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2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-18
Björn Blissing ◽  
Fredrik Bruzelius ◽  
Olle Eriksson

Driving simulators are established tools used during automotive development and research. Most simulators use either monitors or projectors as their primary display system. However, the emergence of a new generation of head-mounted displays has triggered interest in using these as the primary display type. The general benefits and drawbacks of head-mounted displays are well researched, but their effect on driving behavior in a simulator has not been sufficiently quantified. This article presents a study of driving behavior differences between projector-based graphics and head-mounted display in a large dynamic driving simulator. This study has selected five specific driving maneuvers suspected of affecting driving behavior differently depending on the choice of display technology. Some of these maneuvers were chosen to reveal changes in lateral and longitudinal driving behavior. Others were picked for their ability to highlight the benefits and drawbacks of head-mounted displays in a driving context. The results show minor changes in lateral and longitudinal driver behavior changes when comparing projectors and a head-mounted display. The most noticeable difference in favor of projectors was seen when the display resolution is critical to the driving task. The choice of display type did not affect simulator sickness nor the realism rated by the subjects.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 140
Hao Zheng ◽  
Yong Pan ◽  
Xiong Wang ◽  
Weibin Tian ◽  
Lunguang Yao ◽  

The baculovirus display system (BDS), an excellent eukaryotic surface display technology that offers the advantages of safety, efficiency, and economy, is widely used in biomedicine. A previous study using rBacmid-Δgp64-ires-gp64 expressed in low copy numbers of the gp64 gene achieved high-efficiency expression and co-display of three fluorescent proteins (GFP, YFP, and mCherry). However, low expression of GP64 in recombinant baculoviruses also reduces the efficiency of recombinant baculovirus transduction into mammalian cells. In addition, the baculovirus promoter has no expression activity in mammalian cells and thus cannot meet the application requirements of baculoviral vectors for the BDS. Based on previous research, this study first determined the expression activity of promoters in insect Spodoptera frugiperda 9 cells and mammalian cells and successfully screened the very early promoter pie1 to mediate the co-expression of multiple genes. Second, utilizing the envelope display effect of the INVASIN and VSVG proteins, the efficiency of transduction of recombinant baculovirus particles into non-host cells was significantly improved. Finally, based on the above improvement, a recombinant baculovirus vector displaying four antigen proteins with high efficiency was constructed. Compared with traditional BDSs, the rBacmid-Δgp64 system exhibited increased display efficiency of the target protein by approximately 3-fold and induced an approximately 4-fold increase in the titer of serum antibodies to target antigens in Bal B/c mice. This study systematically explored the application of a new multi-gene co-display technology applicable to multi-vaccine research, and the results provide a foundation for the development of novel BDS technologies.

2022 ◽  
Dingrong Liu ◽  
Zenghua Cai ◽  
Yu-Ning Wu ◽  
Shiyou Chen

Abstract The γ-phase Cuprous Iodide (CuI) emerges as a promising transparent p-type semiconductor for next-generation display technology because of its wide direct band gap, intrinsic p-type conductivity, and high carrier mobility. Two main peaks are observed in its photoluminescence (PL). One is short wavelength (410-430 nm) emission, which is well attributed to the electronic transitions at Cu vacancy, whereas the other long wavelength emission (680-720 nm) has not been fully understood. In this paper, through first-principles simulations, we investigate the formation energies and emission line shape for various defects, and discover that the intrinsic point defect cluster V_I+Cu_i^(2+) is the source of the long wavelength emission. Our finding is further supported by the prediction that the defect concentration decreases dramatically as the chemical condition changes from Cu-rich to I-rich, explaining the significant reduction in the red light emission if CuI is annealed in abundant I environment.

2022 ◽  
Nicolaj Kofod ◽  
Maria Storm Thomsen ◽  
Patrick Nawrocki ◽  
Thomas Just Sørensen

Lanthanides are found in critical applications from display technology to renewable energy. Often these rare earth elements are used as alloys or functional materials, yet the access to them are trough solution processes. In aqueous solution the rare earths are found predominantly as trivalent ions and charge balance dictates that counter ions are present. The fast ligand exchange and lack of directional bonding in lanthanides complexes has led to questions regarding the speciation of Ln3+ solvates in the presence of various counter ions, and to the distinction between innocent = non-coordinating, and non-innocent = coordinating counter ions. There is limited agreement as to which counter ions that belong to each group, which lead to this report. By using Eu3+ luminescence, it was possible to clearly distinguish between coordinating and non-coordinating ions. To interpret the results it was required to bridge the descriptions of ion pairing and coordination. The da-ta—in form of Eu3+ luminescence spectra and luminescence lifetimes from solutions with varying concentrations of acetate, chloride, nitrate, fluoride, sulfate, perchlorate and triflate—were contrasted to those obtained with ethylenediaminetet-raaceticacid (EDTA), which allowed for the distinction between three Ln3+-anion interaction types. It was possible to con-clude which counter ions are truly innocent (e.g. ClO4- and OTf-), and which clearly coordinate (e.g. NO3- and AcO-). Finally, the considerate amount of data from systems studied under similar conditions allowed the minimum perturbation arising from inner sphere or outer sphere coordination in Eu3+ complexes to be identified.

