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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-006
Abdulrazzaq Abdulhameed Al-Rawi

Food availability is the most important issue that takes the priority places in the policies of all countries all over the world. Recently, more attention has been paid to livestock because of their ability to produce meat and milk, as well as it has a significant source of income for small holders and an economic contributor to the gross domestic product. Climate changes induced physiological stress, which is one of the complex factors making livestock management and husbandry challenging in many geographical locations in the world. Increased body temperature or heat stress will cause production losses in livestock and impact on their ability to maintain normal function. There is considerable research evidence that showed significant decline in animal performance when subjected to heat stress. Heat stress inflicts heavy economic losses on livestock production. The effects of heat stress is evident in feed consumption, production efficiency in terms of milk yield or weight gain per unit of feed energy, growth rate, and reproductive efficiency. The aim of this article is to discuss increasing food production to ensure food security for nearly 8 billion people, without causing further environmental damage that can be achieved by transforming systems and adopting sustainable livestock practices within a changing climate.

2022 ◽  
Aman Dassa ◽  
Abera Ifa ◽  
Efa Gobena

Abstract The study was aimed to analysis determinants of inorganic fertilizer use intensity on cereal crops among small holders in Toke Kutaye District, West Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. Correctional data were collected from 156 respondents using two stage random sampling methods. Data analyses were carried out using descriptive statistics and Double hurdle model. Result of the first hurdle reveals that out of twelve explanatory variables Sex ,Education, Off/non-farm income, Land size and Improved seed were determine positively whereas Age and Distance from nearest market determine small holders use of inorganic fertilizer negatively. The result of second stage of double hurdle model indicate that, out of twelve explanatory variables Sex, family size and Land size were positively affect extent (intensity) of inorganic fertilizer use whereas Age and Distance of household from nearest market determine use intensity negatively. Therefore, these results implied that there is a room to increase inorganic fertilizer use intensity on cereal crop productions. Hence, Farmers capacity to purchase this input beginning from lower income farmers to model farmers should be acknowledged; and should be designed the means to address those who have no ability to use inorganic fertilizer in their own farm through diverse development interventions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (5) ◽  
Pius U. Angioha ◽  
F. M. Attah ◽  
Ebong Edem

The study examines the sudden and unabated influx of refugee exiles from the cameroun  into the border town of  Ikom and food security within the  Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. In pursued of the study objective, the survey research design was adopted and a sample of 400 respondents was selected from the study population, using the purposive and simple randomization technique from Ikom Local Government area of Cross River State, Nigeria. The instrument used for data collection is a four point likert scale questionnaire structured to accommodate the options of true, completely true, false and completely false. The questionnaire contained 12 items. Data gathered from the field was meticulously while lineal regression was considered appropriate instrument used to analyses the field coded data at 0.05 confidence level. Result revealed that there is a significant relationship between refugee influx and Food Security in Ikom Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. The study recommends That the Cross River state synergize with the relevant agencies of the Federal Government as well as other international Agencies to stimulate production in ikom through agricultural programmes such as farmers small holders schemes, cassava, banana, yam, plantain plantations schemes, animal husbandry, cottage industries etc. to promote aggressive food revolution within affected areas in order to avert serious food crisis amongst others

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (9) ◽  
pp. 18711-18731
Yiseyon Sunday Hosu ◽  
S Ndhleve ◽  
HM Kabiti ◽  
SFG Yusuf ◽  

Studies of projected agro-climatic variability on the productivity of small-holding farming livelihoods have been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models on country or regional basis but few have been done at the community level. This study explores direct observation of the impact of soil and climate factors on crop and livestock livelihood systems in the three major agro-ecological zones of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. It also analyzed their influence on small farmers’ choices of agrarian livelihood activities and the lessons learned for the suitability of agro-ecologically integrated agriculture as part of agrarian and food security reforms needed among small farming households in rural communities of South Africa. The impact of soil and rainfall on the crop and livestock livelihood choices of small-holders in the three major agro-ecological zones were explored. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 223 small-holding farming households during the harvesting period of rain-fed farming season. Data on household livelihood activities were processed in monetary terms and subjected to gross margin and cost/benefit analysis. Geographic information system (GIS) mapping and statistical analysis were used to determine the association of small-holder maize revenue with agro-climatic variation. The results indicated that crop-based activities performed better in the Grassland zone, while livestock activities performed better in the Savanna zone. Small farms in the Karoo can only productively engage in livestock production. The results also showed that farming activities that combined more vegetable crops yielded greater profits than other field crops. Furthermore, the results indicate that the mixed cropping method remains one of the strategies for breaking-even and risk-bearing effort used by the small-holder farmers considering its cost-sharing benefits. Geographical information system (GIS) mapping further indicates that small-holders’ farming activity was not only affected by soil-climatic factors but by their management skills as well. We recommend agro-ecologically adapted policies and incentives for agriculture-based livelihood activities and intensified mixing of cropping systems among the small-holder farming households in the study area.

