ascorbate peroxidase
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2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Sylva Prerostova ◽  
Jana Jarosova ◽  
Petre I. Dobrev ◽  
Lucia Hluskova ◽  
Vaclav Motyka ◽  

Inter-organ communication and the heat stress (HS; 45°C, 6 h) responses of organs exposed and not directly exposed to HS were evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa) by comparing the impact of HS applied either to whole plants, or only to shoots or roots. Whole-plant HS reduced photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm and QY_Lss), but this effect was alleviated by prior acclimation (37°C, 2 h). Dynamics of HSFA2d, HSP90.2, HSP90.3, and SIG5 expression revealed high protection of crowns and roots. Additionally, HSP26.2 was strongly expressed in leaves. Whole-plant HS increased levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and cytokinin cis-zeatin in leaves, while up-regulating auxin indole-3-acetic acid and down-regulating trans-zeatin in leaves and crowns. Ascorbate peroxidase activity and expression of alternative oxidases (AOX) increased in leaves and crowns. HS targeted to leaves elevated levels of JA in roots, cis-zeatin in crowns, and ascorbate peroxidase activity in crowns and roots. HS targeted to roots increased levels of abscisic acid and auxin in leaves and crowns, cis-zeatin in leaves, and JA in crowns, while reducing trans-zeatin levels. The weaker protection of leaves reflects the growth strategy of rice. HS treatment of individual organs induced changes in phytohormone levels and antioxidant enzyme activity in non-exposed organs, in order to enhance plant stress tolerance.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 201
Tahereh Ashrostaghi ◽  
Sasan Aliniaeifard ◽  
Aida Shomali ◽  
Shiva Azizinia ◽  
Jahangir Abbasi Koohpalekani ◽  

Low temperatures are a substantial limitation in the geographic distribution of warm-season crops such as cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Tolerance to low temperatures varies among different plant species and genotypes when changes in environmental cues occur. Therefore, biochemical and biophysical events should be coordinated to form a physiological response and cope with low temperatures. We examined how light intensity influences the effects of low temperature on photosynthesis and some biochemical traits. We used chlorophyll fluorescence imaging and polyphasic fluorescence transient to analyze cold stress damage by 4 °C. Photosynthetic Photon Flux Densities (PPFDs) of 0, 300, and 600 μmol m−2 s−1, in four accessions of cucumber, were investigated. The results show that the negative effects of cold stress are PPFD-dependent. The adverse effect of cold stress on the electron transport chain is more pronounced in plants exposed to 600 μmol m−2 s−1 than the control and dark-exposed plants, indicated by a disturbance in the electron transport chain and higher energy dissipation. Moreover, biochemical traits, including the H2O2 content, ascorbate peroxidase activity, electrolyte leakage, and water-soluble carbohydrate, increased under low temperature by increasing the PPFD. In contrast, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents decreased under low temperature through PPFD elevation. Low temperature induced a H2O2 accumulation via suppressing ascorbate peroxidase activity in a PPFD-dependent manner. In conclusion, high PPFDs exacerbate the adverse effects of low temperature on the cucumber seedlings.

Antioxidants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 151
Marcelo Pedrosa Gomes ◽  
Rafael Shinji Akiyama Kitamura ◽  
Raizza Zorman Marques ◽  
Marcello Locatelli Barbato ◽  
Marcel Zámocký

We investigated the individual and combined contributions of two distinct heme proteins namely, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and catalase (CAT) on the tolerance of Lemna minor plants to antibiotics. For our investigation, we used specific inhibitors of these two H2O2-scavenging enzymes (p-aminophenol, 3-amino,1,2,4-triazole, and salicylic acid). APX activity was central for the tolerance of this aquatic plant to amoxicillin (AMX), whereas CAT activity was important for avoiding oxidative damage when exposed to ciprofloxacin (CIP). Both monitored enzymes had important roles in the tolerance of Lemna minor to erythromycin (ERY). The use of molecular kinetic approaches to detect and increase APX and/or CAT scavenging activities could enhance tolerance, and, therefore, improve the use of L. minor plants to reclaim antibiotics from water bodies.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Shun Tamaki ◽  
Ryosuke Sato ◽  
Yuki Koshitsuka ◽  
Masashi Asahina ◽  
Yutaka Kodama ◽  

