treatment rate
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Di Zhang ◽  
Lei Gao ◽  
Yuanyuan Jia ◽  
Shiyan Wang ◽  
Haibo Wang ◽  

Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a common health problem and seriously affects quality of life. Many women lack understanding of UI or are too ashamed to seek medical advice early, leading to a low treatment rate. The aim of this study is to establish an effective UI progress prediction model for elderly women with UI for earlier detection and better treatment. Methods: This study is conducted as a prospective, multi-center, cohort study, and recruits 800 women aged ≥60 with mild or moderate UI in China. Participants are divided into three groups: stress urinary incontinence group (SUI), urgency urinary incontinence group (UUI), and mixed urinary incontinence group (MUI). This study will investigate the general conditions of patients, after complete relevant pelvic floor function assessment, as well as after follow up at 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months by telephone. The primary endpoint is UI disease progress. Single factor and multi-factor Cox regression model analyses are undertaken to evaluate the associated risk factors affecting the progress of UI to establish a progress prediction model for elderly women. Discussion: This study will provide more predictive information for elderly women with UI, and new clinical references for the intervention and the treatment of UI for medical staff.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Ke Liu ◽  
Yonghong Wang ◽  
Jun Wang ◽  
Na Luo ◽  
Juan Gong ◽  

Adding timely rehabilitation surgery is an optimized perioperative measure that can reduce physical stress, reduce surgical risks, and postoperative complications and promote the recovery of organ function. Therefore, it is of great value to study its application in gastrointestinal surgery (GS). To this end, this article applies retrospective analysis and statistical methods to conduct targeted investigations and studies on GS patients. The results of the survey showed that 26.7% of patients were effective in ARS and 40% were effective in treatment. Compared with traditional treatment methods, its effective treatment rate is 13.4% higher.

2021 ◽  
Jack Stone ◽  
Josephine G Walker ◽  
Sandra Bivegete ◽  
Adam Trickey ◽  
Charles Chasela ◽  

Introduction People who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine have a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Since 2015, PWID have been receiving HCV treatment, but their impact and cost-effectiveness has not been estimated. Methods We developed a dynamic model of HIV and HCV transmission among PWID in Ukraine, incorporating ongoing HCV treatment (5,933 treatments) over 2015-2021; 46.1% among current PWID. We estimated the impact of these treatments and different treatment scenarios over 2021-2030: continuing recent treatment rates (2,394 PWID/year) with 42.5/100% among current PWID, or treating 5,000/10,000 current PWID/year. We also estimated the treatment rate required to decrease HCV incidence by 80% if preventative interventions are scaled-up or not. Required costs were collated from previous studies in Ukraine. We estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the HCV treatments undertaken in 2020 (1,059) by projecting the incremental costs and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) averted over 2020-2070 (3% discount rate) compared to a counterfactual scenario without treatment from 2020 onwards. Results On average, 0.4% of infections among PWID were treated annually over 2015-2021, without which HCV incidence would have been 0.6% (95%CrI: 0.3-1.0%) higher in 2021. Continuing existing treatment rates could reduce HCV incidence by 10.2% (7.8-12.5%) or 16.4% (12.1-22.0%) by 2030 if 42.5% or 100% of treatments are given to current PWID, respectively. HCV incidence could reduce by 29.3% (20.7-44.7%) or 93.9% (54.3-99.9%) by 2030 if 5,000 or 10,000 PWID are treated annually. To reduce incidence by 80% by 2030, 19,275 (15,134-23,522) annual treatments are needed among current PWID, or 17,955 (14,052-21,954) if preventative interventions are scaled-up. The mean ICER was US$828.8/DALY averted; cost-effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of US$3,096/DALY averted (1xGDP). Implications Existing HCV treatment is cost-effective but has had little preventative impact due to few current PWID being treated. Further treatment expansion for current PWID could significantly reduce HCV incidence.