Cristina V. Manzano ◽  
julia rodriguez acevedo ◽  
Olga Caballero-Calero ◽  
Marisol S. Martín-González

Research into the artificial reproduction of vibrant colours in natural creatures and the reproduction of their structural colours has generated considerable interest. One inorganic material that have been studied for...

Johannes Meyer ◽  
Adrian Frank ◽  
Thomas Schlebusch ◽  
Enkeljeda Kasneci

Smart glasses are considered the next breakthrough in wearables. As the successor of smart watches and smart ear wear, they promise to extend reality by immersive embedding of content in the user's field of view. While advancements in display technology seems to fulfill this promises, interaction concepts are derived from established wearable concepts like touch interaction or voice interaction, preventing full immersion as they require the user to frequently interact with the glasses. To minimize interactions, we propose to add context-awareness to smart glasses through human activity recognition (HAR) by combining head- and eye movement features to recognize a wide range of activities. To measure eye movements in unobtrusive way, we propose laser feedback interferometry (LFI) sensors. These tiny low power sensors are highly robust to ambient light. We combine LFI sensors and an IMU to collect eye and head movement features from 15 participants performing 7 cognitive and physical activities, leading to a unique data set. To recognize activities we propose a 1D-CNN model and apply transfer learning to personalize the classification, leading to an outstanding macro-F1 score of 88.15 % which outperforms state of the art methods. Finally, we discuss the applicability of the proposed system in a smart glasses setup.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7652
Wei Sun ◽  
Yan Zhang ◽  
Zhigang Ju

Mycotoxins, the small size secondary metabolites of fungi, have posed a threat to the safety of medicine, food and public health. Therefore, it is essential to create sensitive and effective determination of mycotoxins. Based on the special affinity between antibody and antigen, immunoassay has been proved to be a powerful technology for the detection of small analytes. However, the tedious preparation and instability of conventional antibodies restrict its application on easy and fast mycotoxins detection. By virtue of simplicity, ease of use, and lower cost, phage display library provides novel choices for antibodies or hapten conjugates, and lead random peptide or recombinant antibody to becoming the promising and environmental friendly immune-reagents in the next generation of immunoassays. This review briefly describes the latest developments on mycotoxins detection using M13 phage display, mainly focusing on the recent applications of phage display technology employed in mycotoxins detection, including the introduction of phage and phage display, the types of phage displayed peptide/recombinant antibody library, random peptides/recombinant antibodies-based immunoassays, as well as simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins.

K. K. Khaing ◽  
K. Rangnoi ◽  
H. Michlits ◽  
N. Boonkerd ◽  
N. Teaumroong ◽  

Human scFv antibody generated from phage display technology was successfully used for the generation of specific recombinant antibodies: yiN92-1e10 and yiDOA9-162 for the detection of Bradyrhizobium strains SUTN9-2 and DOA9, respectively.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3371
Yi Qiu ◽  
Zhuoqi Wen ◽  
Shiliang Mei ◽  
Jinxin Wei ◽  
Yuanyuan Chen ◽  

Luminescent copper nanoclusters (Cu NCs) have shown great potential in light-emitting devices (LEDs), chemical sensing, catalysis and biological fields. However, their practical use has been restricted by poor stability, and study on the stability of Cu NCs solid powder along with the mechanism is absent. In this study, stablized Cu NCs powder was first obtained by cation crosslinking method. Compared with the powder synthesized by solvent precipitation method, the stability of Cu NCs powder crosslinked by ionic inducer Ce3+ was enhanced around 100-fold. The storage time when the fluorescence intensity decreased to 85% (T85) was improved from 2 h to 216 h, which is the longest so far. The results of characterizations indicated that the aggregation structure was formed by the binding of Ce3+ with the capping ligands of Cu NCs, which helped in obtaining Ce-Cu NCs powder from aggregate precipitation in solution. Furthermore, this compact structure could avoid the destruction of ambient moisture resulting in long-lasting fluorescence and almost unchanged physical form. This demonstrated that phosphor, with excellent characteristics of unsophisticated synthesis, easy preservation and stable fluorescence, showed great potential in light sources, display technology and especially in latent fingerprints visualization on different substrates for forensic science.

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