The use of natural colorants is needed to overcome consumer concerns regarding synthetic food colorants′ safety. However, natural pigments have, in general, poor stability against environmental stresses such as temperature, ionic strength, moisture, light, and pH, among others. In this work, water-in-oil-in-water (W1/O/W2) emulsions were used as protective carriers to improve color stability of a hydrophilic Sambucus nigra L. extract against pH changes. The chemical system comprised water and corn oil as the aqueous and oil phases, respectively, and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR), Tween 80, and gum Arabic as stabilizers. The primary emulsion was prepared using a W1/O ratio of 40/60 (v/v). For the secondary emulsion, W1/O/W2, different (W1/O)/W2 ratios were tested with the 50/50 (v/v) formulation presenting the best stability, being selected as the coloring system to test in food matrices of different pH: natural yogurt (pH 4.65), rice drink (pH 6.01), cow milk (pH 6.47), and soy drink (pH 7.92). Compared to the direct use of the extract, the double emulsion solution gave rise to higher color stability with pH change and storage time, as corroborated by visual and statistical analysis.
The present study brings to attention a method to develop salicylic acid-based oil in water (O/W) microemulsions using a tensioactive system based on Tween 80, lecithin, and propylene glycol (PG), enriched with a vegetable oat oil phase and hyaluronic acid. The systems were physically characterized and the Quality by design approach was applied to optimize the attributes of microemulsions using Box–Behnken modeling, combined with response surface methodology. For this purpose, a 33 fractional factorial design was selected. The effect of independent variables namely X1: Tween 80/PG (%), X2: Lecithin (%), X3: Oil phase (%) was analyzed considering their impact upon the internal structure and evaluated parameters chosen as dependent factors: viscosity, mean droplet size, and work of adhesion. A high viscosity, a low droplet size, an adequate wettability—with a reduced mechanical work—and clarity were considered as desirable for the optimal systems. It was found that the optimal microemulsion which complied with the established conditions was based on: Tween 80/PG 40%, lecithin 0.3%, oat oil 2%, salicylic acid 0.5%, hyaluronic acid 1%, and water 56.2%. The response surface methodology was considered an appropriate tool to explain the impact of formulation factors on the physical properties of microemulsions, offering a complex pattern in the assessment of stability and quality attributes for the optimized formulation.
Crude oil contamination of soil and water resources is a widespread issue. The present study evaluated the degradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons (C11–C36) in crude oil by 17 bacteria isolated from a crude oil–contaminated soil. The results suggested that Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens were the best hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the presence of surfactant Tween-80 (0.1% w/v). Based on the present investigation and a previous study, Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens and fungus Aspergillus sydowii were identified as best oil degraders and were immobilized in alginate–bentonite beads, guargum–nanobenonite water dispersible granules (WDGs), and carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC)–bentonite composite. Sandy loam soil was fortified with 1, 2, and 5% crude oil, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation efficiency of free cultures and bio-formulations was evaluated in sandy loam soils. Compared to a half-life (t1/2) of 69.7 days in the control soil (1% oil), free cultures of Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens and A. sydowii degraded TPH with t1/2 of 10.8 and 19.4 days, respectively. Increasing the oil content slowed down degradation, and the t1/2 in the control and soils inoculated with Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens and A. sydowii was 72.9, 14.7, and 22.2 days (2%) and 87.0, 23.4, and 30.8 days (5%), respectively. Supplementing soil with ammonium sulfate (1%) enhanced TPH degradation by Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens (t1/2–10 days) and A. sydowii (t1/2–12.7 days). All three bio-formulations were effective in degrading TPH (1%), and the t1/2 was 10.7–11.9 days (Pseudomonas sp. + B. amyloliquefaciens and 14–20.2 days (A. sydowii) and were at par with free cultures. Microbial diversity analysis based on taxonomic markers and functional markers suggested that the bioaugmentation process helped keep soil in the active stage and restored the original microbial population to some extent. The present study concluded that bio-formulations of crude oil–degrading microbes can be exploited for its degradation in the contaminated environment.
Despite its reduced sensitivity, sputum smear microscopy (SSM) remains the main diagnostic test for detecting tuberculosis in many parts of the world. A new diagnostic technique, the magnetic nanoparticle-based colorimetric biosensing assay (NCBA) was optimized by evaluating different concentrations of glycan-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (GMNP) and Tween 80 to improve the acid-fast bacilli (AFB) count. Comparative analysis was performed on 225 sputum smears: 30 with SSM, 107 with NCBA at different GMNP concentrations, and 88 with NCBA-Tween 80 at various concentrations and incubation times. AFB quantification was performed by adding the total number of AFB in all fields per smear and classified according to standard guidelines (scanty, 1+, 2+ and 3+). Smears by NCBA with low GMNP concentrations (≤1.5 mg/mL) showed higher AFB quantification compared to SSM. Cell enrichment of sputum samples by combining NCBA-GMNP, incubated with Tween 80 (5%) for three minutes, improved capture efficiency and increased AFB detection up to 445% over SSM. NCBA with Tween 80 offers the opportunity to improve TB diagnostics, mainly in paucibacillary cases. As this method provides biosafety with a simple and inexpensive methodology that obtains results in a short time, it might be considered as a point-of-care TB diagnostic method in regions where resources are limited.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a nanoemulgel containing vegetable oil of carrot seed oil as an effective natural sunscreen and skin anti-aging.
Methods: Nanoemulgels containing 4% carrot seed oil were formulated in three formulas with different ratios of Tween 80 and Sorbitol and prepared by using the high-energy emulsification method. The nanoemulgels were determined for the organoleptic characteristic, globule size, pH, physical stability during storage for 12 w at three different temperatures (room, high and low temperature), centrifugation, and cycling test. The Sun Protection Factor (SPF) value was determined by UV spectrophotometric method and the effectiveness of anti-aging was evaluated by using a skin analyzer and the results were compared with sunscreen emulgel.
