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PeerJ ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 ◽  
pp. e12489
Piotr Łapiński ◽  
Aleksandra Truszczyńska-Baszak ◽  
Justyna Drzał-Grabiec ◽  
Adam Tarnowski

Background There is a need for a study of possible relationship between serving a prison sentence and developing postural stability dysfunction. The aim of the study was to analyze postural stability of physically inactive prisoners. The study group consisted of 24 male prisoners aged 34.6 ± 7.02 years, imprisoned in closed prison and 30 healthy, non-active physically, aged 36.9 ± 7.5 years, who consisted control group. The subjects were imprisoned for a mean of 105.43 ± 58.48 months. Methods The static balance test was conducted on bi-modular stabilometric platform CQStab2P. Results We found statistically significant differences in several stability parameters. Prisoners results were significantly worse in parameters measured with eyes open: MA (mean amplitude p < 0.01), MAAP (mean amplitude in anterio–posterior plane p < 0.03), MAML (mean amplitude in medio—lateral plane p < 0.04), MaxAP (maximal sway in AP p < 0.01), MaxML (p < 0.01). With eyes closed the prisoner’s results were significantly worse in SPML (sway path in medio-lateral plane p = 0.01), better in MAML (p < 0.01) and MaxML (p < 0.01), and faster in MVML (mean velocity in medio-lateral plane p < 0.01). Conclusions (1) Diagnostics aimed at early diagnoses of ageing symptoms should be performed in prisons. It would allow for better prisoner management in terms of assessment of ability to work, free time activity offer and falls prevention. (2) In prisons, in addition to counteracting the typical causes of balance disorders, action should be taken to counteract the causes for balance disorders typical for prison environment, inter alia: sensory deprivation—by implementing programmes comprehensively activating prisoners, and hypokinesis—by implementing physical activity programmes that cater for the needs of older prisoners.

Bohua Sun

In this paper, a century-old problem is solved; namely, to find a unified analytic description of the non-uniform distribution of mean velocity across the entire domain of turbulent flow for all Reynolds numbers within the framework of the Prandtl mixing length theory. This study obtains a closed form solution of the mean velocity profile of plane turbulent flow for the Prandtl theory, and as well an approximate analytical solution for the van Driest mixing length theory. The profiles of several useful quantities are given based the closed form solution, such as turbulent viscosity, Reynolds turbulent stress, Kolmogorov's scaling law, and energy dissipation density. The investigation shows that the energy dissipation density at the surface is finite, whereas Landau's energy dissipation density is infinite. Strictly speaking, the closed form solution reveals that the universality of the turbulent velocity logarithmic profile no longer holds, but the von K\'arm\'an constant is still universal. Furthermore, a new formulation of the resistance coefficient of turbulent flow in pipes is formulated in implicit form.

Ángela Sánchez-Gómez ◽  
José Manuel Jurado-Castro ◽  
Fernando Mata ◽  
Antonio Jesús Sánchez-Oliver ◽  
Raúl Domínguez

The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of conservative non-invasive treatments based on eccentric training, stretching and extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) supplemented with β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyric (HMB) or placebo (PLAC) on body composition, pain and muscular function (jump ability, muscular power and muscular strength) in athletes with patellar tendinopathy (PT). In a double-blind randomized trial, 8 athletes (4 males and 4 females) performed a physical rehabilitation for 4 weeks. They were randomly divided into two experimental groups (two males and two females in each one) that ingested HMB (HMBG) or PLAC (PLACG). In pre- and post-intervention were assessed body composition, pain, countermovement jump (CMJ), back-squat (BS) for analyzing peak power (W) (PPPP), load (kg) associated to PPPP (PPKG) and mean velocity (m/s) (PPMV) in addition to a 5-RM leg extension tests. An interaction intervention·supplementation (p = 0.049; Ƞ2p = 0.774) was observed in the height reached in the CMJ as an intervention effect in PPPP detected for the HMBG (p = 0.049). In addition, an enhancement in PPKG (p = 0.028; Ƞ2p = 0.842) was detected in the intervention, but not in PPMV, as an increase in the intervention in the 5-RM test (p = 0.001; Ƞ2p = 0.981) was observed. No changes were noted on body composition or pain (p > 0.05). The combination of eccentric training with stretching and ESWT increased concentric muscular power and strength after 4 weeks without changes in body lean mass or pain. In addition, HMB supplementation could enhance the power muscular performance in athletes with PT, optimizing the intervention adaptions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
pp. 4
Uanderson Silva Pirôpo ◽  
Silvania Moraes Costa ◽  
Ícaro JS Ribeiro ◽  
Ivna Vidal Freire ◽  
Ludmila Schettino ◽  

