Background: Foramen magnum meningiomas (FMMs) represent a considerable neurosurgical challenge given their location and potential morbidity. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is an established non-invasive treatment modality for various benign and malignant brain tumors. However, reports on single-session or multisession SRS for the management and treatment of FMMs are exceedingly rare. We report the largest FMM SRS series to date and describe our multicenter treatment experience utilizing robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Patients who underwent SRS between 2005 and 2020 as a treatment for a FMM at six different centers were eligible for analysis. Results: Sixty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. The median follow-up was 28.9 months. The median prescription dose and isodose line were 14 Gy and 70%, respectively. Single-session SRS accounted for 81% of treatments. The remaining patients received three to five fractions, with doses ranging from 19.5 to 25 Gy. Ten (16%) patients were treated for a tumor recurrence after surgery, and thirteen (21%) underwent adjuvant treatment. The remaining 39 FMMs (63%) received SRS as their primary treatment. For patients with an upfront surgical resection, histopathological examination revealed 22 World Health Organization grade I tumors and one grade II FMM. The median tumor volume was 2.6 cubic centimeters. No local failures were observed throughout the available follow-up, including patients with a follow-up ≥ five years (16 patients), leading to an overall local control of 100%. Tumor volume significantly decreased after treatment, with a median volume reduction of 21% at the last available follow-up (p < 0.01). The one-, three-, and five-year progression-free survival were 100%, 96.6%, and 93.0%, respectively. Most patients showed stable (47%) or improved (21%) neurological deficits at the last follow-up. No high-grade adverse events were observed. Conclusions: SRS is an effective and safe treatment modality for FMMs. Despite the paucity of available data and previous reports, SRS should be considered for selected patients, especially those with subtotal tumor resections, recurrences, and patients not suitable for surgery.
Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic debilitating psychiatric condition with adverse impact on patient's sociooccupational health. Refractoriness to pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy is not uncommon. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is the comprehensively used and reviewed treatment modality in refractory OCD worldwide. In India, the past two decades of increasing GKRS availability has failed to create the necessary local awareness of its usefulness in refractory OCD. Limited native literature deepens the problem.
Objective To analyze our experience with GKRS in refractory OCD, and report the safety and efficacy/long-term outcome in patients using the Yale–Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS).
Materials and Methods A retrospective review of patients receiving GKRS for refractory OCD between 2000 and 2020 was carried out. Case files of the eligible (n = 9) patients were reviewed for clinical, radiotherapeutic, and outcome data. Additionally, patients were contacted via telephone to enquire about their experiences, and to obtain retroactive consent for GKRS in June 2021. Information obtained was collated, computed, and analyzed.
Results Male-to-female sex ratio was 8:1. Mean age at the time of GKRS and mean duration of OCD prior to GKRS was 30.1 ± 9.4 and 10.2 ± 5.8 years, respectively. Mean baseline Y-BOCS score was 29.6 ± 4.7. Our first patient received cingulotomy, while the rest underwent anterior capsulotomy. Median margin dose (50% isodose) was 70 Gy. Also, 23.8 ± 7.7 was the mean Y-BOCS score at the last follow-up (median = 30 months). Overall, 44.4% patients showed full/partial response (≥25% reduction in Y-BOCS score) at the last follow-up. In anterior capsulotomy (eight patients), patients with moderate/severe OCD showed better response (4/5 responders) than those with extreme OCD (0/3 responders). Single case of cingulotomy resulted in no response (<25% reduction in Y-BOCS score). No adverse radiation effects were noted. Also, 55.6% patients gave retroactive consent telephonically.
