Social Stigma
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2021 ◽  
Muhammad Hassan Bin Afzal

One of the various aftereffects of persistent climate change is an upsurge in the frequency, severity, and effect of wildfires on the wellbeing of suffering communities. The destruction and wreckage of one's home, properties, and the surrounding neighborhood, as well as the threat to one's psychological safety and the safety of loved ones, can have long-term effects on survivors' mental health. The central goal of this study, therefore, is threefold. Firstly, identify the significant qualitative and quantitative studies that examine the impacts of wildfire on mental health. This study mainly focuses on studies that capture the effects of wildfire, smoke, and air quality in California and how that affected the local communities based on their vulnerability determinants. Secondly, the study examines both types of studies to find common grounds regarding the most vulnerable population and their mental health, their ability to seek professional help, and barriers to the road to recovery. Finally, this study provides evidence-based strategies for including more vulnerable members of society in receiving sufficient and timely psychological care to recover from PTSD, trauma, distress, and hopelessness. Migrant farmworkers, particularly younger female Hispanic and indigenous workers, suffer from the wildfire's long-term stress, PTSD, depression, and emotional distress. Furthermore, the continued COVID-19 deepens the gap, social stigma, and barriers to receiving sufficient mental health care to recover and rehabilitate traumatic wildfire exposure. A localized mental healthcare support system based on equity, with flexible infrastructure and greater accessibility, promises to be more efficient and advantageous for underrepresented and vulnerable individuals seeking mental health treatment and quick recovery.

Eileen Y. H. Tsang

An under-researched aspect of transgender sex workers in China pertains to their desires and expressions of femininity. Male-to-Female (MTF) transgender sex workers are a high-risk population prone to depression and stress regarding body image, intimate relationships marked by violence, and social stigma, rendering them vulnerable to hate crimes and discrimination. Ethnographic data from in-depth interviews with 49 MTF transgender sex workers indicate that sex, gender and feminine desire are mutable in the construction of self and subjectivity. This study uses the conceptual framework of gender performativity, that is, gender is performative and distinct from physical bodies and binary classifications. It is not only an individual’s normative gender expressions which are based on the sex assigned at birth, but it also reinforces the normative gender performances of the gender binary. This article argues that the 49 MTF transgender sex workers are embodiments of gendered performances, displaying femininity to ameliorate hate crimes and discrimination as well as reinforce the masculinity and sexuality of their clients and intimate sex partners. Embracing their femininity constitutes a self-help program, enabling them to build self-confidence and develop a positive self-image in the face of overwhelming social disapproval.

Muhammad Arsyad Subu ◽  
Del Fatma Wati ◽  
Netrida Netrida ◽  
Vetty Priscilla ◽  
Jacqueline Maria Dias ◽  

Abstract Background Stigma refers to the discrediting, devaluing, and shaming of a person because of characteristics or attributes that they possess. Generally, stigma leads to negative social experiences such as isolation, rejection, marginalization, and discrimination. If related to a health condition such as mental illness, stigma may affect a person’s illness and treatment course, including access to appropriate and professional medical treatment. Stigma has also been reported to affect patients’ families or relatives, along with professionals who work in mental healthcare settings. Stigma is strongly influenced by cultural and contextual value systems that differ over time and across contexts. However, limited information is available on how types of stigma are experienced by patients with mental illness and mental health nurses in Indonesia. Method We explored the stigma-related experiences of 15 nurses and 15 patients in Indonesia. The study design and analysis of interview data were guided by deductive (directed) content analysis. Results Five themes emerged. Four themes were patient-related: personal/patients’ stigma, public/social stigma, family stigma, and employment stigma. The fifth theme related to stigma toward healthcare professionals working with patients with mental illnesses, which we categorized as professional stigma. Conclusions This study has achieved a deep understanding of the concept of stigma in the Indonesian context. This understanding is a prerequisite for developing appropriate interventions that address this phenomenon and thereby for the development of mental health services in Indonesia. This study may also be transferable to other countries that share similar cultural backgrounds and adhere to traditional and religious value systems.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 53-56
Puliyur Kannan Mahalakshmi ◽  
Smitha Jain

Pityriasis capitis commonly known as Dandruff is a common skin disorder that mainly affects the scalp. It is one of the most common cosmetic problems. It is more likely a social stigma and affects the aesthetic value of a person. In Ayurveda, Acharya Sushruta mentions Darunaka (dandruff) under Kshudra kushta roga (minor skin ailment) and some other authors mention it as Shirah-Kapalagata roga (head and skull diseases). Symptoms of Darunaka are kandu (itching), Keshachyuti (hair fall), Twaksphutana (scaling) and rukshata (dryness). Darunaka can be closely co-related to Pityriasis capitis. Though not being a life-threatening disease, it is affecting almost half of the population from pre-pubertal age to old age of any gender with recurrence and frequent relapses. Ayurveda classics majorly emphasizes the bahya lepa upachaar (external paste application) as a line of treatment in Darunaka. Priyaladi lepa is one such formulation recommended in Sharangadhara Samhitha for Darunaka chikitsa, but not often applied in routine Ayurvedic practice. So, this study aims to appraise the pharmacological activity of the formulation Priyaladi lepa regarding its anti-dandruff efficacy. Rasapanchaka and Dosha karma (Ayurvedic Pharmacological attributes) of ingredients were compiled from Bhavaprakasha Nighantu and other Ayurvedic literature. Pharmacological actions were compiled from original research articles from Google Scholar, Research Gate and PubMed etc. research databases. A study on each ingredient of Priyaladi lepa collectively demonstrated anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal, anti-microbial, anti-pruritic, antioxidant and exfoliation effects. These pharmacological activities encourage further research and henceforth to utilize the same for the effective management of Darunaka (Dandruff).

