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Aérica C. Nazareno ◽  
Iran J. O. da Silva ◽  
Eduardo F. Delgado ◽  
Miguel Machado ◽  
Luiz O. Pradella

ABSTRACT The inclusion of environmental enrichment in conventional broiler rearing can increase mobility, bone mass and muscle. This research aimed to evaluate the use of environmental enrichment in the rearing of broilers at different ages and its influence on performance, morphometry, yield and weight of the parts. It was used the completely randomized design in split-plot scheme, being the plots the treatments presence (T1) and absence (T2) of environmental enrichment and the subplots the broiler ages (1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days), with 56 chicks in each treatment (T1 and T2). Data obtained were analyzed by the linear effect model of fixed effects and compared by Tukey’s test of means. The animals were raised in a controlled environment, divided into four boxes with dimensions: 1.5 × 1.0 × 0.7 m, containing rice straw bed. In T1 a ladder with a perch on top was used, distributed every 1.5 m2. Environmental enrichment used did not influence broiler’s zootechnical performance. Broilers’ morphometric properties, parts weight and body weight increased due to environmental enrichment and, improvement was observed in chicks rearing’s final phase. The environmental enrichment was beneficial for muscle and bone mass gain in the main commercial parts of the chicken carcass, in addition to reducing the allometric coefficient of the breasts in chickens.

2022 ◽  
Florêncio Diniz-Sousa ◽  
Giorjines Boppre ◽  
Lucas Veras ◽  
Alba Hernández-Martínez ◽  
José Oliveira ◽  

Tero Puolakkainen ◽  
Petri Rummukainen ◽  
Vappu Pihala-Nieminen ◽  
Olli Ritvos ◽  
Eriika Savontaus ◽  

Abstract Introduction In postmenopausal osteoporosis, hormonal changes lead to increased bone turnover and metabolic alterations including increased fat mass and insulin resistance. Activin type IIB receptors bind several growth factors of the TGF-β superfamily and have been demonstrated to increase muscle and bone mass. We hypothesized that ActRIIB-Fc treatment could improve bone and muscle mass, inhibit fat accumulation, and restore metabolic alterations in an ovariectomy (OVX) model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Materials and Methods Female C57Bl/6 N mice were subjected to SHAM or OVX procedures and received intraperitoneal injections of either PBS or ActRIIB-Fc (5 mg/kg) once weekly for 7 weeks. Glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT, respectively) were performed at 7 and 8 weeks, respectively. Bone samples were analyzed with micro-computed tomography imaging, histomorphometry, and quantitative RT-PCR. Results Bone mass decreased in OVX PBS mice compared to the SHAM PBS group but ActRIIB-Fc was able to prevent these changes as shown by µCT and histological analyses. This was due to decreased osteoclast numbers and function demonstrated by histomorphometric and qRT-PCR analyses. OVX induced adipocyte hypertrophy that was rescued by ActRIIB-Fc, which also decreased systemic adipose tissue accumulation. OVX itself did not affect glucose levels in GTT but ActRIIB-Fc treatment resulted in impaired glucose clearance in both SHAM and OVX groups. OVX induced mild insulin resistance in ITT but ActRIIB-Fc treatment did not affect this. Conclusion Our results reinforce the potency of ActRIIB-Fc as a bone-enhancing agent but also bring new insight into the metabolic effects of ActRIIB-Fc in normal and OVX mice.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Suruchi Pacharne ◽  
Matthew Livesey ◽  
Mahita Kadmiel ◽  
Ning Wang ◽  
Kathleen M. Caron ◽  

