Wistar Albino Rats
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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nazik M.E. Mustafa ◽  
Shahenaz Satti ◽  
Nafisa A. Osman ◽  
Ahmed A.Gameel ◽  
Tarig M. El-hadiyah

Abstract The majority of people in Africa receive their basic health care through herbal treatments. Herbal medicine may negatively impact fetal development irreparably. This study examined the teratogenic potential of Solenstemma argel extract in pregnant rats. Pregnant rats were treated with Solenstemma argel from 7th to 16th day of gestation. The dosage used was 250 mg/kg, intraperitoneal.Solenstemma argel extract treated group showed fetal abnormalities appeared as body hemorrhage, limbs abnormalities and resorption of fetuses. These appears in 25% of the fetuses (P-value = 0.01) which is significantly differed from control group. Furthermore, histopathological findings of liver sections from fetuses of Solenstemma argel - treated mothers showed loose liver texture and hepatocytes hemorrhage.In this study, we conclude that the use Solenstemma argel extract during the organogenesis period in pregnant rats has the potential to cause teratogenic effects, as well as abnormalities in liver histopathology.


Author(s):  
Eman I. Hassanen ◽  
Ahmed M. Hussien ◽  
Sally Mehanna ◽  
Marwa A. Ibrahim ◽  
Neven H. Hassan

Abstract Pesticides are viewed as a major wellspring of ecological contamination and causing serious risky consequences for people and animals. Imidacloprid (IM) and hexaflumuron (HFM) are extensively utilized insect poisons for crop assurance on the planet. A few investigations examined IM harmfulness in rodents, but its exact mechanism hasn’t been mentioned previously as well as the toxicity of HFM doesn’t elucidate yet. For this reason, the present study was designed to explore the mechanism of each IM and HFM–evoked rat liver and kidney toxicity and to understand its molecular mechanism. 21 male Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups, as follows: group (1), normal saline; group (2), IM; and group (3), HFM. Both insecticides were orally administered every day for 28 days at a dose equal to 1/10 LD50 from the active ingredient. After 28 days postdosing, rats were anesthetized to collect blood samples then euthanized to collect liver and kidney tissue specimens. The results showed marked changes in walking, body tension, alertness, and head movement with a significant reduction in rats’ body weight in both IM and HFM receiving groups. Significant increases in MDA levels and decrease of GHS levels were recorded in liver and kidney homogenates of either IM or HFM groups. Liver and kidney tissues obtained from both pesticide receiving groups showed extensive histopathological alterations with a significant increase in the serum levels of ALT, AST, urea, and creatinine and a decrease in total proteins, albumin, and globulin levels. In addition, there was upregulation of the transcript levels of casp-3, JNK, and HO-1 genes with strong immunopositivity of casp-3, TNF-ὰ, and NF-KB protein expressions in the liver and kidneys of rats receiving either IM or HFM compared with the control group. In all studied parameters, HFM caused hepatorenal toxicity more than those induced by IM. We can conclude that each IM and HFM provoked liver and kidneys damage through overproduction of ROS, activation of NF-KB signaling pathways and mitochondrial/JNK-dependent apoptosis pathway.


2022 ◽  
Vol 67 (4) ◽  
pp. 313-320
Author(s):  
Hakan Tekeli ◽  
Gamze Sevri Ekren Asıcı ◽  
Aysegul Bildik

The increase in the rate of inflammation in the post-menopause period also leads to a significant increase in the use of anti-inflammatory agents. This study aimed to investigate the effect of BA supplementation on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines in ovariectomy (OVX) induced rats. A total of 48 nonpregnant female Wistar albino rats (80-100 g) were used in the experiment. Forty-eight rats were divided into six equal groups (n=8): Control, OVX, OVX+5 mg/kg BA (OVX+BA5), OVX+10 mg/kg BA (OVX+BA10), 5 mg/kg BA (BA5), 10 mg/kg BA (BA10). Serum TNF-α cytokine levels of rats in the OVX group were higher than in control rats (P<0.05). TNF-α levels were significantly reduced in the OVX-induced rats with 5 mg/kg BA and 10 mg/kg BA supplementation (P<0.05). While serum IL-1α and IL-6 levels were not different between OVX and control rats, serum IL-3 levels were low (P<0.05) and not affected by 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BA supplementation. Serum IL-11 levels increased significantly in the OVX rats with 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg BA supplementation (P<0.05). As far as we know, certain doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) of BA are the first study on the prevention of increased inflammation in rats induced by OVX. Results suggest that the supplementation of BA regulates the inflammatory changes associated with OVX and thus has beneficial for menopause management.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (04) ◽  
pp. 2598-2603
Author(s):  
Olubanke O. Ogunlana ◽  
Oluseyi E. Ogunlana ◽  
Jacob O. Popoola ◽  
Babatunde O. Adetuyi ◽  
Alaba O. Adeyemi ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 63-72
Author(s):  
Abba Aji Manu ◽  
◽  
Bello Muhammad Musa ◽  
Martha Orendu Oche Attah ◽  
Helga Ishaya Bedan ◽  
...  

