Mass Eigenstates
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2022 ◽  
Vol 258 ◽  
pp. 04002
Vladyslav Shtabovenko

The width difference ΔΓs that can be extracted from lifetime measurements of the two mass eigenstates of the Bs0−B¯s0 system is one of the key flavor precision observables and has been experimentally measured at per cent level accuracy. The current theory prediction is much less accurate and a sizable reduction of scale uncertainties can only be achieved by means of evaluating the uncalculated 2- and 3-loop QCD corrections. This is precisely the issue addressed in this work where we report on the results that have been obtained so far and explain some of the technical and conceptual challenges that we encountered in the course of our calculations.

Abdel Pérez-Lorenzana

Exchange [Formula: see text] symmetry in the effective Majorana neutrino mass matrix does predict a maximal mixing for atmospheric neutrino oscillations asides to a null mixing that cannot be straightforwardly identified with reactor neutrino oscillation mixing, [Formula: see text], unless a specific ordering is assumed for the mass eigenstates. Otherwise, a nonzero value for [Formula: see text] is predicted already at the level of an exact symmetry. In this case, solar neutrino mixing and scale, as well as the correct atmospheric mixing arise from the breaking of the symmetry. I present a mass matrix proposal for normal hierarchy that realizes this scenario, where the smallness of [Formula: see text] is naturally given by the parameter [Formula: see text] and the solar mixing is linked to the smallness of [Formula: see text]. The proposed matrix remains stable under renormalization effects and it also allows to account for CP violation within the expected region without further constrains.

2021 ◽  
Vol 36 (29) ◽  
Alexey E. Rastegin ◽  
Anzhelika M. Shemet

Uncertainties in flavor and mass eigenstates of neutrinos are considered within the majorization approach. Nontrivial bounds reflect the fact that neutrinos cannot be simultaneously in flavor and mass eigenstates. As quantitative measures of uncertainties, both the Rényi and Tsallis entropies are utilized. Within the current amount of experience concerning the mixing matrix, majorization uncertainty relations need to put values of only two parameters, viz. [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. That is, the majorization approach is applicable within the same framework as the Maassen–Uffink relation recently utilized in this context. We also consider the case of detection inefficiencies, since it can naturally be incorporated into the entropic framework. Short comments on applications of entropic uncertainty relations with quantum memory are given.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (5) ◽  
Avik Paul ◽  
Upala Mukhopadhyay ◽  
Debasish Majumdar

Abstract We consider a simple extension of Standard Model by adding two complex singlet scalars with a U(1) symmetry. A discrete $$ {\mathcal{Z}}_2\times {\mathcal{Z}}_2^{\prime } $$ Z 2 × Z 2 ′ symmetry is imposed in the model and the added scalars acquire a non zero vacuum expectation value (VEV) when the imposed symmetry is broken spontaneously. The real (CP even) parts of the complex scalars mix with the SM Higgs and give three physical mass eigenstates. One of these physical mass eigenstates is attributed to the SM like Higgs boson with mass 125.09 GeV. In the present scenario, domain walls are formed in the early Universe due to the breaking of discrete $$ {\mathcal{Z}}_2\times {\mathcal{Z}}_2^{\prime } $$ Z 2 × Z 2 ′ symmetry. In order to ensure the unstability of the domain wall this discrete symmetry is also explicitly broken by adding a bias potential to the Lagrangian. The unstable annihilating domain walls produce a significant amount of gravitational waves (GWs). In addition, we also explore the possibility of the production of GW emission from the strong first-order phase transition. We calculate the intensities and frequencies of each of such gravitational waves originating from two different phenomena of the early Universe namely annihilating domain walls and strong first-order phase transition. Finally, we investigate the observational signatures from these GWs at the future GW detectors such as ALIA, BBO, DECIGO, LISA, TianQin, Taiji, aLIGO, aLIGO+ and pulsar timing arrays such as SKA, IPTA, EPTA, PPTA, NANOGrav11 and NANOGrav12.5.