Knockout technologies provide insights into physiological roles of genes. Studies initiated into endocrinology of heteromeric G protein-coupled receptors included deletion of receptor activity modifying protein-3, an accessory protein that alters ligand selectivity of calcitonin and calcitonin-like receptors. Initially, deletion of Ramp3-/- appeared phenotypically silent, but it has emerged that mice have a high bone mass phenotype, and more subtle alterations to angiogenesis, amylin homeostasis, and a small proportion of the effects of adrenomedullin on cardiovascular and lymphatic systems. Here we explore in detail, effects of Ramp3-/- deletion on skeletal growth/development, bone mass and response of bone to mechanical loading mimicking exercise. Mouse pups lacking RAMP3 are healthy and viable, having accelerated development of the skeleton as assessed by degree of mineralisation of specific bones, and by microCT measurements. Specifically, we observed that neonates and young mice have increased bone volume and mineralisation in hindlimbs and vertebrae and increased thickness of bone trabeculae. These changes are associated with increased osteoblast numbers and bone apposition rate in Ramp3-/- mice, and increased cell proliferation in epiphyseal growth plates. Effects persist for some weeks after birth, but differences in gross bone mass between RAMP3 and WT mice lose significance in older animals although architectural differences persist. Responses of bones of 17-week old mice to mechanical loading that mimics effects of vigorous exercise is increased significantly in Ramp3-/- mice by 30% compared with WT control mice. Studies on cultured osteoblasts from Ramp3-/- mice indicate interactions between mRNA expression of RAMPs1 and 3, but not RAMP2 and 3. Our preliminary data shows that Ramp3-/- osteoblasts had increased expression β-catenin, a component of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway known to regulate skeletal homeostasis and mechanosensitivity. Given interactions of RAMPs with both calcitonin and calcitonin-like receptors to alter ligand selectivity, and with other GPCRs to change trafficking or ligand bias, it is not clear whether the bone phenotype of Ramp3-/- mice is due to alterations in signalling mediated by one or more GPCRS. However, as antagonists of RAMP-interacting receptors are growing in availability, there appears the likelihood that manipulation of the RAMP3 signalling system could provide anabolic effects therapeutically.

2022 ◽  
Stefania Costi ◽  
Teresa Giani ◽  
Francesco Orsini ◽  
Rolando Cimaz

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Shuang Han ◽  
Fang Gong ◽  
Yifeng Xue ◽  
Chunxin Wang ◽  
Xiaowei Qi

Serum P1NP, one of the important biomarkers for bone turnover, is commonly used for the prediction of bone fracture and the prognosis of osteoporosis after therapy. We developed a P1NP chemiluminescence assay and evaluated changes in bone metabolism markers in lung transplant patients. The screened 2 P1NP antibodies with constructed antigens and α-1 chain antigens expressed by the Corynebacterium glutamate expression system were applied into assay development. The assay performance was evaluated to examine the reliability. A normal Q-Q plot was used to establish male reference interval. Changes of bone metabolism markers before and after lung transplantation in 19 patients were evaluated. The linear factor R of P1NP reagent was greater than 0.99. The limit of detection was 3.32 ng/ml. The precision of the three batches of P1NP reagents was lower than 8%. Method comparison with Roche P1NP reagent showed that the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.91. In the monitoring of bone mass in a short time, bone metabolism markers can better indicate the change of bone mass, while the traditional bone mineral density detection is lagging behind the bone metabolism markers. P1NP and β-CrossLap to bone mass change in patients after lung transplantation, and P1NP and β-CrossLap are very good clinical markers for bone mass monitoring.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 675
Kimberly K. Richardson ◽  
Wen Ling ◽  
Kimberly Krager ◽  
Qiang Fu ◽  
Stephanie D. Byrum ◽  

The damaging effects of ionizing radiation (IR) on bone mass are well-documented in mice and humans and are most likely due to increased osteoclast number and function. However, the mechanisms leading to inappropriate increases in osteoclastic bone resorption are only partially understood. Here, we show that exposure to multiple fractions of low-doses (10 fractions of 0.4 Gy total body irradiation [TBI]/week, i.e., fractionated exposure) and/or a single exposure to the same total dose of 4 Gy TBI causes a decrease in trabecular, but not cortical, bone mass in young adult male mice. This damaging effect was associated with highly activated bone resorption. Both osteoclast differentiation and maturation increased in cultures of bone marrow-derived macrophages from mice exposed to either fractionated or singular TBI. IR also increased the expression and enzymatic activity of mitochondrial deacetylase Sirtuin-3 (Sirt3)—an essential protein for osteoclast mitochondrial activity and bone resorption in the development of osteoporosis. Osteoclast progenitors lacking Sirt3 exposed to IR exhibited impaired resorptive activity. Taken together, targeting impairment of osteoclast mitochondrial activity could be a novel therapeutic strategy for IR-induced bone loss, and Sirt3 is likely a major mediator of this effect.