A Indhushree ◽  
A Kuruvila

Market price volatility, the major challenge faced by the cardamom exporters greatly hinders the investment and destabilizes the earning of small holders. The present study attempted to analyse the price transmission between Indian and international markets and study the supply response of small cardamom to changes in price. The co-movement of prices of small cardamom exist between the Indian and international markets after trade liberalisation and the price transmission has been from the international market to the Indian market. The short-run disequilibrium has been found between the Indian and international prices of cardamom, which got corrected with varying speed of adjustment. The positive and significant elasticity of supply of small cardamom with respect to its own two year lagged price has been established. Crop specific price stabilization mechanism would help to overcome the wide fluctuations in prices of small cardamom.

Faisul-Ur- Rasool ◽  
M. I. Bhat ◽  
Z. A. Dar ◽  
B. A. Lone ◽  
Latief Ahmad ◽  

Intercropping provides ample scope to include two or more crops simultaneously in same piece of land thus targeting higher productivity from unit area on sustainable basis. Maize, a cereal crop of immense importance, planted in wide rows offers the possibility for adoption of intercropping. The intercropping system with maize and legume is beneficial in multiple aspects. The success of maize-legume intercropping system largely depends on choice of crops and their maturity, density, and time of planting. Advantage of maize-legume intercropping system is promoted in the form of higher yield and greater utilization of available resources, benefits in weeds control [1,2], pests and disease management [3], fixation of biological nitrogen by legumes and transfer of N to associated maize [4,5], insurance against crop failure to small holders, and control of erosion by covering a large extent of ground area [6]. Though maize-legume intercropping system exhibits limitations like less scope of farm mechanization, dependence on more human workforce, and chance of achieving less productivity from maize, the system implies more advantages for small holders in developing countries where human workforce is not a constraint.   

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (1) ◽  
pp. 84-94
Dennis P. Poppi ◽  
Kusmartono Kusmartono ◽  
Kasmyati Kasmyati ◽  
Simon P Quigley ◽  
Karen J Harper

COVID-19 has highlighted the need for robust cattle supply chains using local feed resources. Higher Income Over Food Costs (IOFC) are usually achieved when live weight gains are high and the cost of the ingredients are low. There is a need to formulate rations with high metabolisable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) to achieve the high live weight gain. Rations can be formulated locally by farmer co-operatives, entrepreneurs and local commercial enterprises to take advantage of cheaper prices for local ingredients. To do this, rations need to be altered quickly to take advantage of local fluctuations in prices and availability of ingredients. A recent ACIAR funded project has developed a least cost ration (ACIAR LCR) system to formulate rations to meet minimum ME and CP contents for beef cattle using locally available ingredients. The use of cassava and its various products in combination with protein sources, such as tree legumes and high protein by-products, have markedly improved IOFC.

2021 ◽  
Vol 26 ◽  
pp. 120-124
O. O. Ekumankama

Natural pasture for small ruminants must be sustained, enhanced, and where it has been diminished or destroy, restored, if animal production must contribute meaningfully to national food security. In Eastern Nigeria, farming system, such as bush fallow, are generally based on shifting cultivation. Unfortunately, agricultural lands are relatively scarce, thereby resulting to shortened fallow periods and thus, widespread diminishing and destruction of natural pasture. The urgency of managing deficient and scarce natural pasture in this environment is widely recognized. Not only is this essential for small ruminants’ feeding, but a dynamic animal sector is a key to achieving food security. The paper argues therefore, that alley farming is the right approach to managing deficient and scarce natural pasture, since it is the most promising alternative to traditional slash-and-burn shifting cultivation. Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State was used as the study area. The results show that there is a pressing need for alley farming promotion. Small holders’ access to this technology would aid in revolutionizing animal production in Nigeria. This paper advocates for policies that will incorporate alley farming into production recommendations transferred to small farmers.

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