Conclusion GKRS is a safe and effective noninvasive treatment modality for refractory OCD. Ventral anterior capsule is the preferred target. Maximum radiation doses of 120 to 160 Gy are well tolerated. Extremely severe OCD cases fared poorer. Proper awareness about the availability and efficacy of GKRS in refractory OCD is required in India.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality that uses light to target tumors and minimize damage to normal tissues. It offers advantages including high spatiotemporal selectivity, low side effects, and maximal preservation of tissue functions. However, the PDT efficiency is severely impeded by the hypoxic feature of tumors. Moreover, hypoxia may promote tumor metastasis and tumor resistance to multiple therapies. Therefore, addressing tumor hypoxia to improve PDT efficacy has been the focus of antitumor treatment, and research on this theme is continuously emerging. In this review, we summarize state-of-the-art advances in strategies for overcoming hypoxia in tumor PDTs, categorizing them into oxygen-independent phototherapy, oxygen-economizing PDT, and oxygen-supplementing PDT. Moreover, we highlight strategies possessing intriguing advantages such as exceedingly high PDT efficiency and high novelty, analyze the strengths and shortcomings of different methods, and envision the opportunities and challenges for future research.
Background: Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) has been used as one of the treatment modalities of neurological diseases. Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG) and Therapeutic Plasma Exchange (TPE)are treatment options in Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS). In developing countries IVIG is not easily available and it is also expensive, TPE is preferred for treatment of GBS as it is affordable. Study on TPE for GBS are scarce here. Most of the study regarding TPE in GBS has been conducted in high –income countries as it is expensive treatment modality. Reports on TPE in GBS is very scared from Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of TPE with a standard hemolysis equipment for the treatment of Guillain Barre syndrome (GBS) was conducted A 50 patients of GBS who received TPE conducted between January 2017 to December 2018 in the department of Transfusion Medicine, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh were analyzed. All patients had underdone at least 2 cycles of plasma exchange. Volume exchanged in each cycle was one plasma volume.
Results: Out of 50 cases there were 43 (86%) male and 7 (14%) female. Age range of patients was from 11 – 50 years. Approximately 40% improved clinically of first cycle of PE & 85% after second cycle, 95% after third cycle and 95-100% after 5 cycle. 1(2%) patient died, and 49(98%) patients survived and recovered.
Conclusion: The treatment is cost affection in Compassion to IVIG. TPE is and affection, safe and affordable treatment modality for GBS.
therosclerosis is a leading cause of death worldwide. Antioxidant therapy has been considered a promising treatment modality for atherosclerosis, since reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a major role in the...
Developing due to infectious and noninfectious causes, endophthalmitis is a serious condition requiring urgent intervention which can lead to eye loss. In recent years, medical and surgical approaches had great improvement in the treatment of endophthalmitis. Early diagnosis and therapy are very important in endophthalmitis. By prompt and accurate treatment, good outcomes are established. In order to get successful results, the combination of intravitreal antibiotic and pars plana vitrectomy approach is the best treatment modality. Early pars plana vitrectomy eliminates infective agents, suitable media, and toxins while amplifying the action of intravitreal antibiotics.
Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common entrapment neuropathy. There are multiple treatment modalities for CTS. This study examines both clinical and demographic predictors for initial treatment modality of CTS. Methods: Patients diagnosed with CTS between February 2015 and October 2020 with a hand clinic visit within 6 weeks before treatment were included in our study. Patients completed Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Pain Interference, Physical Function, and Depression and had complete data on relevant predictor variables. Primary outcomes were treatment group: (1) injection only; (2) release only; and (3) injection followed by release. Bivariate analyses and multinomial logistic regression was used to identify statistically significant variables and independent predictors associated with the treatment groups, respectively. Results: A total of 1409 patients fit our inclusion criteria. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), race, ethnicity, Pain Interference, and Depression were statistically significant predictors for treatment group in bivariate analysis ( P < .05). In multivariable analysis, adults older than 65 years were less likely to receive either injection only or injection followed by release (odds ratio [OR]: 0.56 and OR: 0.52, respectively; P < .01). Overweight (BMI: ≥25) individuals were less likely to receive injection only (OR: 0.45; P < .01). Women were more likely to have either injection only or injection followed by released (OR: 1.50 and 1.55; P < .01). Similarly, black, Indigenous, or Persons of Color had an increased odds of injection only and injection followed by release (OR: 1.61 and OR: 1.69, respectively; P < .05). Conclusions: Sex, age, BMI, race, and ethnicity were found to be independent predictors of treatment modality for CTS.