distance ratio
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Sangamesh Hosgurmath ◽  
Viswanatha Vanjre Mallappa ◽  
Nagaraj B. Patil ◽  
Vishwanath Petli

Face recognition is one of the important biometric authentication research areas for security purposes in many fields such as pattern recognition and image processing. However, the human face recognitions have the major problem in machine learning and deep learning techniques, since input images vary with poses of people, different lighting conditions, various expressions, ages as well as illumination conditions and it makes the face recognition process poor in accuracy. In the present research, the resolution of the image patches is reduced by the max pooling layer in convolutional neural network (CNN) and also used to make the model robust than other traditional feature extraction technique called local multiple pattern (LMP). The extracted features are fed into the linear collaborative discriminant regression classification (LCDRC) for final face recognition. Due to optimization using CNN in LCDRC, the distance ratio between the classes has maximized and the distance of the features inside the class reduces. The results stated that the CNN-LCDRC achieved 93.10% and 87.60% of mean recognition accuracy, where traditional LCDRC achieved 83.35% and 77.70% of mean recognition accuracy on ORL and YALE databases respectively for the training number 8 (i.e. 80% of training and 20% of testing data).

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (10) ◽  
pp. 242
Fei Qin

Abstract The line-of-sight peculiar velocities are good indicators of the gravitational fluctuation of the density field. Techniques have been developed to extract cosmological information from the peculiar velocities in order to test cosmological models. These techniques include measuring cosmic flow, measuring two-point correlation and power spectrum of the peculiar velocity fields, and reconstructing the density field using peculiar velocities. However, some measurements from these techniques are biased due to the non-Gaussianity of the estimated peculiar velocities. Therefore, we rely on the 2MTF survey to explore a power transform that can Gaussianize the estimated peculiar velocities. We find a tight linear relation between the transformation parameters and the measurement errors of log-distance ratio. To show an example for the implementation of Gaussianized peculiar velocities in cosmology, we develop a bulk flow estimator and estimate bulk flow from the Gaussianized peculiar velocities. We use 2MTF mocks to test the algorithm, and we find the algorithm yields unbiased measurements. We also find this technique gives smaller measurement errors compared to other techniques. In Galactic coordinates, at the depth of 30 h −1 Mpc, we measure a bulk flow of 332 ± 27 km s−1 in the direction (l,b) = (293° ± 5°, 13° ± 4°). The measurement is consistent with the ΛCDM prediction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 90
Kurnia Gunadi As'ad ◽  
Rachmad Setiawan ◽  
Moch Rameli

The firing system on the S-60 57mm cannon uses the foot of the cannon crew, which is very dangerous with the position of the crew on top of the cannon when firing. So, a firing system that can be remotely controlled by a computer is required. The design of the S-60 57mm gun firing control system uses a personal computer (PC) as the firing command input, with data communication using WiFi received by the Atmega8535 microcontroller as a voltage regulator for solenoids. The solenoid has a tensile force to drive the hydraulic system where the actuator functions to drive the firing cylinder. Accelero sensor MMA7361, as a variable controller in firing, provides input data simulating the tilt position of the cannon, the position of the 0g sensor is simulated by the cannon in a balanced position. From the test results, there is a difference in sensor designation data with arc angles i.e., angle X by 2.83 degrees and angle Y by 1.86 degrees. The magnetic field produced by the solenoid 0.53 T can attract a maximum load of 20 kg. By changing the distance ratio of mechanical lever to 39.11 cm and 8.89 cm, the solenoid can drive an 88-kg firing cylinder.

