mdm2 protein
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Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 22
Kester Mo Henningsen ◽  
Valentina Manzini ◽  
Anna Magerhans ◽  
Sabrina Gerber ◽  
Matthias Dobbelstein

MDM2 is the principal antagonist of the tumor suppressor p53. p53 binds to its cognate DNA element within promoters and activates the transcription of adjacent genes. These target genes include MDM2. Upon induction by p53, the MDM2 protein binds and ubiquitinates p53, triggering its proteasomal degradation and providing negative feedback. This raises the question whether MDM2 can also remove p53 from its target promoters, and whether this also involves ubiquitination. In the present paper, we employ the MDM2-targeted small molecule Nutlin-3a (Nutlin) to disrupt the interaction of MDM2 and p53 in three different cancer cell lines: SJSA-1 (osteosarcoma), 93T449 (liposarcoma; both carrying amplified MDM2), and MCF7 (breast adenocarcinoma). Remarkably, removing Nutlin from the culture medium for less than five minutes not only triggered p53 ubiquitination, but also dissociated most p53 from its chromatin binding sites, as revealed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. This also resulted in reduced p53-responsive transcription, and it occurred much earlier than the degradation of p53 by the proteasome, arguing that MDM2 removes p53 from promoters prior to and thus independent of degradation. Accordingly, the short-term pharmacological inhibition of the proteasome did not alter the removal of p53 from promoters by Nutlin washout. However, when the proteasome inhibitor was applied for several hours, depleting non-conjugated ubiquitin prior to eliminating Nutlin, this compromised the removal of DNA-bound p53, as did an E1 ubiquitin ligase inhibitor. This suggests that the ubiquitination of p53 by MDM2 is necessary for its clearance from promoters. Depleting the MDM2 cofactor MDM4 in SJSA cells did not alter the velocity by that p53 was removed from promoters upon Nutlin washout. We conclude that MDM2 antagonizes p53 not only by covering its transactivation domain and by destabilization, but also by the rapid, ubiquitin-dependent termination of p53–chromatin interactions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
pp. 1-7
Chiragkumar J. Gohil ◽  
Malleshappa N. Noolvi ◽  
Chhaganbhai N. Patel ◽  
Dhrubo Jyoti Sen

Activation of the oncogenes and inhibition of the apoptotic function of the p53 protein is a gateway for the cancer genesis. Interaction of the MDM2 protein with p53 protein is responsible for the inhibition of the p53 function. Inhibiting the p53-MDM2 interaction by drug will lead to the p53 release in the cancer cells. And can restart the apoptosis in the cancer cell. Computational methods successfully used for the design and development of the new, potent MDM2 inhibitors. Researchers and pharma companies used rational approach like target-based drug design or ligand-based drug design to develop the novel MDM2 inhibitors. The number of MDM2 inhibitors, has been designed by the computer-aided drug design and in-silico studies. In clinical studies, MDM2 inhibitors are led by RG7112. RG7112 completed its phase-1 trials in 2016, and recently it is under phase-2 trials. Along with RG7112, the number of potent MDM2 inhibitors entered the clinical trials successfully. It indicates the successful development of this class (MDM2 inhibitors). MDM2 inhibitors were found very effective in various studies for the treatment of various kinds of cancers. They have good selectivity for the tumor cells over the normal cells. It induced the dose dependent cell cycle arrest only; in the normal cells. In studies, MDM2 inhibitors successfully detached the p53 protein from the MDM2 protein. And restart the cell-killing function of the p53 protein in the cancer cells. Hence, MDM2 inhibitors can selectively kill the cancer cells over the normal cells.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (14) ◽  
pp. 4213
Pankaj Sharma ◽  
Chris LaRosa ◽  
Janet Antwi ◽  
Rajgopal Govindarajan ◽  
Karl A. Werbovetz

Nitrogen-containing heterocyclic rings are common structural components of marketed drugs. Among these heterocycles, imidazole/fused imidazole rings are present in a wide range of bioactive compounds. The unique properties of such structures, including high polarity and the ability to participate in hydrogen bonding and coordination chemistry, allow them to interact with a wide range of biomolecules, and imidazole-/fused imidazole-containing compounds are reported to have a broad spectrum of biological activities. This review summarizes recent reports of imidazole/fused imidazole derivatives as anticancer agents appearing in the peer-reviewed literature from 2018 through 2020. Such molecules have been shown to modulate various targets, including microtubules, tyrosine and serine-threonine kinases, histone deacetylases, p53-Murine Double Minute 2 (MDM2) protein, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), G-quadraplexes, and other targets. Imidazole-containing compounds that display anticancer activity by unknown/undefined mechanisms are also described, as well as key features of structure-activity relationships. This review is intended to provide an overview of recent advances in imidazole-based anticancer drug discovery and development, as well as inspire the design and synthesis of new anticancer molecules.

