Background: Expressed breast milk (EBM) protein content is highly variable between mothers and often below published values that are still used for EBM protein fortification strategies. This approach may result in significant protein deficit and suboptimal protein energy (P/E) ratio. The study aim was to determine whether individualized EBM protein analysis and fortification will reduce preterm infant protein deficits and improve growth and neurodevelopmental outcome.Study Methods: In a single-center randomized, blinded study of infants born at 24 0/7–29 6/7 weeks, mother-specific protein values measured by a milk analyzer were used to individualize infant-specific protein intake (interventional group, IG), and compared this to a standardized protein fortification scheme based on published values of EBM protein content of 1.4 g/dL (control group, CG). For IG, milk analyzer protein values of mother's EBM were used to adjust protein content of the EBM. The CG EBM protein content was adjusted using the standard published value of 1.4 g/dL and not based on milk analyzer values. EBM protein content, protein intake, protein/energy (P/E) ratio, weight (WT), head circumference (HC), length (L), growth velocity (GV) from 2 to 6 weeks of age, WT, HC and L Z-Scores at 32- and 35-weeks PMA, and lean body mass (35 weeks PMA skin fold thickness) were measured. Neurodevelopment was assessed by Bayley III at average 24 months corrected gestational age (CGA).Results: EBM protein content before fortification was significantly below published values of 1.4 g/dL at all time points in both CG and IG. CG protein deficit was significantly decreased and progressively worsened throughout the study. Individualized protein fortification in IG avoided protein deficit and optimized P/E ratio. Although no significant change in short-term GV (at 6 weeks of age) was seen between groups, IG infants born at <27 weeks had significant improvements in WT and L z-scores, and leaner body mass at 32 and 35 weeks PMA. IG exhibited significantly improved cognitive scores at 24 months CGA.Conclusions: Infant-specific protein supplementation of mother's EBM optimized P/E ratio by eliminating protein deficit and improved growth z scores at 32- and 35-weeks PMA and neurocognitive testing at 24 months.
IntroductionProtein–energy malnutrition, increased catabolism and inadequate nutritional support leads to loss of lean body mass with muscle wasting and delayed recovery in critical illness. However, there remains clinical equipoise regarding the risks and benefits of protein supplementation. This pilot trial will determine the feasibility of performing a larger multicentre trial to determine if a strategy of protein supplementation in critically ill children with body mass index (BMI) z-score ≤−2 is superior to standard enteral nutrition in reducing the length of stay in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU).Methods and analysisThis is a randomised controlled trial of 70 children in two PICUs in Singapore. Children with BMI z-score ≤−2 on PICU admission, who are expected to require invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours, will be randomised (1:1 allocation) to protein supplementation of ≥1.5 g/kg/day in addition to standard nutrition, or standard nutrition alone for 7 days after enrolment or until PICU discharge, whichever is earlier. Feasibility outcomes for the trial include effective screening, satisfactory enrolment rate, timely protocol implementation (within first 72 hours) and protocol adherence. Secondary outcomes include mortality, PICU length of stay, muscle mass, anthropometric measurements and functional outcomes.Ethics and disseminationThe trial protocol was approved by the institutional review board of both participating centres (Singhealth Centralised Institutional Review Board and National Healthcare Group Domain Specific Review Board) under the reference number 2020/2742. Findings of the trial will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences.Trial registration numberNCT04565613.
Loss of lean muscle mass impairs immunity and increases mortality risk among individuals with HIV/AIDS. We evaluated the relative contributions of protein supplementation and nutrition education on body composition among 600 women living with HIV/AIDS in rural Andhra Pradesh, India. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled 2 × 2 factorial trial lasting six months with follow up at twelve and eighteen months. Interventions occurred in the Nellore and Prakasam regions of Andhra Pradesh by trained village women, ASHA (Accredited Social Health Activists), and included: (1) the usual supportive care from ASHA (UC); (2) UC plus nutrition education (NE); (3) UC plus nutritional protein supplementation (NS); (4) combined UC plus NE plus NS. A Bioimpedance Analyzer Model 310e measured body composition. SAS 9.4 analyzed all data. Mixed models using repeated measures evaluated lean mass change from baseline as primary and fat weight and total weight as secondary outcomes. Lean mass change was significantly associated with NS (p = 0.0001), NE (p = 0.0001), and combined NS plus NE (p = 0.0001), with similar associations for secondary outcomes. Stronger associations for total weight were observed with greater ART adherence. Nutritional interventions may improve physiologic response to HIV. Significant increases in lean mass resulted from independent and combined protein supplementation and nutrition education.
Background: Stunting is a process of suppressing growth from unfavourable conditions. The protein supplementation during stunting gives scope to maintain the nutrient reserves of fish and its quality.