2021 ◽  
Vol 81 (4) ◽  
Yago P. Porto-Silva ◽  
M. C. de Oliveira

AbstractWe revisit the theory of neutrino oscillations and describe it through the formalism of weak measurements with postselection. It is well understood that due to the large momentum uncertainty in detection, there is no collapse of the neutrino wavefunction in the momentum or energy basis, and the mass eigenstates are detected coherently. Here we show that postselection, which projects the system to a final flavor state, deforms the system wavefunction in such a way that the momentum detected is not the expectation value of the neutrino mass eigenstates momenta, but the corresponding weak value. We use the weak values to describe the intermediate state in the oscillation process, avoiding problems in defining probability currents for particle states with mass superposition.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 (4) ◽  
B. Bourguille ◽  
J. Nieves ◽  
F. Sánchez

Abstract We present a full kinematic analysis of neutrino-nucleus charged current quasielastic interactions based on the Local Fermi Gas model and the Random Phase Approximation. The model was implemented in the NEUT Monte Carlo framework, which allows us to investigate potentially measurable observables, including hadron distributions. We compare the predictions simultaneously to the most recent T2K and MINERvA charged current (CC) inclusive, CC0π and transverse kinematic-imbalance variable results. We pursuit a microscopic interpretation of the relevant reaction mechanisms, with the aim to achieving in neutrino oscillation experiments a correct reconstruction of the incoming neutrino kinematics, free of conceptual biasses. Such study is of the utmost importance for the ambitious experimental program which is underway to precisely determine neutrino properties, test the three-generation paradigm, establish the order of mass eigenstates and investigate leptonic CP violation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 81 (4) ◽  
Emilio Ciuffoli ◽  
Jarah Evslin ◽  
Hosam Mohammed

AbstractIt is well known that neutrino oscillations may damp due to decoherence caused by the separation of mass eigenstate wave packets or by a baseline uncertainty of order the oscillation wave length. In this note we show that if the particles created together with the neutrino are not measured and do not interact with the environment, then the first source of decoherence is not present. This demonstration uses the saddle point approximation and also assumes that the experiment lasts longer than a certain threshold. We independently derive this result using the external wave packet model and also using a model in which the fields responsible for neutrino production and detection are treated dynamically. Intuitively this result is a consequence of the fact that the neutrino emission time does not affect the final state and so amplitudes corresponding to distinct emission times must be added coherently. This fact also implies that oscillations resulting from mass eigenstates which are detected simultaneously arise from neutrinos which were not created simultaneously but are nonetheless coherent, realizing the neutrino oscillation paradigm of Kobach, Manohar and McGreevy.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2020 (9) ◽  
Alexandria Costantino ◽  
Sylvain Fichet

Abstract In the low energy effective theory of the weak interaction, a macroscopic force arises when pairs of neutrinos are exchanged. We calculate the neutrino Casimir force between plates, allowing for two different mass eigenstates within the loop. We also provide the general potential between point sources. We discuss the possibility of distinguishing whether neutrinos are Majorana or Dirac fermions using these quantum forces.

2018 ◽  
Vol 33 (13) ◽  
pp. 1850075 ◽  
Igor P. Volobuev

It is shown that the neutrino and neutral kaon oscillation processes can be consistently described in quantum field theory using only plane waves of the mass eigenstates of neutrinos and neutral kaons. To this end, the standard perturbative S-matrix formalism is modified so that it can be used for calculating the amplitudes of the processes passing at finite distances and finite time intervals. The distance-dependent and time-dependent parts of the amplitudes of the neutrino and neutral kaon oscillation processes are calculated and the results turn out to be in accordance with those of the standard quantum mechanical description of these processes based on the notion of neutrino flavor states and neutral kaon states with definite strangeness. However, the physical picture of the phenomena changes radically: now, there are no oscillations of flavor or definite strangeness states, but, instead of it, there is interference of amplitudes due to different virtual mass eigenstates.

2018 ◽  
Vol 33 (05n06) ◽  
pp. 1842002 ◽  
M. Drewes ◽  
B. Garbrecht ◽  
P. Hernández ◽  
M. Kekic ◽  
J. Lopez-Pavon ◽  

We review the current status of the leptogenesis scenario originally proposed by Akhmedov, Rubakov and Smirnov (ARS). It takes place in the parametric regime where the right-handed neutrinos are at the electroweak scale or below and the CP-violating effects are induced by the coherent superposition of different right-handed mass eigenstates. Two main theoretical approaches to derive quantum kinetic equations, the Hamiltonian time evolution as well as the Closed-Time-Path technique are presented, and we discuss their relations. For scenarios with two right-handed neutrinos, we chart the viable parameter space. Both, a Bayesian analysis, that determines the most likely configurations for viable leptogenesis given different variants of flat priors, and a determination of the maximally allowed mixing between the light, mostly left-handed, and heavy, mostly right-handed, neutrino states are discussed. Rephasing invariants are shown to be a useful tool to classify and to understand various distinct contributions to ARS leptogenesis that can dominate in different parametric regimes. While these analyses are carried out for the parametric regime where initial asymmetries are generated predominantly from lepton-number conserving, but flavor violating effects, we also review the contributions from lepton-number violating operators and identify the regions of parameter space where these are relevant.

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