Results: Nanoemulgel containing 4% carrot seed oil with a ratio of Tween 80 as surfactant and Sorbitol as co-surfactant 40 and 20 resulted in the smallest mean droplet size of 338.34 nm and the sizes were increased during 12 w of storage at room temperature but still in the nano size and this nanoemulgel did not show phase separation or still stable. These nanoemulgels were also stable after the centrifugation and cycling test. The emulgel preparation was not stable or showed phase separation after the centrifugation test. The SPF value obtained from the nanoemulgel was 20.28±0.22 and these values were higher than the sunscreen emulgel (13.94±0.27). The pore size, spot, and wrinkles of the volunteer skin were reduced after using the nanoemulgel containing 4% carrot seed.
Conclusion: The sunscreen and skin anti-aging activity of nanoemulgel preparation containing 4% carrot seed oil with a ratio of surfactant Tween 80 and co-surfactant Sorbitol 40 and 20 were more effective compare with emulgel preparation.
Rapid-growth mycobacteria were isolated from two cases of cow mastitis with similar clinical appearance and within a narrow time frame. Mycobacteria were isolated on blood esculine agar. The isolated mycobacteria were Gram stained, Ziehl-Nielsen stained and tested for growth at 25°C, 37°C and 42°C, iron uptake, growth on Löwenstein-Jensen (LJ) agar with and without 5% NaCl, arylsulphatase (3 days), tween 80 hydrolysis, tellurite reduction, nitrate reductase and niacin synthesis. Molecular identification was performed using the Mycobacteria GenoType CM and AS tests (Hain Diagnostika, Nehren, Germany). One isolate was additionally sequenced for the hsp65, rpoB, 16S rRNA gene sequence and transcribed spacer sequence (ITS) DNA. Susceptibility testing of isolates was performed on the Sensititre Rapmycol plate (TREK Diagnostic Systems Ltd.) for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxasole, linezolid, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, moxifloxacin, cefepime, cefoxitin, amoxicillin / clavulanic acid, amikacin, ceftriaxone, doxycycline, minocycline, tigecycline, tobramycine and clarythromycine. Gram-positive acid-resistant rods were observed in stained smears. Both strains grew at 25°C, 37°C and 42°C on LJ medium, and on LJ medium containing 5 % NaCl. The conventional biochemical tests for iron uptake, arylsulphatase (3 days), Tween 80 hydrolysis, tellurite reduction and nitrate reductase were positive, while the niacin test was negative. Both isolates were identified by the GenoType Mycobacterium CM as Mycobacterium fortuitum II/ Mycobacterium mageritense, while application of the GenoType Mycobacterium AS kit identified both isolates as belonging to the species Mycobacterium smegmatis. Analysis of the isolate sequences (strain DS) for 16S ribosomal RNA confirmed a 100% identical result with Mycobacterium smegmatis strain INHR2. According to the CLSI criteria, both strains were sensitive to sulfametoxazole/trimethoprim, linezolid, doxicycline, amikacin and tobramycin. The strains differed in their sensitivity to cefoxitim, and both strains were resistant to clarithromycin. There was a strong difference between the isolates in sensitivity toward cefoxitime and tigecycline.
This study evaluated the acaricide efficacy of Piper macedoi essential oil on larvae of ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The test consisted of six treatments: from the group I to IV, samples corresponded to different concentrations of essential oil (500 μg.mL-1; 250 μg.mL-1; 100 μg.mL-1 and 50 μg.mL-1) diluted in Tween 80 at 2%. Groups V and VI corresponded to the negative controls (with distilled water and Tween 80 to 2%) and the positive control (with acaricide Amitraz at 12.5%), respectively. The essential oil was rich in apiole (39.81%) and dillapiole (26.47%). The essential oil of P. macedoi presented an activity against the larvae of R. sanguineus, with a better efficiency observed for concentrating 500 μg.mL-1, mortality of 80.67%, indicating a dose-dependent response.
Este trabalho propôs desenvolver um leite fermentado por Lactobacillus helveticus (LH) ou associada com cultura de Streptococcus thermophilus (LHST) adicionado de extrato de hibisco e avaliar a atividade antioxidante e evolução do crescimento das culturas láticas durante a estocagem sob refrigeração a 4 ± 1ºC. O leite fermentado recebeu extrato de hibisco na forma livre (LHExL e LHSTExL) ou encapsulado com PVP e Tween 80 (LHExE e LHSTExE). Avaliou-se a atividade antioxidante (DPPH e FRAP) nos tempos de 1, 15 e 30 dias. Os resultados demonstraram que o teor de acidez titulável foi inferior após a fermentação. A viabilidade das bactérias láticas foi satisfatória, as quais atenderam os requisitos legais e mantiveram estáveis até 30 dias de estocagem para ambas as caldas do leite fermentado (LH e LHST). A atividade antioxidante frente ao radical DPPH foi superior a 80%, porém não apresentou resultados conclusivos relativos à interação das culturas láticas e das diferentes formas de aplicação do extrato de hibisco. Porém, o LH apresentou maior atividade antioxidante pelo método FRAP quando associado ao extrato de hibisco encapsulado no tempo inicial. Esta análise permitiu observar que a associação do extrato de hibisco independente da forma veiculada ao leite fermentado aumentou a atividade antioxidante pelo método de FRAP e este manteve estável ao longo do tempo de estocagem. Portanto, o estudo permitiu concluir que o leite fermentado associado ao extrato de hibisco contribuiu com o aumento da atividade antioxidante e manteve estável ao longo do tempo de estocagem.