sociodemographic factors
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2022 ◽  
D Muller ◽  
E Santos-Fernandez ◽  
J McCarthy ◽  
H Carr ◽  
T L Signal

Abstract: Study Objectives To investigate the proportion of children in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) who do or do not meet sleep duration and sleep quality guidelines at 24 and 45 months of age and associated sociodemographic factors. Methods Participants were children (n=6,490) from the Growing Up in New Zealand longitudinal study of child development with sleep data available at 24 and/or 45 months of age (48.2% girls, 51.8% boys; 22.4% Māori [the Indigenous people of NZ], 12.9% Pacific, 13.4% Asian, 45.2% European/Other). Relationships between sociodemographic factors and maternally-reported child sleep duration (across 24 hours) and night wakings were investigated cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Estimates of children in NZ meeting sleep guidelines were calculated using a range of analytical techniques including Bayesian linear regression, negative binomial multiple regression, and growth curve models. Results In NZ, 29.8% and 19.5% of children were estimated to have a high probability of not meeting sleep duration guidelines and 15.4% and 8.3% were estimated to have a high probability of not meeting night waking guidelines at 24 and 45 months respectively, after controlling for multiple sociodemographic variables. Factors associated cross-sectionally with children’s sleep included ethnicity, socioeconomic deprivation, material standard of living, rurality and heavy traffic, and longitudinal sleep trajectories differed by gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. Conclusions A considerable proportion of young children in NZ have a high probability of not meeting sleep guidelines but this declines across the ages of 24 and 45 months. Sleep health inequities exist as early as 24 months of age in NZ.

2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Kameela Miriam Alibhai ◽  
Malia S. Q. Murphy ◽  
Sandra Dunn ◽  
Erin Keely ◽  
Paloma O’Meara ◽  

Abstract Background Breastmilk hand expression (BMHE) is recommended to promote lactation, relieve breast engorgement, and collect milk for future infant feedings. Resources to teach this skill are limited and infrequently developed in partnership with the obstetrical population. In collaboration with maternity care experts and individuals with recent breastfeeding experience, we designed a one-page toolkit that describes the process of BMHE and includes step-by-step instructions and images to illustrate the technique. This study aimed to evaluate the readability, clarity of content, layout, and informational value of this BMHE toolkit. Methods Individuals who intended to breastfeed, were currently breastfeeding, or had recently breastfed were electronically surveyed and completed a two-part survey that consisted of radio, multi-select, Likert scale, and open-ended questions. Part one captured sociodemographic factors, obstetrical history, and breastfeeding practices. Part two collected feedback on the BMHE toolkit. Participants were recruited electronically through social media and posters were circulated in antenatal and postnatal care settings in Ottawa, Canada between November 2020 and February 2021. Results Of the 123 participants, 117 (95.1%) had heard of hand expression prior to reviewing the toolkit and 99 (80.5%) had hand expressed before. Among the 48 participants who were no longer exclusively breastfeeding at the time of the survey, 22 (45.8%) had exclusively breastfed their infant for at least six months and 7 (14.6%) had discontinued exclusive breastfeeding within the first month. When asked about the BMHE toolkit, 118 (95.9%) participants said it was informative, 115 (93.5%) said it was easy to understand, and 114 (92.7%) said it was well laid-out. When asked about information seeking behaviours, participants indicated a preference for online resources (58.5%) and video resources (22.0%). Conclusions The BMHE toolkit was well received by participants and the feedback was favourable overall. The survey feedback will be used to create a revised version of the toolkit that has been validated by the obstetrical patient population. Future research should focus on identifying implementation strategies to optimize the use of the toolkit and increase its effectiveness as an educational resource to teach participants correctly BMHE.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Nadine Hamieh ◽  
Alexis Descatha ◽  
Marie Zins ◽  
Marcel Goldberg ◽  
Sébastien Czernichow ◽  

AbstractWe examined the prospective association of physical exertion at work with subsequent tobacco, cannabis, alcohol use, and sugar and fat consumption. Volunteers of the French population-based CONSTANCES cohort currently employed were included from 2012 to 2017 for tobacco and cannabis outcomes (n = 100,612), and from 2012 to 2016 for alcohol and sugar and fat outcomes (n = 75,414). High level of physical exertion at work was defined as a score ≥ 12 at the Rating Perceived Exertion Borg scale. Substance use was self-reported and diet rich in sugar and fat was obtained from principal component analysis and analyzed as quartiles. Generalized linear models computed odds of substance use and sugar and fat consumption at follow-up according to baseline physical exertion at work, while adjusting for sociodemographic factors, depressive symptoms and baseline level of consumption. High physical exertion was associated with tobacco use with dose-dependent relationships. It was also associated with increased odds of cannabis use at least once per month compared to no use in the past and with increased odds of diet rich in sugar and fat. Hence, the role of physical exertion at work on tobacco and cannabis use and diet rich in sugar and fat should be tackled for information and prevention strategies.

