calling intrinsic structure and dynamics. This I think opens the door to a broader class of properties with which we might naturally and scientifically explain phenomenal experience, as well as the relationship between syntactic, semantic, and intrinsic notions of information. I argue that Chalmers’ characterization of structure and dynamics in his S&D argument paints them with too broad a brush and fails to account for important nuances, especially when considering accounting for a system’s intrinsic properties. Ultimately, my hope is to vindicate a certain species of explanation from the S&D argument, and by extension dissolve the hard problem of consciousness at its core, by showing that not all structure and dynamics are equal.

2021 ◽  
Joseph D Zak ◽  
Nathan E Schoppa

GABAergic periglomerular (PG) cells in the olfactory bulb are proposed to mediate an intraglomerular high-pass filter through inhibition targeted onto a glomerulus. With this mechanism, weak stimuli (e.g., an odor with a low affinity for an odorant receptor) mainly produce PG cell-driven inhibition but strong stimuli generate enough excitation to overcome inhibition. PG cells may be particularly susceptible to being activated by weak stimuli due to their intrinsically small size and high input resistance. Here, we used dual-cell patch-clamp recordings and imaging methods in bulb slices obtained from wild-type and transgenic rats with labeled GABAergic cells to test a number of predictions of the high-pass filtering model. We first directly compared the responsiveness of PG cells with that of external tufted cells (eTCs), which are a class of excitatory interneurons that reside in a parallel but opposing position in the glomerular circuitry. PG cells were in fact found to be no more responsive than eTCs at low levels of sensory neuron activity. While PG cells required smaller currents to be excited, this advantage was offset by the fact that a given level of sensory neuron activity produced much smaller synaptic currents. We did however identify other factors that shaped the excitation/inhibition balance in a manner that would support a high-pass filter, including glial glutamate transporters and presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors. We conclude that a single glomerulus may act as a high-pass filter to enhance the contrast between different olfactory stimuli through mechanisms that are largely independent cell intrinsic properties.

Bich Ngoc Tran ◽  
Stuart C. Thickett ◽  
Vipul Agarwal ◽  
Per B. Zetterlund

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