feed consumption
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 599-610
Valéria Pereira Rodrigues ◽  
Dermeval Araújo Furtado ◽  
Neila Lidiany Ribeiro ◽  
Ladyanne Raia Rodrigues ◽  

The objective was to evaluate the increasing levels of magnesium in the water supplied to laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), kept in climatic chambers under thermoneutral temperature and thermal stress, on their performance and morphometry of their organs. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2x4 factorial arrangement, 2 temperatures (24 and 32 ºC) and 4 levels of magnesium in the water (50, 150, 250 and 350 mg L-1), with six replicates and eight birds per experimental unit. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and the means compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability level. The magnesium levels in the water did not affect (P > 0.05) the production performance and morphometry of the organs, with less water consumption at the magnesium level of 150 mg L-1, and birds kept at 32 °C had a reduction in feed consumption and feed conversion, but without affecting organ morphometry. Japanese quails in the production phase can consume water with magnesium levels up to 350 mg L-1 without having their production performance and morphometry of organs affected and raised in an environment with temperatures of up to 32 °C.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 611-628
João Marcos Monteiro Batista ◽  
Leonardo Augusto Fonseca Pascoal ◽  
José Humberto Vilar da Silva ◽  
Veruska Dilyanne Silva Gomes ◽  

Fish larviculture exert great influence in the subsequent phases, in which nutrition is a basic prerequisite for success. Therefore, when it is in an intensified production system, it promotes the limitation of some minerals, making it necessary to supplement selenium in diets for post-larvae. The objective of this study was to evaluate selenium levels and sources in post-larvae Nile tilapia diets on muscle performance and histology. A total of 1,260 post-larvae with an initial average weight of 0.010 g were used, distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial scheme with four supplementation levels (0.6; 0.9; 1.2 and 1.5 mg of Se/Kg) and two sources (sodium selenite and selenium yeast), plus the negative control, with 35 post-larvae Nile tilapia used per experimental unit. The physical-chemical parameters of water quality were within those recommended for tilapia cultivation. Feed consumption (p < 0.05) and hepatosomatic index (p < 0.05) were affected by the source used. Effects of supplemented selenium levels and sources were not observed for the other performance variables. Higher values for final height, final width, specific development rate and protein efficiency rate were found (p < 0.05) when comparing the control diet with diets containing the sodium selenite source. No effects on muscle fiber morphometry were observed (p > 0.05) in the studied variables. It is concluded that 0.6 mg of selenium in the diet, regardless of the source used, met the mineral requirement for post-larvae Nile tilapia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-006
Abdulrazzaq Abdulhameed Al-Rawi

Food availability is the most important issue that takes the priority places in the policies of all countries all over the world. Recently, more attention has been paid to livestock because of their ability to produce meat and milk, as well as it has a significant source of income for small holders and an economic contributor to the gross domestic product. Climate changes induced physiological stress, which is one of the complex factors making livestock management and husbandry challenging in many geographical locations in the world. Increased body temperature or heat stress will cause production losses in livestock and impact on their ability to maintain normal function. There is considerable research evidence that showed significant decline in animal performance when subjected to heat stress. Heat stress inflicts heavy economic losses on livestock production. The effects of heat stress is evident in feed consumption, production efficiency in terms of milk yield or weight gain per unit of feed energy, growth rate, and reproductive efficiency. The aim of this article is to discuss increasing food production to ensure food security for nearly 8 billion people, without causing further environmental damage that can be achieved by transforming systems and adopting sustainable livestock practices within a changing climate.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
I-Chen Li ◽  
Fang-Chia Chang ◽  
Ching-Chuan Kuo ◽  
Hsin-Tung Chu ◽  
Tsung-Ju Li ◽  