Objectives: The maintenance of the postural balance is fundamental for the daily living activities, as well as for the practice of physical exercise. However, the aging process and sedentary behavior (i.e., large sitting time) lead to changes biological systems, impairing postural balance with consequent increased falls risk. On the other hand, physical activity practice is a protective factor against these trends. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of physical activity profile and sedentary behavior on postural control in community-dwelling old adults.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study including 208 community-dwelling old adults, which were stratified as sufficiently or insufficiently physically active and with or without sedentary behavior. Then, they were grouped as follow: G1 (sufficiently physically active and without sedentary behavior), G2 (insufficiently physically active, but without sedentary behavior), G3 (sufficiently physically active, but with sedentary behavior), and G4 (insufficiently physically active and with sedentary behavior).Results: Stabilometric parameters (sway area, total length of center of pressure [CoP] trajectory, and the mean velocity of CP displacement) were obtained to evaluate the postural control. There was significant difference between G1 and G4 on mean velocity of CoP displacement (p < 0.05).Conclusions: The coexistence of sedentary behavior and insufficient physically active profile seem to impact negatively on postural control.

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Ali Nahardani ◽  
Simon Leistikow ◽  
Katja Grün ◽  
Martin Krämer ◽  
Karl-Heinz Herrmann ◽  

(1) Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a serious condition that is associated with many cardiopulmonary diseases. Invasive right heart catheterization (RHC) is currently the only method for the definitive diagnosis and follow-up of PAH. In this study, we sought a non-invasive hemodynamic biomarker for the diagnosis of PAH. (2) Methods: We applied prospectively respiratory and cardiac gated 4D-flow MRI at a 9.4T preclinical scanner on three different groups of Sprague Dawley rats: baseline (n = 11), moderate PAH (n = 8), and severe PAH (n = 8). The pressure gradients as well as the velocity values were analyzed from 4D-flow data and correlated with lung histology. (3) Results: The pressure gradient between the pulmonary artery and vein on the unilateral side as well as the time-averaged mean velocity values of the small pulmonary arteries were capable of distinguishing not only between baseline and severe PAH, but also between the moderate and severe stages of the disease. (4) Conclusions: The current preclinical study suggests the pulmonary arteriovenous pressure gradient and the time-averaged mean velocity as potential biomarkers to diagnose PAH.