Background: The therapeutic value of Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) has been documented in traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases and ailments. Various preparations of this plant have been made and used especially for liver inflammatory conditions in livestock. Further, many liver diseases in humans are inflammatory conditions, which are caused by alcohol intake. This study sought to examine the effect of S. cumini on ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. Methods: Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups of five rats each. The first group was control and the other four were administered ethanol at varying doses to induce liver and kidney damages. Two doses of the S. cumini extract were administered at a concentration of 200 mg/kg or 400 mg/kg. Silymarin was administered to the last group at 10 mg/kg. The liver and kidney tissue samples were collected and preserved for histological analyses and the rat sera were analyzed for the associated biochemical biomarkers. Results: Histopathological analyses revealed pyknotic nuclei and distortion in the arrangement of the hepatocytes in extract-treated groups. The kidney tissue samples showed signs of interstitial bleeding and aggregation of lymphocytes in the peri-glomerular areas. The analyses of the biochemical parameters revealed that there were significant increases in the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), Urea and creatinine in the sera of the groups treated with the extract compared to those of the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: The S. cumini extract caused elevation of serum hepatic and renal biomarkers at 400 mg/kg and did not have a hepatoprotective effect.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (4) ◽  
pp. 938-942
Author(s):  
Bani Shashikala B ◽  
Mallya Suma V ◽  
Bhat Sudhakara

Hyperlipidemia is characterized by increased level of cholesterol in the form of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), chylomicrons, VLDL. Guizotia abyssinica Cass (Ramtil) seeds are one among the sources for the edible oil, which are low in saturated fat, cultivated commonly in Northern part of Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Guizotia abyssinica Cass (Ramtil) seeds were collected authenticated seed oil extracted by Cold compression method. The experiment carried out in Wistar albino rats, inducing Hyperlipidemia by HFD, along with administration of test drugs (Guizotia abyssinica Cass. seed oil Single and double dose) and Standard Atorvastatin.  Results & Discussion: G. abyssinica Cass seed oil found to decrease total cholesterol and LDL. Even not showed significant increase in HDL. Protective action over the Liver, Kidney and heart through histopathological study exhibit its safety aspect. Conclusion: G. abyssinica Cass seed oil in HFD induced Hyperlipidemia found effective and safe.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 14-20
Author(s):  
Abdullah Abdullazeez Sheehan ◽  
Mohammed Khudor ◽  
Fanar Isihak

It is very important, before starting the manufacture of any vaccine from any microorganism estimation of LD₅₀ of that microorganism to determine their pathogenicity and virulence. Estimated LD₅₀ was very important to be used in challenge tests later to estimate the protection level of the manufactured vaccine in experimental animals. So, this study was aimed to estimate LD₅₀ of local methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterial isolate. A pilot study has been done to determine approximately LD₅₀ of used MRSA in the study by using different bacterial concentrations of MRSA to determine approximate LD₅₀ that can be able to kill half numbers of animals used in the study to be used later in the estimation of exact LD₅₀ by using of Up-and-Down method. Ninety Wistar albino rats have been used for this purpose, eighty-four animals which divided into fourteen groups by six animals for each group (for pilot study) and remained six animals for (Up-and-Down method). The results showed that 9 X 10¹⁰ CFU/ml was led to killing half number of animals used in the study, this dose has been used as starting dose in the Up-and-Down method to the estimation of the exact LD₅₀ dose. The results showed that 5.526 X 10¹⁰ CFU/ml was the exact LD₅₀ of local MRSA isolate, which will be used later in the challenge test to estimate the protection level of a locally prepared vaccine against MRSA isolate.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (9) ◽  
pp. 1715-1720
Author(s):  
I.M. George-Opuda ◽  
O.A. Adegoke ◽  
O.B. Oluwatayo ◽  
O.B. Odeghe ◽  
J. Ndibe

The study investigated the effect of stem bark hydroalcoholic extract of cocoa (Theobroma cacao) on liver function of phenlyhydrazine (PHZ)-induced forty anaemic (treated) and normal albino rats divided into 8 groups of five rats each in the study. The activities of marker enzymes such as aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were assayed. In addition serum total protein, total bilirubin, albumin were determined. There was a significantly (p<0.05) decrease in AST of anaemic not treated rats compared to normal control rats with the exception of serum total protein, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, albumin, ALT and ALP where no significant (p>0.005) change was recorded. In the group (anaemic rats) treated with bark extract of Theobroma cacao at the doses of 100, 200, and 500mg/kg, AST was significantly (p<0.05) reduced while there was significant (p>0.05) increase in serum total protein, total bilirubin, albumin, ALT and ALP. In the group (non anaemic rats) treated with graded doses of the extract 200mg, 500mg and 1000mg, there was a significant (p<0.05) of total bilirubin diect bilirubin, and AST while no significant (p>0.05) change was recorded. The study illustrate that the bark extract of Theobroma cacao possess antioxidant and membrane permeability properties. Dose of Theobroma cacao at 500mg does not have antianaemic potentials.


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