soya lecithin
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Animals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 3389
Saiz del Barrio Alejandro ◽  
García-Ruiz Ana Isabel ◽  
Nicodemus Nuria

The study was carried out on individually and collectively housed growing rabbits from 34 to 63 days of age. Two experiments were conducted using three fat sources: Soybean oil (SBO), Soya Lecithin Oil (SLO), and Lard (L; Exp. 1), and SBO, Fish Oil (FO), and Palm kernel Oil (PKO; Exp. 2), added at two inclusion levels (1.5 and 4.0%). In both trials, 180 rabbits were housed in individual cages and additional 600 rabbits in collective cages from day 34 to 63. Animals fed with 4% dietary fat showed lower Daily Feed Intake (DFI) and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) than those fed with 1.5%, except in the individually housed animals in Exp. 1. In the collective housed group in Exp. 1, DFI was a 4.8% higher in animals fed with diets containing lard than those fed with SBO (p = 0.036). Lard inclusion also tended to reduce mortality (p = 0.067) by 60% and 25% compared with SBO and SLO diets, respectively. Mortality was the highest with the higher level of soya lecithin (14% vs. 1%, p < 0.01). A similar mortality rate was observed in the lowest level of SBO. In the grouped-housed animals in Exp. 2, a decrease of DFI (−12.4%), Bodyweight (BW) at 63 d (−4.8%), and Daily Weight Gain (DWG) (−7.8%) were observed with the inclusion of fish oil (p < 0.01) compared to other fat sources. Fish oil also tended to increase (p = 0.078) mortality (13.2%) compared with palm kernel oil (6.45%); similar results were found when animals were individually housed. The overall efficiency of N retention (NRE) increased with the highest level of fat in Exp. 1 (34.9 vs. 37.8%; p < 0.0001). It can be concluded that lard and palm kernel oil are alternative sources of fat due to the reduction of mortality. The inclusion of fish oil impaired animal productivity and increased mortality. An increment of the dietary fat level improved FCR and overall protein retention efficiency.

Gels ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 226
Deblu Sahu ◽  
Deepti Bharti ◽  
Doman Kim ◽  
Preetam Sarkar ◽  
Kunal Pal

Candelilla wax (CW) is a well-known oleogelator that displays tremendous oil-structuring potential. Lecithin acts as a crystal modifier due to its potential to alter the shape and size of the fat crystals by interacting with the wax molecules. The proposed work is an attempt to understand the impact of differently sourced lecithin, such as sunflower lecithin (SFL) and soya lecithin (SYL), on the various physicochemical properties of CW and rice bran oil (RBO) oleogels. The yellowish-white appearance of all samples and other effects of lecithin on the appearance of oleogels were initially quantified by using CIELab color parameters. The microstructural visualization confirmed grainy and globular fat structures of varied size, density, packing, and brightness. Samples made by using 5 mg of SFL (Sf5) and 1 mg of SYL (Sy1) in 20 g showed bright micrographs consisting of fat structures with better packing that might have been due to the improvised crystallinity in the said samples. The FTIR spectra of the prepared samples displayed no significant differences in the molecular interactions among the samples. Additionally, the slow crystallization kinetics of Sf5 and Sy1 correlated with better crystal packing and fewer crystal defects. The DSC endotherm displayed two peaks for melting corresponding to the melting of different molecular components of CW. However, all the formulations showed a characteristic crystallization peak at ~40 °C. The structural reorganization and crystal growth due to the addition of lecithin affected its mechanical property significantly. The spreadability test among all prepared oleogels showed better spreadable properties for Sf5 and Sy1 oleogel. The inclusion of lecithin in oleogels has demonstrated an enhancement in oleogel properties that allows them to be included in various food products.

Sudhanshu Bhusan Routray ◽  
Ch. Niranjan Patra

Objective: The objective of the present research is to formulate solid lipid nanoparticles of cinnacalcet HCl to improve its oral bioavailability. Methods: Cinnacalcet hydrochloride exhibits poor oral bioavailability of 20 to 25 % because of low aqueous solubility and first pass metabolism. The formulations were optimised using Box-Behnken Design. Solid lipid nanoparticles formulation was prepared using hot homogenization and ultra sonication method. Results and Discussion: Precirol ATO 05, Soya lecithin and poloxamer 407 were selected as lipid, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. For optimistaion the desirable goal was fixed for various responses entrapment efficiency, particle size and (time taken for diffusion of 85% drug) T85%. The optimized single dose of solid lipid nanoparticle obtained using box behnken design consisting of 30 mg of cinnacalcet HCl, 200 mg of precirol ATO 05, 250 mg of soya lecithin and 0.2% w/v of poloxamer. 407. The pharmacokinetic study revealed that optimized formulation was found to increase the oral bioavailability nearly 3 times compared to aqueous suspension of pure drug. Conclusion: Thus optimized solid lipid nanoparticle explicated the potential of lipid-based nanoparticles as a potential carrier in improving the oral delivery.