Reproduction ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 160 (2) ◽  
pp. 293-305
Hui-Qin Mo ◽  
Fu-Ju Tian ◽  
Xiao-Ling Ma ◽  
Yu-Chen Zhang ◽  
Cheng-Xi Zhang ◽  

Protein disulfide isomerase 3 (PDIA3) is a chaperone protein that modulates the folding of newly synthesized glycoproteins, has isomerase and redox activity, and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases. However, the role of PDIA3 in pregnancy-associated diseases remains largely unknown. Our present study reveals a key role for PDIA3 in the biology of placental trophoblasts from women with preeclampsia (PE). Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis revealed that PDIA3 expression was decreased in villous trophoblasts from women with PE compared to normotensive pregnancies. Further, using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, flow cytometry, and 5-ethynyl-2’-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining, we found that siRNA-mediated PDIA3 knockdown significantly promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in the HTR8/SVneo cell line, while overexpression of PDIA3 reversed these effects. Furthermore, RNA sequencing and Western blot analysis demonstrated that knockdown of PDIA3 inhibited MDM2 protein expression in HTR8 cells, concurrent with marked elevation of p53 and p21 expression. Conversely, overexpression of PDIA3 had the opposite effects. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot further revealed that MDM2 protein expression was downregulated and p21 was increased in trophoblasts of women with PE compared to women with normotensive pregnancies. Our findings indicate that PDIA3 expression is decreased in the trophoblasts of women with PE, and decreased PDIA3 induces trophoblast apoptosis and represses trophoblast proliferation through regulating the MDM2/p53/p21 pathway.

2020 ◽  
Vol 401 (8) ◽  
pp. 921-931 ◽  
Ave Kuusk ◽  
Helen Boyd ◽  
Hongming Chen ◽  
Christian Ottmann

AbstractSmall-molecule modulation of protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is a very promising but also challenging area in drug discovery. The tumor suppressor protein p53 is one of the most frequently altered proteins in human cancers, making it an attractive target in oncology. 14-3-3 proteins have been shown to bind to and positively regulate p53 activity by protecting it from MDM2-dependent degradation or activating its DNA binding affinity. PPIs can be modulated by inhibiting or stabilizing specific interactions by small molecules. Whereas inhibition has been widely explored by the pharmaceutical industry and academia, the opposite strategy of stabilizing PPIs still remains relatively underexploited. This is rather interesting considering the number of natural compounds like rapamycin, forskolin and fusicoccin that exert their activity by stabilizing specific PPIs. In this review, we give an overview of 14-3-3 interactions with p53, explain isoform specific stabilization of the tumor suppressor protein, explore the approach of stabilizing the 14-3-3σ-p53 complex and summarize some promising small molecules inhibiting the p53-MDM2 protein-protein interaction.

Molecules ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 25 (10) ◽  
pp. 2331 ◽  
Sabrina Taliani ◽  
Federico Da Settimo ◽  
Claudia Martini ◽  
Sonia Laneri ◽  
Ettore Novellino ◽  

Several indole derivatives have been disclosed by our research groups that have been collaborating for nearly 25 years. The results of our investigations led to a variety of molecules binding selectively to different pharmacological targets, specifically the type A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) chloride channel, the translocator protein (TSPO), the murine double minute 2 (MDM2) protein, the A2B adenosine receptor (A2B AR) and the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1). Herein, we describe how these works were conceived and carried out thanks to the versatility of indole nucleus to be exploited in the design and synthesis of drug-like molecules.

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 5875-5879

Cervical cancer is a type of cancer characterized by abnormal cell growth in the cervical area. One of the main events that happen during tumorigenesis is the inactivation or degradation of the genome guardian, P53. Under normal circumstances, P53 is regulated by MDM2 protein. MDM2 can transfer ubiquitin to the transactivation domain of P53, targeting it for degradation by proteasomes. However, in the presence of HPV, HPV-E6 can utilize cellular E6AP to perform P53 degradation through the ubiquitin ligase mechanism. We validated both interactions through molecular docking in ClusPro. We also checked their normalized expression level in The Cancer Genomic Atlas (TCGA) using TCGA-Assembler. We found out both interactions are highly likely due to the spontaneity of the reaction indicated by the low free energy. MDM2 is overexpressed in cervical cancer cells, but E6AP expression is relatively constant. This indicates that the MDM2-mediated pathway is still sustained in cervical cancer cells. But since E6AP-mediated pathway is finally activated due to the presence of HPV-E6, both pathways may happen simultaneously. Further research is needed to confirm both pathways existence in cervical cancer cells and how they may coincide and affect each other.

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