Sleep disturbances have been the hallmark of the recent coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Studies have shown that once sleep is disrupted, it can lead to psychological and physical health issues which can, in turn, disrupt circadian rhythm and induce further sleep disruption. As consumers are trying to establish healthy routines, nutritional and preclinical safety investigation of fermented hispidin-enriched Sanghuangporus sanghuang mycelia (GKSS) as a novel food material for spontaneous sleep in Sprague-Dawley rats is conducted for the first time. Results showed that the nutritional analysis of GKSS including moisture, ash, crude lipid, crude protein, carbohydrate, and energy were found to be 2.4 ± 0.3%, 8.0 ± 2.5%, 1.7 ± 0.3%, 22.9 ± 1.2%, 65.1 ± 3.1%, and 367.1 ± 10.2 kcal/100 g respectively. In the 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study, only Sprague-Dawley male rats receiving 5 g/kg showed a slight decrease in feed consumption at week 3, but no associated clinical signs of toxicity or significant weight loss were observed. Although a significant reduction of the platelet count was found in mid- and high-dose GKSS treated male groups, such changes were noted to be within the normal range and were not correlated with relative spleen weight changes. Hence, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of GKSS was identified to be higher than 5 g/kg in rats. After the safety of GKSS is confirmed, the sleep-promoting effect of GKSS ethanolic extract enriched with hispidin was further assessed. Despite 75 mg/kg of GKSS ethanolic extract does not affect wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and non-REM (NREM) sleep, GKSS ethanolic extract at 150 mg/kg significantly decreased wakefulness and enhanced NREM and REM sleep. Interestingly, such effects seem to be mediated through anti-inflammatory activities via NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings provide the preliminary evidence to studies support the claims suggesting that GKSS contained useful phytochemical hispidin could be considered as and is safe to use as a functional food agent or nutraceutical for relieving sleep problems mediated by Nrf2 pathway, which the results are useful for future clinical pilot study.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 202
Sven Götz ◽  
Camille M. C. Raoult ◽  
Klaus Reiter ◽  
Monika Wensch-Dorendorf ◽  
Eberhard von Borell

Little is known on the effect of light on pig behaviour. The choice behaviour of weaned piglets kept under two different light-emitting diode (LED) illuminance levels was investigated: 32 piglets (in two batches) were housed in a preference test room composed of two identical double pen units. One side of the pen unit was permanently illuminated with 600 lux, while the other was darkened to almost 0 lux (~0 lx); by using a passageway, piglets could move between the two sides. The “lying”, “eating” and “activity” behaviours were evaluated during three days in the first, third and fifth experimental week based on video recordings and a 5-min time sampling method. At first, piglets preferred to stay in the 600 lux illuminated compartments. Then, this preference decreased for the “eating” and “activity” behaviours and reversed for the “lying” behaviour, with the darkened compartments being preferred. The results also show that pen soiling was higher under 600 lux, but feed consumption was not affected by the illuminance. Since pigs choose between the two illuminance levels to perform specific behaviours, illuminance could be used to divide the pens into functional areas and, thus, help in meeting pigs’ behavioural needs.

Pathogens ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 85
Konstantinos V. Arsenopoulos ◽  
Eleftherios Triantafillou ◽  
Athanasios I. Gelasakis ◽  
Elias Papadopoulos

Fly infestation remains a universal problem for dairy cattle herds, affecting the animals’ health and welfare status. Pre-weaned dairy calves are significantly challenged by the direct and indirect consequences of severe fly infestation, heat-stress and their interaction, which contribute to a stressful and fatiguing environment. Among several physiological, behavioral, clinical and biochemical traits, serum cortisol (SC) and creatine kinase (CK) levels, as well as feed consumption can be used as valid indicators of potential stressful and fatiguing conditions and, therefore, can be efficiently used for stress analysis studies. Hence, the objective of the study was to assess the fly-repellency effect of deltamethrin on pre-weaned dairy calves exposed to heat stress conditions, as well as its association with SC, CK concentrations and feed consumption. Two commercial dairy cattle herds of the Holstein breed in Central Macedonia (Greece) were involved in the study during summer months and under heat stress conditions. Deltamethrin administration resulted in (i) a decreased fly population (100% Musca domestica) landing on pre-weaned dairy calves, (ii) a reduced SC (stress indicator) and CK (fatigue indicator) concentration, and (iii) an increased consumption of feedstuff in deltamethrin treated animals compared to the untreated ones.

