shuttle effect
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2022 ◽  
Zhenhua Sun ◽  
Ru Xiao ◽  
Shan Yang ◽  
Tong Yu ◽  
Tianzhao Hu ◽  

Mahdieh Hakimi ◽  
Zeinab Sanaee ◽  
Shahnaz Ghasemi ◽  
Shamsoddin Mohajerzadeh

Abstract The main drawback of Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries which leads to a short lifetime, is the shuttle effect during the battery operation. One of the solutions to mitigate the shuttle effect is the utilization of interlayers. Herein, graphene oxide (GO) paper as an interlayer has been implemented between the sulfur cathode fabricated by the vapor deposition process as a binder-free electrode and a separator in a Li-S battery in order to gain a sufficient capacity. The morphological characteristics and electrochemical performance of the fabricated electrode have been investigated. The fabricated battery demonstrates an initial discharge capacity of 1265.46 mAh g-1 at the current density of 100 mA g-1. The coulombic efficiency is obtained to be 88.49% after 40 cycles. The remained capacity for the battery is 44.70% after several cycles at different current densities. The existence of the GO interlayer improves the electrochemical properties of the battery compared to the one with a pure sulfur cathode. The obtained results indicate that after 40 cycles, the capacity retention is 2.1 times more than that of the battery without the GO implementation.

Nanomaterials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 236
Jinyun Liu ◽  
Yajun Zhu ◽  
Junfei Cai ◽  
Yan Zhong ◽  
Tianli Han ◽  

Long-term stable secondary batteries are highly required. Here, we report a unique microcapsule encapsulated with metal organic foams (MOFs)-derived Co3O4 nanocages for a Li-S battery, which displays good lithium-storage properties. ZIF-67 dodecahedra are prepared at room temperature then converted to porous Co3O4 nanocages, which are infilled into microcapsules through a microfluidic technique. After loading sulfur, the Co3O4/S-infilled microcapsules are obtained, which display a specific capacity of 935 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 0.5C in Li-S batteries. A Coulombic efficiency of about 100% is achieved. The constructed Li-S battery possesses a high rate-performance during three rounds of cycling. Moreover, stable performance is verified under both high and low temperatures of 50 °C and −10 °C. Density functional theory calculations show that the Co3O4 dodecahedra display large binding energies with polysulfides, which are able to suppress shuttle effect of polysulfides and enable a stable electrochemical performance.

2022 ◽  
Zheng Huang ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
Wei-Li Song ◽  
Mingyong Wang ◽  
Hao-Sen Chen ◽  

Abstract Aluminum−sulfur (Al−S) batteries of ultrahigh energy-to-price ratios are promising for next-generation energy storage, while they suffer from large charge/discharge voltage hysteresis and short lifespan. Herein, an electrocatalyst-boosting quasi-solid-state Al−S battery is proposed, in which sulfur is anchored on the cobalt/nitrogen co-doped graphene (S@CoNG, as the positive electrode) and chloroaluminate-based ionic liquid (IL) is encapsulated into metal-organic frameworks (IL@MOF, as the quasi-solid-state electrolyte). Mechanistically, the Co−N bonds in CoNG act as electrocatalytic center to continuous induce breaking of Al−Cl bonds and S−S bonds and accelerate the kinetics of sulfur conversion, endowing the Al−S battery with much shortened voltage gap of 0.32 V and 0.98 V in the discharge voltage plateau. Within quasi-solid-state IL@MOF electrolytes, shuttle effect of polysulfides has been inhibited, which stabilizes the process of reversible sulfur conversion. Consequently, the assembled Al−S battery presents high specific capacity of 820 mAh g−1 and 78% capacity retention after 300 cycles. This concept here offers novel insights to design practical Al−S batteries for stable energy storage.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Zhu Cheng ◽  
Hui Pan ◽  
Fan Li ◽  
Chun Duan ◽  
Hang Liu ◽  

AbstractRechargeable Li-I2 battery has attracted considerable attentions due to its high theoretical capacity, low cost and environment-friendliness. Dissolution of polyiodides are required to facilitate the electrochemical redox reaction of the I2 cathode, which would lead to a harmful shuttle effect. All-solid-state Li-I2 battery totally avoids the polyiodides shuttle in a liquid system. However, the insoluble discharge product at the conventional solid interface results in a sluggish electrochemical reaction and poor rechargeability. In this work, by adopting a well-designed hybrid electrolyte composed of a dispersion layer and a blocking layer, we successfully promote a new polyiodides chemistry and localize the polyiodides dissolution within a limited space near the cathode. Owing to this confined dissolution strategy, a rechargeable and highly reversible all-solid-state Li-I2 battery is demonstrated and shows a long-term life of over 9000 cycles at 1C with a capacity retention of 84.1%.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 136
Lina Han ◽  
Zemin Li ◽  
Yang Feng ◽  
Lijiang Wang ◽  
Bowen Li ◽  

Lithium sulfur (Li-S) batteries stand out among many new batteries for their high energy density. However, the intermediate charge–discharge product dissolves easily into the electrolyte to produce a shuttle effect, which is a key factor limiting the rapid development of Li-S batteries. Among the various materials used to solve the challenges related to pure sulfur cathodes, biomass derived carbon materials are getting wider research attention. In this work, we report on the fabrication of cathode materials for Li-S batteries based on composites of sulfur and biomass-derived porous ramie carbon (RC), which are coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). RC can not only adsorb polysulfide in its pores, but also provide conductive channels. At the same time, the MWCNTs coating further reduces the dissolution of polysulfides into the electrolyte and weakens the shuttle effect. The sulfur loading rate of RC is 66.3 wt.%. As a result, the initial discharge capacity of the battery is 1325.6 mAh·g−1 at 0.1 C long cycle, and it can still maintain 812.5 mAh·g−1 after 500 cycles. This work proposes an effective double protection strategy for the development of advanced Li-S batteries.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 390
Jake A. Klorman ◽  
Qing Guo ◽  
Kah Chun Lau

The Li-S battery is exceptionally appealing as an alternative candidate beyond Li-ion battery technology due to its promising high specific energy capacity. However, several obstacles (e.g., polysulfides’ dissolution, shuttle effect, high volume expansion of cathode, etc.) remain and thus hinder the commercialization of the Li-S battery. To overcome these challenges, a fundamental study based on atomistic simulation could be very useful. In this work, a comprehensive investigation of the adsorption of electrolyte (solvent and salt) molecules, lithium sulfide, and polysulfide (Li2Sx with 2 ≤x≤ 8) molecules on the amorphous Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) surface was performed using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The DFT results indicate that the amorphous Al2O3 ALD surface is selective in chemical adsorption towards lithium sulfide and polysulfide molecules compared to electrolytes. Based on this work, it suggests that the Al2O3 ALD is a promising coating material for Li-S battery electrodes to mitigate the shuttling problem of soluble polysulfides.

2022 ◽  
Vol 891 ◽  
pp. 162074
Youqiang Wang ◽  
Heli Yu ◽  
Arslan Majeed ◽  
Xiangqian Shen ◽  
Shanshan Yao ◽  

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