2022 ◽  
pp. 120-129
E. V. Biryukova ◽  
M. V. Shinkin

Osteoporosis (OP) has traditionally been seen as a pathology that mainly occurs in postmenopausal women and elderly men, and until recently, the problem of this disease among males has not been given sufficient priority. At the moment, however, OP in men is widely acknowledged to be an important issue of modern health care. Given the etiological and pathogenetic characteristics, two categories of OP have been identified: primary and secondary. In the structure of male OP, the secondary category of OP accounts for up to 40-60 % of all cases. Hypogonadism is one of the common causes of bone loss in men. Initially, males develop a larger bone mass compared to women and, accordingly, greater bone strength. Men over the age of 50 do not undergo rapid bone mass loss, as women do after menopause, and the bone mass decreases more gradually, in a linear manner. With ageing, the trabecular number (Tb.N) in men are relatively maintained with underlying more pronounced thinning of Tb. N associated with decreased osteoblast-forming activity. Although the prevalence of OP among men is significantly lower than among women, the clinical consequences of OP in men are of a great importance. The primary strategy of the anti-osteoporotic therapy is to prevent OP and low-traumatic fractures. According to the current guidelines for the treatment of OP in men, bisphosphonates (BP) are the drugs of choice. Zoledronic acid is a highly effective nitrogen-containing BP, the first drug to be injected once a year. Intravenous injection of zoledronic acid is as effective in reducing the risk of fractures in men as in women.

Trials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Belinda Beck ◽  
Clinton Rubin ◽  
Amy Harding ◽  
Sanjoy Paul ◽  
Mark Forwood

Abstract Background The prevailing medical opinion is that medication is the primary (some might argue, only) effective intervention for osteoporosis. It is nevertheless recognized that osteoporosis medications are not universally effective, tolerated, or acceptable to patients. Mechanical loading, such as vibration and exercise, can also be osteogenic but the degree, relative efficacy, and combined effect is unknown. The purpose of the VIBMOR trial is to determine the efficacy of low-intensity whole-body vibration (LIV), bone-targeted, high-intensity resistance and impact training (HiRIT), or the combination of LIV and HiRIT on risk factors for hip fracture in postmenopausal women with osteopenia and osteoporosis. Methods Postmenopausal women with low areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the proximal femur and/or lumbar spine, with or without a history of fragility fracture, and either on or off osteoporosis medications will be recruited. Eligible participants will be randomly allocated to one of four trial arms for 9 months: LIV, HiRIT, LIV + HiRIT, or control (low-intensity, home-based exercise). Allocation will be block-randomized, stratified by use of osteoporosis medications. Testing will be performed at three time points: baseline (T0), post-intervention (T1; 9 months), and 1 year thereafter (T2; 21 months) to examine detraining effects. The primary outcome measure will be total hip aBMD determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Secondary outcomes will include aBMD at other regions, anthropometrics, and other indices of bone strength, body composition, physical function, kyphosis, muscle strength and power, balance, falls, and intervention compliance. Exploratory outcomes include bone turnover markers, pelvic floor health, quality of life, physical activity enjoyment, adverse events, and fracture. An economic evaluation will also be conducted. Discussion No previous studies have compared the effect of LIV alone or in combination with bone-targeted HiRIT (with or without osteoporosis medications) on risk factors for hip fracture in postmenopausal women with low bone mass. Should either, both, or combined mechanical interventions be safe and efficacious, alternative therapeutic avenues will be available to individuals at elevated risk of fragility fracture who are unresponsive to or unwilling or unable to take osteoporosis medications. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (www. (Trial number ANZCTR12615000848505, = 368962); date of registration 14/08/2015 (prospectively registered). Universal Trial Number: U1111-1172-3652.

Takuya Ishimoto ◽  
Mitsuru Saito ◽  
Ryosuke Ozasa ◽  
Yoshihiro Matsumoto ◽  
Takayoshi Nakano

AbstractBone material quality is important for evaluating the mechanical integrity of diseased and/or medically treated bones. However, compared to the knowledge accumulated regarding changes in bone mass, our understanding of the quality of bone material is lacking. In this study, we clarified the changes in bone material quality mainly characterized by the preferential orientation of the apatite c-axis associated with estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis, and their prevention using ibandronate (IBN), a nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate. IBN effectively prevented bone loss and degradation of whole bone strength in a dose-dependent manner. The estrogen-deficient condition abnormally increased the degree of apatite orientation along the craniocaudal axis in which principal stress is applied; IBN at higher doses played a role in maintaining the normal orientation of apatite but not at lower doses. The bone size-independent Young's modulus along the craniocaudal axis of the anterior cortical shell of the vertebra showed a significant and positive correlation with apatite orientation; therefore, the craniocaudal Young’s modulus abnormally increased under estrogen-deficient conditions, despite a significant decrease in volumetric bone mineral density. However, the abnormal increase in craniocaudal Young's modulus did not compensate for the degradation of whole bone mechanical properties due to the bone loss. In conclusion, it was clarified that changes in the material quality, which are hidden in bone mass evaluation, occur with estrogen deficiency-induced osteoporosis and IBN treatment. Here, IBN was shown to be a beneficial drug that suppresses abnormal changes in bone mechanical integrity caused by estrogen deficiency at both the whole bone and material levels.

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