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00033
Eko Widodo ◽  
Jein Rini Leke ◽  
Khusnul Teguh Pangestu ◽  
Aulia Hidayatul ◽  
Dhimas Rodho Purnomo ◽  

Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaves are commonly used as food additives in many countries. Beside to improve taste, it is recognized to contain various compound groups namely alkaloid, saponins, flavonoids and tannins that have a role in antibacterial activity. However, the current research aim was to examine effect of using Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaves as feed additive in broilers. The method used was experiment, employing 6 treatments included P0: control feed; P0: control feed added with 0.1% zinc bacitracin; P1: control feed added with 0.5% Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaves powder; P2: control feed added with 1.0% Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaves powder; P3: control feed added with 1.5% Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaves powder; P4: control feed added with 2.0% Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaves powder. The variables measured were feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. The results indicated that in all variables no significant results were reported. Those indicated that addition of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaves powder in broiler feed did not affect growth performances of broiler. It is concluded that the use of Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. leaves powder as feed additive did not change growth of broiler, probably due partly to its antibacterial effect.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012110
M Daud ◽  
M A Yaman ◽  
Zulfan ◽  
H Latif ◽  
D Erfiyan

Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of Peking ducks fed with rations containing waste products of leubiem fish (Chanthidermis maculatus) and probiotic agents. The study was conducted experimentally using 96 Peking ducks, within an age range of about 1 to 8 weeks, and a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), which consisted of four treatment rations and four replications. The treatment rations used in this research included treatment R0, which was the basal diet, serving as the control ration, and also treatment R1, R2, and R3, which consisted of 10% concentration of leubiem fish skin, head, and bone, respectively, as well as 1% of a probiotic agent. The observed variables included the rate of feed consumption, body weight gain, final body weight, feed conversion ratio, and mortality were then analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results showed that the use of leubiem fish components and probiotic agents in rations at 10% and 1%, respectively, had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the rate of feed consumption, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio and final body weight. However, there was no significant effect on the mortality of Peking ducks. Therefore, this study concluded that the use of rations containing leubiem fishbone and probiotic agents at 10% and 1%, respectively, were able to accelerate the growth performance of Peking ducks.

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00032
Muhammad Zainul Hanif ◽  
Putri Utami ◽  
Rizki Prafitri ◽  
Chusnul Hanim ◽  
Trinil Susilawati

The success of artificial insemination must be supported by a balance of nutrients for livestock. AI combined with sexing produces offspring according to wishes of the breeder. This study aims to determine the increase in concentration on the success of Artificial Insemination using frozen semen sexing. This research was conducted at the people's beef cattle farm, Sumber Pucung District, Malang Regency. The limousine crosser used was 30 cows. Cattle aged 1.8 – 5 years with BCS 3-5 (score 1-9) Treatment T0 : The usual feed given by farmers (Control). T1: Control+HQFS. Parameters NRR-1, NRR-2, Conception Rate (CR), Pregnancy Rate (PR). The additional feeding of concentrate did not significantly affect the reproductive parameters. The results showed that at T0 the results of NRR-1 and NRR-2 were 80% and 73.33%, respectively. while in T1 it was 73.3% and 66.67%. The results showed that the CR in both treatments was 26% and the results showed that the PR for T0 was 26% and for T1 was 33%. Insufficient feed consumption for all treatments based on NRC requirement data, T0 and T1 dry matter consumption respectively 6.6 and 7.3 Kg/head/day, Protein consumption 0.36 and 0.3 Kg/head/day and TDN consumption of 3.08 and 3.20. kg/head/day.

2022 ◽  
Vol 335 ◽  
pp. 00022
Beby Murba Ningsih Saragih ◽  
Sumiati Sumiati ◽  
Rita Mutia

Supplementation of vitamin E and selenium improved the productivity of livestock. This study aims to evaluate the effect of vitamin E and selenium supplementation on different diets of IPB D-2 chickens during 15-21 weeks. Completely randomized factorial 2 x 2 (factor A was diet type and factor B was vitamin E supplementation) and five replications was used in this experiment. The variables observed were performance, blood profile, organ immunity and percentage of carcass weight. The results showed that diet type had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on feed consumption in the developer and layer periods and had a highly significant effect (P < 0.01) on feed consumption in the pre-layer period and body weight gain in the layer period. Vitamin E and selenium supplementation had a significant effect (P > 0.05) on pre-layer feed consumption. The blood profile was in normal range with optimal stress levels. There was significantly interaction (P < 0.05) between diet type and vitamin E supplementation on carcass percentage and highly significantly interaction (P < 0.01) on layer feed conversion. Parameters of immune organ and egg production were not affected by treatment. The diet type was reduced by 5% from the standard with supplementation vitamin E dan selenium showed the best result for IPB D-2 chicken performance.

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