2021 ◽  
Jia Li ◽  
Lanyu Qiu ◽  
Bo Sheng ◽  
Fan Yu ◽  
Haitao Yang ◽  

Abstract Background. There were some parameters in previous studies did not better reflect the vertical position of the patella relative to the femoral trochlear. The purposes of this study were to assess the value of the most superior point of patella - entrance of femoral trochlea distance ratio (SP-ET index) as a newer index in defining the vertical position of patella relative to the trochlea, correlate it with the Insall-Salvati ratio, and investigate the effect of the new index on chondromalacia patella. Methods. A total of 99 knees of 77 patients with chondromalacia patella were retrospectively analyzed using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from our database. The Insall–Salvati ratio and SP-ET index were measured on MR images. There were 99 knees just with meniscus rupture were enrolled as the control group. The two parameters of the chondromalacia patella were compared with those of the control group. Results. The Insall–Salvati ratio and SP-ET index in the chondromalacia patella group were significantly higher than those in the control group (p < 0.001). The SP-ET index showed a moderate positive correlation with the Insall–Salvati ratio (r=0.307, p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed the diagnostic efficiency of the SP-ET index was better than that of the Insall–Salvati ratio in patients with chondromalacia patella. Conclusion. The SP-ET index may be a useful complement parameter to define the vertical position of the patella relative to the femoral trochlear. Increased of the SP-ET index may be an important risk factor for chondromalacia patella.

Sports ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 139
Toni Modric ◽  
Mario Jelicic ◽  
Damir Sekulic

Previous studies examined training/match ratios (TMr) to determine the training load relative to the match load, but the influence of the relative training load (RTL) on success in soccer is still unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible influence of RTL on final match outcome in soccer (win, draw, and loss). Running performances (RP) of soccer players (n = 21) in the Croatian highest national soccer competition were analyzed during the season 2020–2021. Data were measured by the global positioning system in 14 official matches and 67 training sessions. RTL was assessed by TMr, which were calculated as the ratio of RP during training and match in the same week, evaluating the following measures: TDr (total distance ratio), LIDr (low-intensity distance ratio), RDr (running distance ratio), HIDr (high-intensity distance ratio), ACCr (total accelerations ratio), DECr (total decelerations ratio), HI-ACCr (high-intensity accelerations ratio), HI-DECr (high-intensity decelerations ratio). All TMr were examined separately for each training session within in-season microcycles (categorized as days before the match day, i.e., MD minus). Spearman correlations were used to identify association between match outcome and TMr. The results indicated negative associations between match outcome and TDr, LIDr, ACCr and DECr on MD-1 and MD-2). In contrast, positive associations were evidenced between match outcome, and HIDr on MD-3 and TDr, LIDr, ACCr and DECr on MD-5 (p < 0.05; all moderate correlations). These findings demonstrate that final match outcome in soccer was associated with greater RTL of (i) high-intensity running three days before the match, (ii) total and low-intensity running, accelerations and decelerations five days before the match, and (iii) lower RTL of total and low-intensity running, accelerations and decelerations one and two days before the match.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Wenli Chen ◽  
Mengqi Wang ◽  
Chengbin Duan ◽  
Shun Yao ◽  
Haosen Jiao ◽  

BackgroundCurrently, it is difficult to estimate the possibility of recurrence of nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs). Markers such as Ki-67 or transcription factors rely on postoperative pathology, while few indices can be used for preoperative prediction. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the predictive effectiveness of supra-intrasellar volume and tumor-carotid distance based on measurements derived from preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data.MethodNinety-eight cases of NFPAs were evaluated, along with their clinical characteristics and MRI features. Four radiologic indices were analyzed, including intrasellar tumor volume, suprasellar tumor volume, maximum horizontal tumor diameter, and intercarotid distance. The ratio of supra-intrasellar volume and ratio of tumor-carotid distance were measured using 3D Slicer software, and the sum of two ratios was defined as the V-D value. The correlation between recurrence and multiple factors was analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis, and ROC curves were used to estimate the prognostic performance of radiologic measurements in NFPAs.ResultThe supra-intrasellar volume ratio, tumor-carotid distance ratio and V-D value were significantly correlated with the recurrence of NFPAs. The predictive importance of the V-D value reached 84.5%, with a sensitivity of 83.7% and specificity of 67.3%. The cutoff limit of the V-D value was 1.53, and patients with V-D values higher than 1.53 tended to relapse much earlier.ConclusionThe V-D value has predictive importance for the recurrence of NFPAs preoperatively. Patients with higher V-D values will undergo recurrence earlier and should be given greater consideration in terms of surgery and follow-up time.