Ana María Recio-Vivas ◽  
Isabel Font-Jiménez ◽  
José Miguel Mansilla-Domínguez ◽  
Angel Belzunegui-Eraso ◽  
David Díaz-Pérez ◽  

In January 2020, the WHO classified SARS-CoV-2 infection as a public health emergency and it was declared a pandemic on 11 March 2020. The media warned about the danger of infection, fuelling the population’s fear of the new situation and increasing the perception of risk. This fear can cause behaviour that will determine the course of the pandemic and, therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyse the fear of infection from COVID-19 among the Spanish population during the state of emergency. A cross-sectional, descriptive observational study was conducted with 16,372 participants. Data on sociodemographic factors, health factors, risk perception and fear were collected through an online survey. Level of fear is associated with older age, a lower level of education, having a person infected with SARS-CoV-2 in the immediate surroundings and living with and belonging to the most socioeconomically vulnerable group of people. Risk perception is associated with increased preventive behaviour. This paper provides relevant information for the public health sector since it contributes first-hand knowledge of population data that is highly useful in terms of prevention. Understanding the experiences of people in this pandemic helps to create more effective future intervention strategies in terms of planning and management for crisis situations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (12) ◽  
pp. 416-425
Brajesh Brajesh ◽  
Chander Shekhar

Background: Maternal dietary diversity during pregnancy is a major determinant of birth weight and birth size of infant. During pregnancy, mother diet is highly dependent on their topographical, cultural, and sociodemographic circumstances. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the association between the maternal dietary intake with child birth weight and birth size along with the sociodemographic factors in India. Materials and Methods: The data for this study were drawn from the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), 2005 to 2006 and 2015 to 2016 held in India. Inferential statistical analysis Chi-square was built to test was used to examine the association between maternal dietary patterns, and logistic regression model was used to analyze the effect of mother’s dietary patterns on child birth weight and size by controlling the sociodemographic factors. Results: Mother’s daily intake of fish, meat, green leafy vegetables, and fruits was associated with higher birth weight or size and lower risk of intrauterine growth retardation. Women with ?2 dietary diversity categories had significantly higher proportion of low birth weight (LBW) and size of babies comparatively to those in the ?2 dietary diversity categories, there were lesser chance of LBW and small size of babies with women’s dietary diversity 3 (odds ranges from 1.09 to 1.44) or ?4 (odds ranges from 1.15 to 1.59). Furthermore, low birth order, mother’s underweight status, low maternal education, and wealth status significantly have positive association with the poor birth outcomes. Conclusion: The birth weight and size of newborns were found positively associated with the mother’s dietary intake. To meet the aim of maternal dietary diversity and to achieve the double bonus, the government should focus more on supplementation and food security programs during pregnancy that also include nutritional education as well as behavioral and social change interventions strategies.

Paige Colley ◽  
Jamie A. Seabrook ◽  
Sarah J. Woodruff ◽  
Jason Gilliland

Purpose: Knowledge is fundamental to helping children make nutritional choices that support lifelong healthy behaviours. This study (i) investigates elementary school children’s knowledge about food and nutrition and (ii) identifies sociodemographic factors influencing children’s reported knowledge. Methods: In 2017–2019, a survey was administered to 2443 students (grades 5–8) at 60 schools across southwestern Ontario, Canada, and a parent survey was used to validate self-reported sociodemographics. Multiple regression was used to analyse children’s knowledge scores and related sociodemographic factors. A total knowledge score was calculated by summing correct responses derived from 46 individual questions in the student survey. Results: Mean total knowledge score was 29.2 out of a possible 46 points (63.5% correct). Students demonstrated some knowledge and awareness of strategies to encourage fruit and vegetable consumption, healthy food selection, nutrition, and food preparation skills, although knowledge of food guide recommendations and locally sourced produce were limited. Female sex, family income, and rurality were associated with higher knowledge scores. Conclusions: Results provide insight regarding strengths and gaps in elementary-school children’s food and nutrition knowledge. Poor performance of students on specific food guide-related questions suggests that the general guidance of the 2019 Canada’s Food Guide might be better understood by children and adolescents.

