Quantitative Evidence
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2021 ◽  
Vol 207 ◽  
pp. 105618
Yanhong Cao ◽  
Xinchao Sun ◽  
Yi Shi ◽  
Caiyan Lu ◽  
Yuan Miao ◽  

J. Knight ◽  
S.W. Grab

Abstract Mountains are areas of high potential sediment yield due to their steep slopes and generally cool, wet climates. Mountain sediments are moved by gravity-driven and often cryogenically-influenced processes, and captured within valleys or footslopes in the form of screes, alluvial/colluvial fans and terraces, or on hillslopes in the form of solifluction sheets, debris lobes/ridges and openwork block deposits. This study critically examines the geomorphic, sedimentary, stratigraphic and dating evidence from cryogenically-influenced late Quaternary slope deposits found along the highest sectors of the Great Escarpment in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa) and Maloti–Drakensberg range (Lesotho, and KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa). This evidence is set in the context of mountain weathering and erosion/transportation processes during the late Quaternary, and the dynamics of such sedimentary systems. Despite many general reports and observations, there is little detailed and quantitative evidence for late Quaternary slope processes, products and stratigraphy in southern Africa. This study integrates the existing morphological, sedimentary and dating evidence to examine mountain slope evolution in southern Africa based on the conceptual framework of sediment cascades. Application of this framework can help explain the spatial and temporal differences in sediment supply and dynamics observed in different sectors of the Great Escarpment during the late Quaternary.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
M. R. F. Lee ◽  
J. P. Domingues ◽  
G. A. McAuliffe ◽  
M. Tichit ◽  
F. Accatino ◽  

AbstractAlthough climate impacts of ruminant agriculture are a major concern worldwide, using policy instruments to force grazing farms out of the livestock industry may diminish opportunities to produce nutritious food without exacerbating the food-feed competition for fertile and accessible land resources. Here, we present a new set of quantitative evidence to demonstrate that, per unit of overall nutrient value supplied by a given commodity, the demand for land suitable for human-edible crop production is considerably smaller under ruminant systems than monogastric systems, and consistently so at both farm and regional scales. We also demonstrate that imposition of a naïvely designed “red meat tax” has the potential to invite socioeconomic losses far greater than its environmental benefits, due largely to the induced misallocation of resources at the national scale. Our results reiterate the risk inherent in an excessively climate-focused debate on the role of livestock in human society and call for more multidimensional approaches of sustainability assessment to draw better-balanced policy packages.

Michael J. Donnelly

What drives support for or opposition to redistributive taxation and spending? Why is ethnic diversity associated with inequality and a lack of redistribution? This book argues that many individuals, recognizing that they live in a world of uncertainty, use the groups of which they are a member as a heuristic to understand how welfare states are likely to impact them. This leads to reduced support for redistribution among the wealthy, whose disproportionate influence over policy in turn leads to less redistribution. I develop the argument with a series of empirical implications, which I then test using data from a variety of sources. I examine regional and ethnic politics in the United Kingdom, Germany, Slovakia, Canada, and Italy, using a combination of qualitative and quantitative evidence, existing and new surveys, and observational and experimental methods. The evidence is largely consistent with a heuristic theory, allowing us to see group politics in a new light.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Lameen Souag

Abstract Updating the methodology of Hayward, Richard J. 1991. A propos patterns of lexicalization in the Ethiopian language area. In Daniela Mendel & Ulrike Claudi (eds.), Ägypten im afroorientalischen Kontext. Special issue of Afrikanistische Arbeitspapiere, 139–156. Cologne: Institute of African Studies, using the concept of colexification (François, Alexandre. 2008. Semantic maps and the typology of colexification: Intertwining polysemous networks across languages. In Martine Vanhove (ed.), Studies in language companion series, vol. 106, 163–215. Amsterdam: John Benjamins), this paper, for the first time, provides quantitative evidence that the languages of the West African Sahel/Savanna form a lexical-typological language area characterised by shared colexifications absent further north. It then uses the linguistic comparative method to determine how languages entering or leaving this area, or coming into increasing contact with it at its edges, have converged with their new neighbours within the past millennium. The results indicate sharp differences in the respective roles and rates of borrowing and calquing, with the latter acting almost exclusively to increase shared colexifications.

2021 ◽  
pp. 22-28
D.N. Verzilin ◽  
M.A. Dubatov ◽  

The investigation was aimed at identifying indicators of the Covid-19 pandemic impact on the sphere of physical culture and sports in a heterogeneous array of statistical indicators. The authors used official governmental statistics and Internet statistics reflecting thematic online activity of the population and various aspects of the state of organizations operating in the field of physical culture and sports. Despite of a significant reduction in cash receipts from the services provided in this area, specialized organizations are overcoming the consequences of the pandemic. New forms of inde-pendent and online physical education and sports, which became widespread during the strict quarantine restrictions, remain popular among the population. Quantitative evidence of that statement was worked out: the values of statistical indicators of consumption by the population of physical culture and sports services, demography of organizations operating in the field of sports, by the fall of 2020, began to return to pre-crisis values. Indicators of the demand for physical culture and sports services in online formats included attendance of thematic sites and public pages in social networks, as well as the number of thematic search queries. It was found that such an indicator as the number of visits to the online training site continued to increase even after the quarantine restrictions were lifted. One of the directions of scientific research in that area can be the development of methods for collecting, aggre-gating and data mining, allowing to assess the degree of adaptation of physical culture and sports organizations to the conditions of restrictive measures by using the capabilities of the digital economy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 4 (2) ◽  
pp. 253-259
Marleiny Radjuni