Methods: A feeding trial was conducted for eight months to study the effect of three hetero-nitrogenous diets with 25% (control), 30% (T1) and 35% (T2) crude protein (CP) levels on growth and physio-metabolic responses of Chanos chanos fingerlings during stunting. Milk fish fingerlings with a mean body weight of 11.71±0.18 g were stocked in earthen ponds @ 20 no/m2 in each replicate (n=3) was fed @ 2% biomass throughout the experiment. Result: Fish fed with T1 diet showed better specific growth rate (0.64±0.01% d-1), weight gain percentage (362.56±14.95) and protease activity (7.53±0.25 U/mg protein). Whereas, lower activity was observed for the enzyme assay, namely superoxide dismutase (45.41±2.50 U/min/mg protein), aspartate aminotransferase (34.01±1.88 U/min/mg protein) and alanine aminotransferase (39.64±0.64 U/min/mg protein). Hence, it may be concluded that the dietary protein inclusion level of 30% CP showed better growth performance and lower physio-metabolic response in milkfish fingerlings during the stunting.
Resistance training and protein supplementation are expected to exert the greatest effect in counteracting muscle-wasting conditions. Myokines might play a key role, but this remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study (NCT03815201) was to examine the effects of a resistance training program with post-exercise leucine-enriched protein supplementation on sarcopenia and frailty status and on the plasma myokine concentrations of post-hospitalized older adults. A total of 41 participants were included in this 12-week resistance training intervention and randomized either to the placebo group or the protein group. Sarcopenia, frailty, body composition and blood-based myokines were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks. Both groups improved in terms of physical performance (p < 0.005) and frailty (p < 0.07) following the resistance training intervention, but without any difference between groups. Myokine concentrations did not change after the intervention in either group. Changes in myostatin concentrations were associated with greater improvements in appendicular skeletal muscle mass at the end of the intervention (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the implementation of resistance training programs after hospitalization in older adults should be prioritized to combat sarcopenia and frailty immediately. The results regarding myostatin should be taken as preliminary findings.
This systematic review examined the effects of whole protein and commonly consumed amino acid supplements on markers of exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress and was reported according to the PRISMA guidelines. MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus were searched from inception until June 2021. The inclusion criteria were randomized clinical trials in humans, healthy adult participants (≥18 years), dietary protein/amino acid interventions, and measurements of oxidative stress/the redox status or inflammation post-exercise. The Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias 2 tool was used to critically appraise the studies. Data extracted from thirty-four studies were included in the systematic review (totaling 757 participants with only 10 females; age range 19–40 years). The included trials examined five types of whole protein and seven different amino acids supplements; most studies (n = 20) failed to identify statistically significant effects on markers of inflammation or oxidative stress after exercise; some (n = 14) showed either anti-inflammatory or antioxidant effects on some, but not all, markers. In conclusion, we found weak and inconsistent evidence that dietary protein/amino acid interventions can modify exercise-induced changes in oxidative stress and inflammation. However, given that these were not the primary outcomes in many of the included studies and many had design limitations, further research is warranted (Open Science Framework registration number: 10.17605/OSF.IO/AGUR2).
Inadequate protein intake and low levels of physical activity are common long-term sequelae after bariatric surgery and can negatively affect muscle strength (MS) and physical function (PF). The study investigated the effects of resistance training with or without protein supplementation on MS and PF. The study, which involved a 12-week controlled trial (n = 61) of individuals 2–7 years post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), comprised four groups: whey protein supplementation (PRO; n = 18), maltodextrin placebo (control [CON]; n = 17), resistance training combined with placebo (RTP; n = 11), and resistance training combined with whey protein supplementation (RTP+PRO; n = 15). An isokinetic dynamometer was used to measure MS (peak torque at 60°/s and 180°/s). PF was measured with the 30-s sit-to-stand (30-STS), 6-min walk (6-MWT), and timed up-and-go (TUG) tests. There were improvements in the absolute and relative-to-bodyweight peak torque at 60°/s and 180°/s, TUG, 6-MWT and 30-STS in the RTP and RTP+PRO groups, but not in the CON and PRO groups. Changes in MS were significantly correlated with changes in PF between the pre- and post-intervention periods. A supervised resistance training program, regardless of protein supplementation, improved MS and PF in the mid-to-long-term period after RYGB and can lead to clinical benefits and improved quality of life.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the frequency of provision of protein energy supplementation on pasture during the dry period of the year on the performance of Nelore steers in rearing phase. FAZU teaching school conducted the experiment from July to September 2017. Twenty-two animals of the Nelore breed, aged 12 months and mean initial weight of 232.22 (± 20) kg, modules of 2 ha each, subdivided in six paddocks of Panicum maximum cultivars Mombaça and Tanzânia. The experimental design was completely randomized (DIC) and the averages were compared by the Tukey test at 5% significance. There was no significant difference between the three frequencies of supply of energy protein supplementation, in relation to the average daily weight gain, which were 837; 881 and 855g, at the frequencies of 7; 5 and 3 times per week, respectively. However, there was a significant difference (P <0.05) for the mean daily weight gain between the treatment in which the animals received mineral supplementation (434g), which was lower than the treatments in which the animals were fed with protein energy supplement at the level of 0.25% of body weight. In conclusion, during the period and in the evaluation conditions of this experiment, there was no difference in the effect of the frequency of supply of a protein energy supplement in the supply level of 0.25% of the animals' body weight. The average daily gain was higher for the animals that received the protein energy supplement compared to those supplemented with mineral. Five times a week supplementation obtained the best economic benefit among the evaluated frequencies.