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Asena Paskaleva-Yankova

The subjective experience of social stigma has been widely researched in terms of discrimination, rejection, isolation, etc. These are commonly understood within the traditional individualistic framework of affective experience and sociality, which fails to address the transformative effects of social stigma on how one experiences the social realm and the own self in general. Phenomenology and recent work on the relationality of affective experience acknowledge the central role interpersonal interactions play in subjectivity and offer a suitable approach towards addressing the complexity of the subjective experience of social stigma. Focussing on autobiographical accounts, I propose that the experience of social stigmatization is characterized by an affective atmosphere of interpersonal alienation. Its counterpart, an atmosphere of belonging, is closely related to social empathy, which is eroded by prejudicial attitudes and stereotypes. The breakdown of social empathy establishes a peculiar form of relationless relationality that radically transforms one’s subjectivity. The transformation of subjectivity is structurally similar to disturbances of intersubjectivity in psychopathological conditions such as depression and feelings of disconnectedness, loneliness, and even shame are common in both cases.

2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Chunying Cui ◽  
Lie Wang ◽  
Xiaoxi Wang

Abstract Background Most research studying social constraints has been performed among Caucasian or Asian American breast cancer (BC) patients, but few studies have evaluated social constraint levels and explored the effect of social constraints on the integrative health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Chinese BC patients. Therefore, our study aimed to examine the association of social constraints with HRQOL among Chinese women with BC. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 136 Chinese women diagnosed with BC in Liaoning Province, China, from December 2020 to May 2021. Questionnaire information contained HRQOL, social constraints, social support, social stigma, and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Multiple linear regression was used to analyse the association of psychological factors with HRQOL. Results The mean score of FACT-B was 96.05 (SD = 18.70). After controlling for potential confounders, social constraints (Beta =  − 0.301, P < 0.001) and social stigma (Beta =  − 0.241, P = 0.001) were negatively associated with HRQOL and social support (Beta = 0.330, P < 0.001) was positively associated with HRQOL, which explained 44.3% of the variance in HRQOL. Conclusions The findings of the current study suggest that Chinese BC patients’ HRQOL needs to be enhanced after treatment. Social constraints have a strong association with HRQOL. Intervention strategies focusing on less personal disclosure should be considered to avoid social constraints and improve HRQOL among Chinese patients with BC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Soowon Park ◽  
Yaeji Kim-Knauss ◽  
Jin-ah Sim

Online inquiry platforms, which is where a person can anonymously ask questions, have become an important information source for those who are concerned about social stigma and discrimination that follow mental disorders. Therefore, examining what people inquire about regarding mental disorders would be useful when designing educational programs for communities. The present study aimed to examine the contents of the queries regarding mental disorders that were posted on online inquiry platforms. A total of 4,714 relevant queries from the two major online inquiry platforms were collected. We computed word frequencies, centralities, and latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) topic modeling. The words like symptom, hospital and treatment ranked as the most frequently used words, and the word my appeared to have the highest centrality. LDA identified four latent topics: (1) the understanding of general symptoms, (2) a disability grading system and welfare entitlement, (3) stressful life events, and (4) social adaptation with mental disorders. People are interested in practical information concerning mental disorders, such as social benefits, social adaptation, more general information about the symptoms and the treatments. Our findings suggest that instructions encompassing different scopes of information are needed when developing educational programs.

Ingeborg Jenssen Sandbukt

Reentering society after serving a prison sentence involves many challenges and particularly so for one of the most stigmatized groups in modern society: people who have sexually offended. While most research on their reentry has been conducted in countries with Sex Offender Registration and Notification (SORN) laws, this study used Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to qualitatively investigate the accounts and experiences of men released from prison after serving a sex offense conviction in Norway ( n = 8). Results showed that despite less restrictive policies and a total absence of SORN laws, the social stigma linked to being convicted of such crimes severely affected the men. To some degree, they all experienced feelings of stress or anxiousness and they withdrew and isolated more. Their narratives highlight a need for increased social support and recognition from others in the reentry process. Subjective and societal consequences as well as practical implications are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (3) ◽  
pp. 220-229
Hyeyeon Lee ◽  
Mihui Kim ◽  
Ocksim Kim ◽  
Sue Kim ◽  
Seongmi Choi

Purpose: The world saw a shift into a new society consequent to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which made home quarantine mandatory for a person in close contact with those who tested positive. For children, however, home quarantine was not limited only to themselves but the involvement of parents, even mothers were required to quarantine. This qualitative study aims to explore and understand mothers’ experience and their related psychosocial issues while caring for their school-aged children who had to home quarantine after coming in close contact with COVID-19 positive individuals in Korea. Methods: Data were collected from October 2020 to January 2021 via in-depth, semi-structured interviews with nine mothers of children who had to home quarantine. Interviews were conducted face-to-face in an independent space near the participant’s home or workplace (n=5) or via online platforms or telephone (n=4). The data were analyzed using thematic analysis through several iterative team meetings.Results: Thematic analysis revealed the following four themes: “Unable to be relieved due to uncertain situations surrounding me,” “Blame and hurt toward me, others, and one another,” “Pulling myself together for my children in my broken daily life,” and “Changes in the meaning of life amid COVID-19.”Conclusion: The narratives show that mothers experienced psychosocial difficulties while caring for their children during home quarantine. It is necessary to reduce the social stigma toward individuals in home quarantine and establish policies to ensure the mothers’ work and family’s compatibility.

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