Carotenoids are photosynthetic pigments and hydrophobic antioxidants that are necessary for the survival of photosynthetic organisms, including the microalga Euglena gracilis. In the present study, we identified an uncharacterized gene encoding the E. gracilis β-carotene synthetic enzyme lycopene cyclase (EgLCY) and discovered a relationship between EgLCY-mediated carotenoid synthesis and the reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system ascorbate-glutathione cycle. The EgLCY cDNA sequence was obtained via homology searching E. gracilis transcriptome data. An enzyme assay using Escherichia coli demonstrated that EgLCY converts lycopene to β-carotene. E. gracilis treated with EgLCY double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) produced colorless cells with hypertrophic appearance, inhibited growth, and marked decrease in carotenoid and chlorophyll content, suggesting that EgLCY is essential for the synthesis of β-carotene and downstream carotenoids, which are abundant and physiologically functional. In EgLCY dsRNA-treated cells, the ascorbate-glutathione cycle, composed of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDAR), and glutathione reductase (GR), was unusually modulated; APX and GR activities significantly decreased, whereas DHAR and MDAR activities increased. Ascorbate content was significantly increased and glutathione content significantly decreased in EgLCY dsRNA-treated cells and was correlated with their recycling enzyme activities. Fluorescent imaging demonstrated that EgLCY dsRNA-treated cells accumulated higher levels of H2O2 compared to wild-type cells. Taken together, this study revealed that EgLCY-mediated synthesis of β-carotene and downstream carotenoid species upregulates APX activity and increases glutathione pool size for H2O2 scavenging. Our study suggests a possible relationship between carotenoid synthesis and the ascorbate-glutathione cycle for ROS scavenging in E. gracilis.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (2) ◽  
pp. 24-35
T. Mamenko ◽  
S. Kots ◽  
V. Patyka

Aim. The elaboration of efficient legume-rhizobial symbiosis systems, involving active strains of nodule bacteria, in the combination with fungicide seed treatment may be an alternative method of providing ecologically friendly nitrogen sources to plants and promoting their tolerance to the external factors, which is relevant for preservation and restoration of envi- ronmental quality. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the impact of pre-sowing seed treatment with fungi- cides, which differ in the action spectrum of active substances – Standak Top (fipronil, 250 g/l, thiophanate-methyl, 225 g/l, pyraclostrobin, 25 g/l) and Maxim XL (fludioxonyl, 25 g/l, metalaxyl, 10 g/l), on the intensity of the development of lipid peroxidation processes, the activity of antioxidant enzyme ascorbate peroxidase and nitrogen fixation activity in soybeans on the early stages of forming legume-rhizobial symbiosis. Methods. Microbiological (cultivation of a bacterial culture, seed inoculation), physiological (vegetative experiment), biochemical (spectrophotometric determination of the content of lipid peroxidation products and the activity of ascorbate peroxidase; measuring the nitrogen-fixation activity using a gas chro- matography). Results. It was found that pre-sowing fungicide treatment of soybean seeds and subsequent inoculation with active rhizobia of strain 634b did not result in the change in the content of TBA-active products in roots and root nodules (the values of indices were within the experiment deviation). At the same time, after seed inoculation using rhizobia and treat- ment with Maxim XL, there was an increase in the activity of ascorbate peroxidase in the roots from 20.3 to 30.8 %, and with Standak Top – from 20.0 to 29.8 % during the early stages of ontogenesis till the formation of the third ternate leaf. Here, the activity of the enzyme in root nodules increased by 24.7–40.3 % at the fungicidal effect. Our data demonstrate that the combination of fungicide seed treatment and inoculation with active rhizobia does not induce lipid peroxidation processes, but promotes the initiation of protective antioxidant properties in soybeans. It is accompanied with efficient functioning of the symbiotic apparatus, which is manifested in the increase in nitrogen-fixing activity of nodule bacteria, formed by active rhizobia of strain 634b after the seed treatment with Standak Top – by 98.3 and 78.1 % and after Maxim XL – by 78.6 and 196.2 % respectively, during the stages of the second and third ternate leaves. Conclusions. The pre-sowing soybean seed treatment with fungicides Standak Top and Maxim XL and the subsequent inoculation with active rhizobia of strain 634b does not induce the development of lipid peroxidation processes, but increases the activity of the antioxidant enzyme, ascor- bate peroxidase, in the roots and root nodules, which is accompanied with the efficient work of the symbiotic apparatus on the early stages of determining legume-rhizobial symbiosis. This method of seed treatment may be a novel measure, to use in the technologies of cultivating soybeans to enhance the realization of the symbiotic potential and meet the needs of plants in ecologically friendly nitrogen, and to promote the formation of their tolerance to the corresponding cultivation conditions.