2021 ◽  
Vol 933 ◽  
Xi Chen ◽  
Katepalli R. Sreenivasan

The dominant paradigm in turbulent wall flows is that the mean velocity near the wall, when scaled on wall variables, is independent of the friction Reynolds number $Re_\tau$ . This paradigm faces challenges when applied to fluctuations but has received serious attention only recently. Here, by extending our earlier work (Chen & Sreenivasan, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 908, 2021, p. R3) we present a promising perspective, and support it with data, that fluctuations displaying non-zero wall values, or near-wall peaks, are bounded for large values of $Re_\tau$ , owing to the natural constraint that the dissipation rate is bounded. Specifically, $\varPhi _\infty - \varPhi = C_\varPhi \,Re_\tau ^{-1/4},$ where $\varPhi$ represents the maximum value of any of the following quantities: energy dissipation rate, turbulent diffusion, fluctuations of pressure, streamwise and spanwise velocities, squares of vorticity components, and the wall values of pressure and shear stresses; the subscript $\infty$ denotes the bounded asymptotic value of $\varPhi$ , and the coefficient $C_\varPhi$ depends on $\varPhi$ but not on $Re_\tau$ . Moreover, there exists a scaling law for the maximum value in the wall-normal direction of high-order moments, of the form $\langle \varphi ^{2q}\rangle ^{{1}/{q}}_{max}= \alpha _q-\beta _q\,Re^{-1/4}_\tau$ , where $\varphi$ represents the streamwise or spanwise velocity fluctuation, and $\alpha _q$ and $\beta _q$ are independent of $Re_\tau$ . Excellent agreement with available data is observed. A stochastic process for which the random variable has the form just mentioned, referred to here as the ‘linear $q$ -norm Gaussian’, is proposed to explain the observed linear dependence of $\alpha _q$ on $q$ .

Sensors ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
pp. 58
Felipe Rettore Andreis ◽  
Benjamin Metcalfe ◽  
Taha Al Muhammadee Janjua ◽  
Winnie Jensen ◽  
Suzan Meijs ◽  

Decoding information from the peripheral nervous system via implantable neural interfaces remains a significant challenge, considerably limiting the advancement of neuromodulation and neuroprosthetic devices. The velocity selective recording (VSR) technique has been proposed to improve the classification of neural traffic by combining temporal and spatial information through a multi-electrode cuff (MEC). Therefore, this study investigates the feasibility of using the VSR technique to characterise fibre type based on the electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAP) propagating along the ulnar nerve of pigs in vivo. A range of electrical stimulation parameters (amplitudes of 50 μA–10 mA and pulse durations of 100 μs, 500 μs, 1000 μs, and 5000 μs) was applied on a cutaneous and a motor branch of the ulnar nerve in nine Danish landrace pigs. Recordings were made with a 14 ring MEC and a delay-and-add algorithm was used to convert the eCAPs into the velocity domain. The results revealed two fibre populations propagating along the cutaneous branch of the ulnar nerve, with mean velocities of 55 m/s and 21 m/s, while only one dominant fibre population was found for the motor branch, with a mean velocity of 63 m/s. Because of its simplicity to provide information on the fibre selectivity and direction of propagation of nerve fibres, VSR can be implemented to advance the performance of the bidirectional control of neural prostheses and bioelectronic medicine applications.

2021 ◽  
Chandan Choubey ◽  
Jyoti Ohri

Abstract In 6 Degree of Freedom (DOF) parallel manipulator, trajectory tracking is one of the main challenges. To obtain the desired trajectory, the DC motor needs to generate optimal torque. So to obtain optimal torque, an optimized Linear Quadratic Regulator-Proportional–Integral–Derivative (LQR-PID) controller is presented in this paper. For optimizing the Q, R and gain parameters of LQR-PID controller, Squirrel Search Algorithm (SSA) is presented. In this algorithm, minimal cost function of LQR-PID controller is considered as objective function. The SSA based LQR-PID controller leads the motor to generate optimal torque that helps to attain the desired trajectory of 6-DOF parallel manipulator. Results of the work depicts that the SSA based LQR-PID controller achieves the best mean velocity, sum square error (SSE), integral square error (ISE) and integral absolute error (IAE).

Dongrong Zhang

Abstract It has long been known from measurements that buoyant motions cause the mean-velocity profile (MVP) in thermally-stratified, wall-bounded turbulent flows to significantly deviate from its constant-density counterpart. Theoretical analysis has restricted attention to an “intermediate layer” of the MVP, akin to the celebrated “log layer” in the constant-density case. Here, for thermally-stratified plane-Couette flows, we study the shape and scaling of the whole MVP. We elucidate the mechanisms that dictate the shape of the MVP by using the framework of the spectral link (Gioia et al.; 2010), and obtain scaling laws for the whole MVP by generalizing the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory.

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