Vaccines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 106
Erica Jane Cook ◽  
Elizabeth Elliott ◽  
Alfredo Gaitan ◽  
Ifunanya Nduka ◽  
Sally Cartwright ◽  

The UK’s minority ethnic population, despite being at higher risk of COVID-19 and experiencing poorer health outcomes, continue to have lower uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine compared with their white British counterparts. Given the importance of the vaccination programme in improving health outcomes, this research sought to examine the influential factors that impact the decision to accept the COVID-19 vaccination among an ethnically diverse community. A total of 1058 residents from Luton, UK, a large town with an ethnically diverse population, completed a community survey. Questions centred around uptake or individuals’ intentions to accept the offer of COVID-19 vaccination alongside demographics, knowledge, and views on the vaccine. A binary logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the most significant predictors of vaccine hesitancy, while respondents’ reasons for not getting vaccinated were identified using qualitative content analysis. Findings revealed that age and ethnicity were the only sociodemographic factors to predict vaccine hesitancy. Knowledge of symptoms and transmission routes, alongside ensuring information about COVID-19 was objectively sourced, were all identified as protective factors against vaccine hesitancy. Qualitative analysis revealed that ‘lack of trust in government/authorities’ and ‘concern of the speed of vaccine development’ were the most common reasons for non-uptake. This research reinforces the importance of age, ethnicity, and knowledge as influential factors in predicting vaccine hesitancy. Further, this study uncovers some of the barriers of uptake that can be utilised in developing promotional campaigns to reduce vaccine hesitancy in certain sections of the diverse UK population.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Pablo Vidal-Ribas ◽  
Theemeshni Govender ◽  
Rajeshwari Sundaram ◽  
Roy H. Perlis ◽  
Stephen E. Gilman

AbstractMost suicide research focuses on acute precipitants and is conducted in high-risk populations. Yet, vulnerability to suicide is likely established years prior to its occurrence. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk of suicide mortality conferred by prenatal sociodemographic and pregnancy-related factors. Offspring of participants (N = 49,853) of the Collaborative Perinatal Project, a U.S. population-based cohort of pregnancies enrolled between 1959 and 1966, were linked to the U.S. National Death Index to determine their vital status by the end 2016. We examined associations between sociodemographic factors during pregnancy, pregnancy complications, labor and delivery complications, and neonatal complications with suicide death coded according to ICD-9/10 criteria. By the end of 2016, 3,555 participants had died. Of these, 288 (214 males, 74 females) died by suicide (incidence rate = 15.6 per 100,000 person-years, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 13.9–17.5). In adjusted models, male sex (Hazard Ratio [HR] = 2.98, CI: 2.26–3.93), White race (HR = 2.14, CI = 1.63–2.83), low parental education (HR = 2.23, CI = 1.38–3.62), manual parental occupation (HR = 1.38, CI = 1.05–1.82), being a younger sibling (HR = 1.52, CI = 1.10–2.11), higher rates of pregnancy complications (HR = 2.36, CI = 1.08–5.16), and smoking during pregnancy (HR = 1,28, CI = 0.99–1.66) were independently associated with suicide risk, whereas birth and neonatal complications were not. Consistent with the developmental origins of psychiatric disorders, vulnerability to suicide mortality is established early in development. Both sociodemographic and pregnancy factors play a role in this risk, which underscores the importance of considering life course approaches to suicide prevention, possibly including provision of high-quality prenatal care, and alleviating the socioeconomic burdens of mothers and families.

2022 ◽  
Angélica Polvani Trassi ◽  
Sophie Leonard ◽  
Jose A. Rodas ◽  
Flávia H. Santos

This is a systematic review and meta-analysis concerning statistics anxiety in university students. Following our pre-registration, we searched on databases such as PsycINFO, PubMed, Scielo, and Web of Science. After the exclusions, 40 studies were selected for systematic review and 17 for a series of six meta-analyses. Results confirmed the multidimensionality of statistics anxiety in university students. The impact of sociodemographic factors remains uncertain since they are underexplored. Overall, learning strategies, procrastination, self-efficacy, and self-awareness were strong predictors of SA.

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