2021 ◽  
Yaowen Liu ◽  
Yuanzhao Li ◽  
Chi Zhang ◽  
Yue Ming ◽  
Jialin Xiao ◽  

Abstract With active hydraulic fracturing performed since 2012, the Fuling shale gas field in China is one of the largest shale gas fields outside of North America. Recently, a Casing-in-Casing (CiC) refracturing treatment was successfully implemented, resulting in production beyond expectations. This was the first successful application of a CiC refracturing treatment in a horizontal shale gas well in this region, thus providing a new option for refracturing horizontal wells in China. Bullheading diversion refracturing with diverting balls was previously attempted in this field with high initial production observed; however, production was inconsistent and quickly declined. Therefore, the operator decided to attempt a CiC refracturing method in an understimulated candidate well. This involved installing and cementing 3.5-in. casing in 5.5-in. casing to effectively isolate the perforations, which enabled plugging and perforating operations in the reconstructed wellbore for an effective refracturing treatment. A customized refracturing design integrated the production profile, residual recoverable reserves, and the specific 5.5- × 3.5-in. reconstructed wellbore limitation. The length of the 3.5-in. casing was optimized to be as short as possible but still cover the original perforations, and high-performance slickwater was used to reduce pipe friction, thus increasing the treatment rate. An engineered breakdown approach was employed for improved fracture initiation. Additionally, more clusters were added between the original clusters and, based on production profile results, some of the original understimulated clusters with little proppant placement were reperforated. To overcome the impact of depleted fractures, a self-degradable particulate diverting agent was used to propagate new fractures, allowing access to new rock to increase total reserve recovery. The treatment in the reconstructed wellbore was successful, with 21 stages fractured in 12 days, achieving 100% placement of the designed proppant and fluid. A treatment rate of 7 to 12 m3/min from the toe to heel was executed as designed. Test production of 183,800 m3/D was also achieved with a recovery rate of 88.1%. Production has remained consistent and wellhead pressure has remained steady at a high level throughout the first two months of production. CiC refracturing technology helps overcome common disadvantages experienced with traditional refracturing techniques, such as poorly placed proppant and fluid and inconsistent production. CiC refracturing not only allows exploitation of bypassed reserves from original fractures, but also allows precise stimulation of new rock to obtain the highest reserve recovery. The successful implementation of this case study illustrates the reliability of CiC refracturing technology and provides valuable experience to be used during future regional horizontal well refracturing.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (12) ◽  
pp. e0259023
Xin Jin ◽  
Zhen Wang ◽  
Zhiyuan Zhang ◽  
Hui Wu ◽  
Yuhua Ruan ◽  

Background China’s National Free Antiretroviral Treatment Program (NFATP) has substantially reduced morbidity and HIV/AIDS incidence since 2003. However, HIV resistance to antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) has been a major challenge for the current treatment of HIV/AIDS in China. Methods In the current study, we established a nested dynamic model to predict the multi-drug resistance dynamics of HIV among the heterosexual population and evaluated the impact of intervention measures on the transmission of drug resistance. We obtained an effective reproductive number R e d from each sub-model held at different stages of the dynamic model. Meanwhile, we applied Bayesian phylogenetic methods to infer the weighted average effective reproductive number R e g from four HIV subtypes that sampled from 912 HIV-positive patients in China. It is an original and innovative method by fitting R e d to R e g by Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) to generate unknown parameters in R e d. Results By analyzing the HIV gene sequences, we inferred that the most recent common ancestor of CRF01AE, CRF07BC, CRF08BC, and CRFBC dated from 1994, 1990, 1993 and 1990, respectively. The weighted average effective reproductive number R e g dropped from 1.95 in 1994 to 1.73 in 2018. Considering different interventions, we used a macro dynamic model to predict the trend of HIV resistance. The results show that the number of new infections and total drug resistance under the baseline parameter (S1) are 253,422 and 213,250 in 2025, respectively. Comparing with the numbers under the target treatment rate (S2), they were 219,717 and 236,890, respectively. However, under the ideal treatment target (S3, the treatment rate reaches 90% and the treatment success rate reaches 90%), the number of new infections shows a declining trend and will decrease to 46,559 by 2025. Compared with S1 and S2, the total number of resistance also decreased to 160,899 in 2025. Conclusion With the promotion of NFATP in China, HIV resistance to ARVs is inevitable. The strategy of increasing the treatment rate would not only ineffectively curb the epidemic, but also deteriorate drug resistance issue. Whereas, a combination of intervention strategies (the treatment rate reaches 90% and the treatment success rate reaches 90%) can greatly reduce both infection and drug resistance rate than applying one strategy alone.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Katherine A. Muller ◽  
Lirong Zhong ◽  
Christopher E. Bagwell

