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2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Su Yon Jung ◽  
Eric M. Sobel ◽  
Matteo Pellegrini ◽  
Herbert Yu ◽  
Jeanette C. Papp

BackgroundDisparities in cancer genomic science exist among racial/ethnic minorities. Particularly, African American (AA) and Hispanic/Latino American (HA) women, the 2 largest minorities, are underrepresented in genetic/genome-wide studies for cancers and their risk factors. We conducted on AA and HA postmenopausal women a genomic study for insulin resistance (IR), the main biologic mechanism underlying colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis owing to obesity.MethodsWith 780 genome-wide IR-specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among 4,692 AA and 1,986 HA women, we constructed a CRC-risk prediction model. Along with these SNPs, we incorporated CRC-associated lifestyles in the model of each group and detected the topmost influential genetic and lifestyle factors. Further, we estimated the attributable risk of the topmost risk factors shared by the groups to explore potential factors that differentiate CRC risk between these groups.ResultsIn both groups, we detected IR-SNPs in PCSK1 (in AA) and IFT172, GCKR, and NRBP1 (in HA) and risk lifestyles, including long lifetime exposures to cigarette smoking and endogenous female hormones and daily intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PFA), as the topmost predictive variables for CRC risk. Combinations of those top genetic- and lifestyle-markers synergistically increased CRC risk. Of those risk factors, dietary PFA intake and long lifetime exposure to female hormones may play a key role in mediating racial disparity of CRC incidence between AA and HA women.ConclusionsOur results may improve CRC risk prediction performance in those medically/scientifically underrepresented groups and lead to the development of genetically informed interventions for cancer prevention and therapeutic effort, thus contributing to reduced cancer disparities in those minority subpopulations.

Stephanie L. Rouse ◽  
Michelle M. Florentine ◽  
Emily Taketa ◽  
Dylan K. Chan

AbstractRacial/ethnic disparities in the diagnostic efficacy of genetic testing for hearing loss have been described. These disparities may relate to differences in variant classification between different racial/ethnic groups, which may, in turn, derive from disparate representation of these groups in the published literature. We sought to quantify racial/ethnic disparities in the published literature on the human genetics of hearing loss. We conducted a search of PubMed for articles describing single-gene, multiple-gene, or whole-exome sequencing for individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. Data on the included subjects, including race/ethnicity and/or region of origin, a number of subjects tested, and method of testing, were extracted. 1355 populations representing 311,092 subjects from 1165 studies were included. Overall, subjects of European and Asian ancestry were equivalently represented, but those of Latino American, African, and indigenous North American ancestry were significantly underrepresented; over 96% of all subjects in the published literature were European or Asian. Within populations, the majority of subjects derived from a small subset of countries. The observed disparity was greater for multiple-gene and whole-exome sequencing than for single-gene sequencing. These findings illustrate the large disparity in the published literature on the genetics of hearing loss, and demonstrate the need for increased representation of Latino American, African, and indigenous North American populations.

2021 ◽  
pp. 089826432110147
Joel G. Anderson ◽  
Jason D. Flatt ◽  
Jennifer M. Jabson Tree ◽  
Alden L. Gross ◽  
Karen M. Rose

Objectives: Given what little is known about the experiences of sexual and gender minority (SGM) caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD), the aim of the current study was to describe psychosocial measures among these caregivers. Methods: We used an online survey and social media recruitment strategies. Results: Of 286 caregivers, the majority were gay men. Most respondents were white, with a third identifying as Latino American. The plurality of caregivers identified as a spouse/partner and were providing care for someone who identified as a sexual minority; one-fifth cared for someone transgender. Sexual orientation, perceived stress, caregiver stigma, and microaggressions were psychosocial factors associated with family quality of life and depressive symptoms in the caregivers. Discussion: This study is the first to provide a focused description of the characteristics and psychosocial needs of SGM caregivers of someone with ADRD, supporting development of targeted interventions for this population.

2021 ◽  
Jesús Porta-Etessam ◽  
Iván Núñez-Gil ◽  
Nuria González García ◽  
Cristina Fernández ◽  
María Viana-LLamas ◽  

Abstract Olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions (OGD) are a frequent symptom of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has been proposed that the neuroinvasive potential of the novel SARS-CoV-2 could be due to olfactory bulb invasion, conversely studies suggest it could be a good prognostic factor. The aim of the current study was to investigate the prognosis value of OGD in COVID-19.These symptoms were recorded on admission from a cohort study of 5868 patients with confirmed or highly suspected COVID-19 infection included in the multicenter international HOPE Registry (NCT04334291).There was statistical relation in multivariate analysis for OGD in gender, more frequent in female 12.41% vs 8.67% in male, related to age, more frequent under 65 years, presence of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, smoke, renal insufficiency, lung, heart, cancer and neurological disease. We did not find statistical differences in pregnant (p=0.505), patient suffering cognitive (p=0.484), liver (p=0.1) or immune disease (p=0.32). There was inverse relation (protective) between OGD and prone positioning (0.005) and death (<0.0001), but no with ICU (0.165) or mechanical ventilation (0.292). On univariable logistic regression OGD was found to be inversely related to death in COVID-19 patients. The Odds Ratio was 0.26 (0.15-0.44) (p<0.001) and Z was -5.05.The presence of anosmia is fundamental in the diagnosis of SARS.CoV-2 infection, but also could be important when classifying patients and in therapeutic decisions. Even more knowing that it is an early symptom of the disease. Knowing that other situations as being Afro-American or Latino-American, Hypertension, renal insufficiency, or increase of C-reactive protein (CRP) imply a worse prognosis we can make a clinical score to estimate the vital prognosis of the patient.The exact pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 that causes olfactory and gustative disorders remains unknown but seems related to the prognosis. This point is fundamental, insomuch as could be a plausible way to find a treatment.

Denise Gates

Utilizing phenomenology, this research presented the salient themes which emerged from interviews with 37 professionals who were African American and Latino American men and women from various organizations. Several themes surfaced from the interviews, but the most notable was that employees regarded supervisors as friends or non-friends/professionals. Employees who reported being friends with their bosses seemed to also report having more rewarding superior-subordinate interactions. These relationships with bosses sometimes created other opportunities for employees in their respective organizations, opening doors employees may not, otherwise, have been able to open. This study explored some of the advantages and disadvantages of reporting to various bosses, and it detailed a plethora of experiences along the way as they related to race and gender.

2020 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 4-6
Susan Stuntzner

Understanding and working with culturally diverse populations is an important component of counseling and allied helping professions. Many professionals receive some training as a part of their graduate programs on multiculturalism, but this is only the beginning and typically scratches the surface. From this point, professionals are expected to continue their awareness and learning about the needs and issues of the people they serve; for some this includes expanding their understanding of ethnically, linguistically, and culturally diverse individuals. Professionals wanting to better understand the experience, perspectives, and mental health concerns of Latino Americans may find this edited book informative and of value in helping them achieve this goal. The book, The Latino American: Psychodynamic Perspectives on Culture and Mental Health Issues, is comprised of 10 chapters and topics (i.e. immigration history, child-rearing, gender roles) as explained by a number of contributors. Keywords: Latino, Latino American, Culture, Mental Health, Counseling

2020 ◽  
Vol 31 ◽  
pp. S164
G. Calderillo-Ruiz ◽  
C. Diaz ◽  
D. Heredia ◽  
B. Carbajal-López ◽  
H. Lopez Basave ◽  

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