Horticulturae ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (10) ◽  
pp. 330
Md. Sabibul Haque ◽  
Mst. Tanziatul Husna ◽  
Md. Nesar Uddin ◽  
Md. Alamgir Hossain ◽  
Abul Khayer Mohammad Golam Sarwar ◽  

Global warming is predicted to be increased in the upcoming years, resulting in frequent heatwaves or hot days worldwide, which can seriously affect crop growth and productivity. The responses of heat stress to several photophysiological and biochemical traits in three tomato cultivars were investigated in a pot experiment, and the heat tolerance capability of these cultivars was evaluated based on the investigated traits. The experiment was followed by a factorial completely randomized design, and the factors were (i) tomato cultivars (BARI Hybrid Tomato-5, BARI Tomato-14, and BARI Tomato-15) and (ii) heat stress (control and heat). The plants of three tomato cultivars were exposed to short-term heat stress (four days at 38/25 °C day/night temperature) at the flowering stage. The measured traits such as dry mass, leaf greenness (SPAD), maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), photosynthetic rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration rate (E), leaf chlorophyll, and carotenoid content were significantly declined, while the catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were increased by heat stress in all three tomato cultivars except BARI Tomato-15, which showed unaltered gs, E, and carotenoids. The percent reduction (over control) in SPAD, Fv/Fm, A, total chlorophyll, and total carotenoids was significantly lower (11, 06, 25, 34, and 19%, respectively), whereas the percent increase in catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities was substantially higher (70 and 72%, respectively) in BARI Tomato-15 than in other cultivars. Based on the measured physiological and biochemical traits, the cultivar BARI Tomato-15 showed better heat tolerance than the other cultivars.

Plants ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 1871
Liubov Skrypnik ◽  
Pavel Maslennikov ◽  
Pavel Feduraev ◽  
Artem Pungin ◽  
Nikolay Belov

Mistletoe infestation leads to a decrease in the growth of woody plants, their longevity, and partial or complete drying of the top, as well as premature death. Various environmental stress factors, both abiotic and biotic, stimulate the formation of reactive oxygen species and the development of oxidative stress in plant tissues. This study aimed to investigate the effect of mistletoe (Viscum album L.) infestation on the response of the antioxidative defense system in leaves of small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mill.). Leaves from infested trees were taken from branches (i) without mistletoe, (ii) with 1–2 mistletoe bushes (low degree of infestation), and (iii) with 5–7 mistletoe bushes (high degree of infestation). The relative water content and the chlorophyll a and b contents in leaves from linden branches affected by mistletoe were significantly lower than those in leaves from non-infested trees and from host-tree branches with no mistletoe. At the same time, leaves from branches with low and high degrees of infestation had significantly higher electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide content, oxidized forms of ascorbic acid (dehydroascorbic and 2,3-diketogulonic acids), and oxidized glutathione. The results of principal component analysis show that the development of oxidative stress was accompanied by an increase in proline content and in superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity. Several biochemical parameters (proline, ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, ascorbate peroxidase, and dehydroascorbate reductase) were found to be altered in leaves from host-tree branches with no mistletoe. This result indicates that the mistletoe infestation of trees not only causes local changes in the locations of hemiparasite attachment, but also affects the redox metabolism in leaves from other parts of the infested tree.

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