Mounika S Bharath ◽  
Bhushan R Rane ◽  
Ashish S Jain

A new drug delivery technology called transferosomes were came into existence which is an artificial vesicle designed to show the characteristics of a cell vesicle suitable for controlled and potentially directed drug delivery. Transferosome is a highly flexible and stress- responsive compound, complex compound and highly deformed vesicle with an aqueous core surrounded by the complex lipid bilayer thus enabling it to deliver both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drug. Urticaria is a general condition distinguished as brief erythematous and oedematous plaques or papules with defined erythematous borders and central clearing, identified as hives/wheals. Levocetirizine which is used for the treatment is a H1 anti histamine that is actively used in treatment of urticaria. The aim of the present research work was to investigate the potential of transferosome formulations for transdermal delivery of  levocetirizine. The transferosomes were formulated by lipid film hydration technique using Rotary vacuum Evaporator. In the present work levocetirizine vesicle was efficaciously formulated using an appropriate ratio of tween 80 and soya lecithin and was incorporated into gel since gel formulations are easy to administer and patient compliance. Levocetirizine transferosomes was evaluated for vesicle characteristicslike zeta potential, poly-dispersibility index, TEM, and stability study. Theaverage sizes of transferosome were found to be 566.6nm and poly dispersity index (PI) was found to be 0.532, zeta potential of the transferosome was found to be -2.3 mV which indicates that transferosome formulation is stable. Levocetirizine gel was prepared by using various concentrations of Carbopol 934 and is evaluated for their gel characteristics like pH, viscosity, Spreadability, extrudability, homogeneity, drug content, diffusion etc. Gel containing 2% Carbopol show best and promising results. Levocetirizine transferosomal gel were efficaciously formulated by utilizing levocetirizine transferosome which was prepared by thin film hydration method by using soya lecithin and tween 80 in the ratio 85:15. Other Oral formulation used in treatment for urticaria have disadvantage like poor bioavailability, 1st pass metabolism, patient non-compliance etc. Transferosome nano gel loaded with levocetirizine transferosome was found to be more effective than other oral formulations used in treatment for urticaria since transferosome are capable of passing through lipid layer and delivering drug into systemic circulation with maximum bioavailability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (1) ◽  
pp. 19
Fitrya Fitrya ◽  
Najma Annuria Fithri ◽  
Annisa Amriani ◽  
Annisa Haryati ◽  
Dina Permata Wijaya

Preparation of petai pods extract (Parkia speciosa) into ethosome aim to increased penetration through the skin. The method of cold is used in preparing petai pods extract encapsulation by ethosome with variation in concentration of  soya lecithin, propylene glycol, and ethanol. The proportion of optimum formula ethosome consisted were 0,2 g soya lecithin, 1 ml propylene glycol, and 4 ml ethanol that response values obtained pH of 4,74, viscosity of 0,950 cP, %EE of 74,326%, and stability of 7,288%. The resulted of optimum formula obtained were PDI of 0,23, zeta potential of -7,5 mV, and particle size of 818,7 nm. Ethosome showed spheric particle using Transmissin Electron Microscopy. The diffusion analysis showed highest on ethosome of petai pods extract (9,525%) than petai pods extract (5,466%). The interaction study used FTIR show no chemical interaction extract pods and ethosome components

2020 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 386-395 ◽  
Sheah Yee Ghan ◽  
Lee Fong Siow ◽  
Chin Ping Tan ◽  
Kok Whye Cheong ◽  
Yin Yin Thoo

2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Alberto Garre ◽  
Jennifer F. Espín ◽  
Juan-Pablo Huertas ◽  
Paula M. Periago ◽  
Alfredo Palop

2020 ◽  
Yu. A. Polkovnikova ◽  
K. N. Koryanova ◽  
E. S. Vasilevskaya

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