Micromachines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (9) ◽  
pp. 1126
Inkyum Kim ◽  
Tae Young Ahn ◽  
Daewon Kim

With advances in internet of things technology and fossil fuel depletion, energy harvesting has emerged rapidly as a means of supplying small electronics with electricity. As a method of enhancing the electrical output of the triboelectric nanogenerator, specialized for harvesting mechanical energy, structural modification to amplify the input force is receiving attention due to the limited input energy level. In this research, a lever structure was employed for delivering the amplified input force to a triboelectric nanogenerator. With structural optimization of a 2.5 cm:5 cm distance ratio of the first and second parts using two lever structures, the highest electrical outputs were achieved: a VOC of 51.03 V, current density of 3.34 mA m−2, and power density of 73.5 mW m−2 at 12 MΩ in the second part. As applications of this triboelectric generator, a vertical vibration sensor and a wearable reloading trigger in a gun shooting game were demonstrated. The possibility for a wearable finger bending sensor with low-level input was checked using a minimized device. Enhanced low-detection limit with amplified input force from the structural advantage of this lever-based triboelectric nanogenerator device can expand its applicability to the mechanical trigger for wearable electronics.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 51-56
Nur Ikhsani ◽  
Nasaruddin Salam ◽  
Luther Sule

The Fluid flow through circular cylinders in serieal parallel positions arranged in tandem were analyzed computationally and experimentally at nine levels of Reynolds number, ReD  34,229; 47,921; 61,612; 75,304; 88,996; 102,688; 116,379; 130.071 and 143,763 The variation in the ratio of the distance between the front and rear cylinders is determined as M / D = 0.3, M / D = 0.5, M / D = 0.7,   M / D = 0.9, and M / D = 1.1. While the distance between cylinder number 2 and 3 we set constantly and determined as N / D = 5 cm. The results displayed are flow velocity with computational approach validated by flow visualization, computational pressure contour, and drag coefficient through experimental testing. The results showed that the smallest boundary layer thickness was obtained in the model with a distance ratio of M / D = 2.5, using both computational and experimental approaches. The characteristics of the minimum pressure contour and the lowest drag coefficient (CD) = 0.7572 were also obtained at the ratio of the distance M / D = 0.25 and at upstream speed of 21 m / s  

Douglas Silva Queiroz ◽  
Cibele Cristine Berto Marques Da Silva ◽  
Alexandre Franco Amaral ◽  
Martina Rodrigues Oliveira ◽  
Henrique Takachi Moriya ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Shinsuke Sato ◽  
Eiji Nakatani ◽  
Kazuya Higashizono ◽  
Erina Nagai ◽  
Yusuke Taki ◽  

Abstract   Although anastomotic leak is a common postoperative complication following an esophagectomy, it is not well known whether anatomical factors increase the risk for anastomotic leak after the procedure. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether a narrow thoracic inlet is an independent predictor of cervical anastomotic leak after retrosternal reconstruction following esophagectomy. Methods A total of 212 patients who underwent esophagectomy with gastric conduit retrosternal reconstruction between January 2013 and March 2019 were included in this study. Computed tomography was used to measure the thickness of the sternum (TS), the thickness of the clavicle (TC), the interclavicular distance, the sternum-trachea distance (STD), the sternum-vertebral body distance (SVD), and the sternum-trachea distance/sternum-vertebral body distance ratio (STD/SVD ratio). The correlation between various factors was analyzed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. Tree-based analysis was performed to define cutoff values. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the association between various predictors and anastomotic leak. Results Anastomotic leak occurred in 26 patients (12.26%). Tree-based analysis identified an optimal TS cutoff value of 20.84 mm, a TC cutoff value of 23.63, and a STD/SVD ratio cut off value of 0.2138 to predict anastomotic leak. There were significant associations between the STD, STD/SVD ratio and thoracic inlet area (STD × ICD). According to multivariate analysis, STD/SVD ratio, TS, TC, and diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with increased incidence of anastomotic leak. Conclusion STD/SVD ratio, TS, TC, and diabetes mellitus were associated with higher rates of cervical anastomotic leak after retrosternal gastric conduit reconstruction following esophagectomy. In patients with a small thoracic inlet, posterior mediastinal reconstruction and intrathoracic anastomosis should be considered.

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