In this digitized era, English as a Foreign Languag (EFL) teachers in Indonesia, as in many other countries are anxious to exploit the potential of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance the teaching and learning process. Given the increasing pressure exerted by technological developments on language education, it is important to understand the underlying factors behind teachers’ decisions regarding ICT. Regarding this matter, this study investigates the development as well as the effects of ICT applied in English Department in teaching and learning process. The use of weblog is being applied in the Academic Writing classes for a couple of years now. Students are equipped with the method of teaching through blog. So far, the use of ICT in the classroom often part of a teacher-centered class but it is easy to exploit these tools in learner-centered activities. For this particular case, students have freedom to control themselves in using the internet technology, even though it is still under teachers instructions. The method applied in this study is combination of the qualitative and quantitative. Evidence has been collected through a literature search, students questionnaires and semi interviews designed. The factors which was found to be most importans to these students were; having the lesson more interesting, easier, more fun for them, more diverse, more enjoyable and on top of that is more motivating.

2021 ◽  
Ola Demkowicz ◽  
Emma Ashworth ◽  
Alisha O'Neill ◽  
Terry Hanley ◽  
Kirsty Pert

Abstract Background and Aims: For older adolescents, the COVID-19 pandemic and associated UK restrictions arrived during a critical period in the transition to adulthood. Early research exploring impact of the pandemic paints a picture of worsened adolescent wellbeing and mental health. We explore the subjective experiences of 16- to 19-year-olds during the first UK lockdown, with an emphasis on wellbeing and coping, in order to complement emergent quantitative evidence and inform strategies and provision for support. Methods: In May 2020, we invited UK-based 16- to 19-year-olds to share their experiences of the initial lockdown for ‘[project name redacted for blinded peer review]’. 109 participants took part, submitting anonymous written accounts via an online portal. We used inductive reflexive thematic analysis to develop rich experiential themes.Findings: We constructed seven main themes: heightened emotionality; feelings of loss, change, and uncertainty; recognising the value of self-care; efforts to think positively; opportunities for relief, growth, and development; the importance of togetherness; and frustration with government and media. Implications: Findings highlight the multifaceted nature of adolescents’ lockdown experiences, and offer insight into emotional impact and new concerns as well as the value placed on self-care and staying connected. We offer directions for supporting adolescents as pandemic consequences continue.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Pei-Chi Kelly Hsiao ◽  
Charl de Villiers ◽  
Tom Scott

Purpose This paper aims to examine the type of firms that voluntarily adopt the International Integrated Reporting Framework (IIRF) and how markets respond to voluntary IIRF adherence. Design/methodology/approach Analysis of a matched global sample of listed firms that voluntarily adopt the IIRF (IIRF firms) and those that do not (non-IIRF firms). The samples range from 188 to 436 observations as alternative research designs, different matched samples and regression specifications, and several sensitivity analyses were conducted. Findings In markets where integrated reporting (IR) is not mainstream, voluntary IIRF adoption is more likely for firms with established sustainability practices. Such findings suggest that the IIRF is an incremental innovation for sustainability rather than an innovation that radically changes management and reporting practices. In Japan, where IR is mainstream, results show no observable differences between IIRF firms and non-IIRF firms. Consistent with the determinants results, this paper finds no evidence of associations between voluntary IIRF adoption and the information environment, the cost of equity or firm value. However, the additional analysis provides preliminary evidence suggesting capital market effects may differ for IIRF firms with higher sustainability or market performance. Practical implications This study offers useful insights into the current global debate on whether there is value in adopting the IIRF. Originality/value This study adds to the limited body of research on the determinants and consequences of voluntary IIRF adoption, offering insights for regulators, practitioners and proponents of IR. This study is the first to provide quantitative evidence of the influence sustainability practices have on voluntary IIRF adoption. Further, the results add to the current global debate on whether there is value in adopting the IIRF. This paper finds that voluntary IIRF adoption has no clear and distinct influence on disclosure practices and capital markets, suggesting there are no additional benefits from prioritising the promotion or adoption of the IIRF over other disclosure forms. Unless there are advancements supporting the implementation of integrated thinking and information connectivity, the potential for the IIRF to improve information quality may be limited to encouraging more non-financial disclosure and transparency in countries where integrated disclosures are not trending.

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (6) ◽  
pp. e236061
Matthew Moore McCrea Copeland ◽  
James Trainor ◽  
W Johnny Cash ◽  
Conor Braniff

Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV8) is a recognised precursor for a number of neoplastic and non-neoplastic processes. Immunosuppressed recipients of both solid organ and haematopoietic stem cell transplants are at risk of life-threatening lytic reactivations of HHV8-infected B-lymphocytes, primary infections after receiving grafts from HHV8-seropositive donors and more rarely by the direct transplantation of malignant Kaposi sarcoma cells seeded within graft tissue. We describe the case of an HHV8-seronegative patient with confirmed, post-orthotopic liver transplant transmission of HHV8 from a seropositive donor with quantitative evidence of viraemia and subsequent development of disseminated visceral and cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma with a rapidly fatal outcome.

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