Commercially available particulate amendments demonstrate high reactivity for effective treatment of water soluble organic and inorganic contaminants in laboratory studies; however, transport of these particles is constrained in the subsurface. In many field applications, particulate amendments are mixed with organic polymers to enhance mobility for direct push applications or stabilize suspensions for high mass loadings. As such, the interactions between particulate amendments, organic polymers and contaminant species need to be systematically investigated to properly understand mechanistic processes that facilitate predictive performance metrics for specific applications in situ. In this study, batch experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of organic polymers (xanthan gum, guar gum, and sodium alginate), polymer concentration (800 and 4,000 mg/L), and aging (up to 28 days) on chromate treatment rate and capacity by two classes of amendments: reductants [granular zero-valent iron (gZVI), micron-ZVI (mZVI), sulfur modified iron (SMI)], and an adsorbent (bismuth sub-nitrate). When particulate amendments were suspended in polymer solutions, reductants retained between 84–100% of the amendment treatment capacity. Conversely, the adsorbent maintained 63–97% relative treatment capacity of the no-polymer control. Polymer solutions had a more pronounced impact on the rate of chromate removal; first order rates of chemical reduction decreased by as much as 70% and adsorption by up to 81% relative to the no-polymer controls. Polymer–amendment aging experiments also showed decreased Cr(VI) treatment capacity; reductants decreased by as much as 24% and adsorption decreased by as much as 44% after 28 days of incubation. While polymer suspensions are needed to aid the injection of particulate amendments into the subsurface, the results from this study indicate potential losses of treatment capacity and a decrease in the rate of remedial performance due to the physical and chemical interactions between polymer suspensions and reactive particulate amendments. Simple batch systems provide baseline characterization of tripartite interactions for the removal of Cr(VI). Additional work is needed to quantify the full impact of polymers on remedial outcomes under site relevant conditions at field scale.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
Lisa Singh ◽  
Lehlohonolo J. Mathibe ◽  
Varsha Bangalee

Background: Drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) has become a serious cause of concern both on a global scale and in South Africa. It is associated with a lower successful treatment rate, thus creating a hurdle in achieving good treatment outcomes for patients.Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the drug kanamycin, an injectable aminoglycoside, to bedaquiline, a newer oral drug used to treat DR-TB.Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar, both of which are online databases, were extensively searched using the necessary keywords so that studies that were relevant to the scoping review were retrieved. A data-charting list was developed to extract the needed data for this scoping review.Results: The main findings of the scoping review showed that bedaquiline was highly efficacious in the treatment of DR-TB, and that it was a valuable addition in the treatment of DR-TB. The findings of the study also showed that kanamycin does not have good efficacy against DR-TB. and its use extends the treatment of DR˗TB.Conclusion: It stands to reason that bedaquiline replaces kanamycin in the DR-TB drug regimen as it was shown to be more efficacious and patients experienced better treatment outcomes in a shorter period of time. There were also fewer adverse effects associated with bedaquiline as compared to kanamycin.Contribution: Bedaquiline-based DR-TB therapy is more efficacious than aminoglycoside-based regimens which include kanamycin.

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